Index to Anti-Aging Medicine
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A: An - Az
Anabolics (Encyclopedia)
Anacervix [IAAS, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Anacervix contains Piracetam [Links, Images, LifeExtension] and Vincamine (similar to Vinpocetin) to enhance mental clarity and concentration.
Analytical Chemistry [Instrumental Analysis, Wikipedia, Links, Video, Books, LibCong, Amazon; Links/analytical chemistry of astragalus, Links/analytical chemistry of medicines, Links/analytical chemistry services, Links/analytical chemistry supplies; Links/Pharmaceutical analysis, Books/Pharmaceutical Analysis, LibCong/Pharmaceutical Analysis, Amazon/Pharmaceutical Analysis, Links/pharmaceutical analysis of astragalus extract, Links/Pharmaceutical analysis services]. See American Analytical Chemistry Laboratories, which did the quality testing on Terraternal's Astragaloside IV.
Anatomy and Physiology, [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon, LibCong; Anatomy.tv], Seeley, Stephens, and Tate, Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill, 2002, with an on-line site, and 2 CD-ROMS, Anatomy, Medical Physiology & Pathophysiology Online, Pathophysiology & Student Nurse Links, Biology Tutorials, Merck Manuals, Med Dictionary, MedLib, Medical Encyclopedia, Medical Images & Illustrations, Molecular Expressions: Molecular Galleries for Pharmaceuticals, Vitamins, Phytochemicals, ect.. See also Online PhD Programs for their medical information on anatomy and histology. Also see Healthline's Human Body Maps.
Andrews, William H. (Bill) (Encyclopedia)
Angina [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension; Links/Anti-angina drugs, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension; Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Cardiovascular Disease, Heart Attack]. The cause of painful angina is obstructive ischemia in the heart due to atherosclerosis. Sublingual nitroglycerin [Images], a vasodilator, is often used to treat stable angina. Frequency of angina attacks can be reduced by 50% or more using 200-500 mg of arjuna per day. Arjuna can be used alone or in combination with isosorbide mononitrate or other antianginal drugs. See Silas Hoffman (2013), Novel Support for Chronic Heart Failure, Arrhythmia, and Coronary Artery Blockage, Life Extension Magazine, Feb 2013.
Angiogenesis Inhibitors [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Amazon] Angiogenesis inhibitors include:
(1) blueberries [Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
(2) cemetidine (anticancer) [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/cemetidine],
(3) gallic acid [Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
___from grape seed extract [Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
(4) green tea [Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
(5) modified citrus pectin [Links, Papers, Patents, Books].
(6) resveratrol [Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
(7) saffron [Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
(8) soy [Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
(9) thalidomide (a teratogen) [Links, Papers, Patents, Books].
(10) vitamin C (at high levels given intraveneously) [Links, Papers, Patents, Books].
(11) Ginger (Zerumbone) [Links, Papers, Patents, Books].
(12) Theaflavins from Black Tea Extract inhibit VEGF.
(13) Tocotrienols [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Ref].
Telomerase inhibitors often activate cancer cell apoptosis and may be used in anticancer diets. Treatment of tumors with telomerase inhibitors is more effective when combined with angiogenesis inhibitors. Note that angiogenesis inhibitors (such as thalidomide) may be dangerous to pregnant women and the unborn as teratogens. High levels of vitamin C given intravenously have been used for angiogenesis inhibition in cancer therapy. (LEF, June 2010). See also Ferrara, N. and R.S.Kerbel, 2005, Angiogenesis as a Therapeutic Target, Nature 438: 967-974.
Anti-Angiogenic Drugs and Nutraceuticals [Links/Anti-angiogenic drugs and nutraceuticals, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Wikipedia/Angiogenic, Links/Angiogenic substances, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Anti-angiogenic substances help prevent cancer tumor formation and include gallic acid in grape seed extract. Anti-angiogenic drugs are used to stop neovascularization in wet macular degeneration, when the new vessels do not form properly and obscure central vision.
Aniseptics [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon].
Aniracetam [IAAS, Links, LifeExtension], a Piracetam-like cerebral nootropic activator.
Anthocyanins [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon]. See also Anthocyanidins, Proanthocyanins, Proanthocyanidins, and Proantocyanidine. See Michael Downey (2013), Uncovering the Broad-Spectrum Protection of Anthocyanins, Life Extension Magazine, July 2013, which also reviews the health benefits of many different berries.
Anthocyanidins [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon] The anthocyanidins are the sugar-free counterparts of anthocyanins based on the benzopyrylium (chromenylium) ion. See also Proanthocyanidins.
Anti-Aging Conferences [Links] and Symposiums [82].
Anti-Aging Doctors [LocateaDoc/Doctors, Links, Video] and Clinics, [Links, Video] [90], [54].
Anti-Aging Drugs from Europe [LEF/Anti-Aging Drugs from Europe, Links, Links2, Books, LibCong], [37s]. Also see [Links/European Nootropic drugs].
Anti-Aging Gene Insertion [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. Anti-aging by insertion of extra copies of the hTERT gene for the protein catalytic component of telomerase may save drug expenses for telomerase activators, making it a mainstay in anti-aging medicine of gene therapy resembling innoculation with a vaccine. On the other hand, cyclic application of telomerase activators such as astragalus root, astragalus root extracts, colostrum, IGF-1, HGH, black cohosh, fenugreek seed, testosterone, nitric oxide, cycloastragenol, Product B, TA-65, astragaloside IV, or exercise seems more straightforward and less risky for the time being, although all the pill swallowing involved may be a test of glottal fortitude. Genes other than hTERT may also be inserted (or modified and inserted) for application to anti-aging. See the Longevity Genes entry and corresponding text section, with Zinc Finger Nucleases. Also see the index entries Gene Therapy and Adenovirus Transfection.
Anti-Aging Hormone Therapy, [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon], [35s] (a), (2).
Anti-Aging Journals [Longevity/Journals, from Bibliography], [57].
Anti-Aging Medicine [IAAS/Anti-Aging Medicine (Life Extension Magazine - It's like landing on the moon.), Walford's Links, Intro, Sources (vendors), Bibliography, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon], [57].
Anti-Aging Organizations [Links/Anti-Aging Organizations], Who's Who in Anti-Aging Gerontology [4].
Anti-Aging Medicine Overview - Anti-Aging Medicine: an Overview by Timothy J. Smith, MD.
Anti-Aging Drug Pharmaceutical Vendors [Longevity Supplement Vendors, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon]. [38s].
Anti-Aging Recommendations [Anti-Aging Medicine, Longevity, and Life Extension in Review], [78].
Anti-Aging Skin Care products [Makeup/Anti-Aging Skin Care products, Index/Skin, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension]. More anti-aging skin care products, Folica Skin Care, Hydroderm, EnergoTM, MedShop anti-aging skin care products, Resilience Rescue L-Carnosine skin cream, Links/skin creams, Video; Links/skin rejuvenation, Video; Links/facial rejuvenation, Video; Links/dermatology, Video; Geriatrics and Aging Skin, Photos and Features of Aging Skin, Aging Skin Net - Find a dermatologist], [54]. See also index entries for Skin, Skin Lesions, Growth Factor Skin Creams, Colostrum, and Phytoceramides.
Anti-Aging Systems Corp. (HGH vendor) [23].
Anti-Aging Therapies [LEF/Anti-Aging Therapies, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, TOP]. Anti-Aging Therapies ala Healthy Christian Living. See Telomere Remodeling with Cyclic Telomerase Activation and Age Transformation for an approach centered on telomeres (7). See Quick Summary (May 2013) for a quick review of my basic program.
Anti-Angiogenic Drugs and Nutraceuticals [Index/Angiogenesis Inhibitors]
Antibiotics (Encyclopedia)
Anticancer Diet [AskDrSears/Anti-Cancer Diet, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension, Ray, Wikipedia/Experimental Cancer Treatment, Partial List of Alternative Cancer Treatments]. Note that Panax Ginseng has an anticancer effect on cancers introduced with benzopyrene. The major anti-tumor ginsenosides are Rh2 (a telomerase inhibitor), Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1, where the last two are obtained after 2-4 hours of steaming regular ginseng at 100 degrees Centigrade to make red ginseng. "One of the cigarette smoke carcinogens that is implicated in the development of lung cancers is benzo[a]pyrene." Also see Links/benzopyrene in marijuana smoke. Modern marijuana smokers use a heated vaporizing inhaler to avoid carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons, although driving under the influence can be a hazard if one takes too much and becomes drowsy. See the index entries on cancer, carcinogens, anticarcinogens, and angiogenesis inhibitors, which oppose tumor formation. Anti-tumor nutraceuticals such as ginger may be taken orally and also applied directly to the tumor. Also see Mortality Charts/Cancer.
Anticancer Telomerase Activators (Encyclopedia Entry).
Anticarcinogens [Links/anticarcinogens, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/anticancer herbs, Images, Video, Papers, Patents; Books; Links/antiangiogenic herbs, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Ray/Cancer, Anti-Cancer Botanicals, Anticancer herbs; NFkB inhibitors, TNF-alpha inhibitors].
"Anticancer and Anti-Angiogenic Herbs include:
__Anise (inhibits adenocarcinoma, contains anethole) [Images],
__Artemisia annua (Chinese sweet wormwood) [Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
______Active principle: artemisinin (quinghaosu), (dihydroartemisinin effective
______ with sodium butyrate [Ref] for treating lymphoma and leukemia).
__Barley Grass Extracts (contain Lunasin), [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
__Broccoli sprouts [Wiki/Broccoli sprouts, Index, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
____[Index/Sulforaphane],
__Camellia sinensis (green tea) [Index, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
__Chaga Mushroom [(Inonotus obliquus) Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
__Cruciferous vegetables
_____(broccoli, cabbage family, cauliflower, mustard greens, Brussels sprouts) [Article],
__Curcuma longa (curcumin) [Images, Index],
__Ellagic acid (from red raspberry exract) [Images, Index/Ellagic Acid],
__Fennel seed (inhibits adenocarcinoma, contains anethole) [Images],
__Gallic acid (from grape seed exract)
_____[Images, Index/Gallic Acid, Index/Angiogenesis Inhibitor],
__Garlic (Allicin) [Images, Index/Garlic: gastric cancer treatment],
__Ginger [Images, Index: Gingerol, Zerumbone],
__Ginkgo biloba [Images, Index],
__Lunasin (from soy protein, abundant in barley) [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
__Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree) [Images],
__Milk Thistle [Index] (Silibinin, Silymarin),
__Panax ginseng, (has an anticancer effect on cancers introduced with benzopyrene)
______[Index/Ginseng, Images]. Anti-tumor ginsenosides include:
______ginsenoside Rh2 (a telomerase inhibitor), Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1.
__Picrorhiza (Links/Picrorhiza kurroa, Images; Picrorhiza extracts).
__Pomegranate Seed Oil [Links, Images, Video, Papers, LifeExtension],
__Poria cocos [Images],
__Rabdosia rubescens hora (Rabdosia) [Images],
__Reishi mushroom [Index, Images],
__Proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract) [Images],
__Saffron (Index, Supplements) [Images], Ref.
__Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap) [Images],
__Thyme (contains luteolin, anti-inflammatory).
__Viscum album (European mistletoe) [Images],
__Watercress (contains phenethyl-isothiocyanate (PEITC)) [Images, Article],
__Zingiber officinalis (Ginger) [Images, Index],
and Chinese destagnation herbs."
Common Anticancer Nutraceuticals include:
__Acai (Acai Berry, Images) inhibits metastasis of colon cancer,
__Ajoene,
__Alpha-Tocopherol [Index],
__Alpha-Tocotrienol [Index, Pancreatic Cancer],
__Anthraquinones: chrysophanic acid, chrysophanol, and emodin.
__Capsaicin [Index],
__Carnosol,
__Chlorophyll from Chlorella (Chinese),
__CLA (beef & dairy),
__Coffee [Index, Video, Images/Coffee anticancer supplements],
__Curcumin [Index] (curry, turmeric root),
__Daidzein [Index],
__DHA [Index] effective against colorectal adenocarcinoma [REF].
__Diallyl sulphide,
__DHEA [Index],
__DIM (Diindolylmethane or 3,3'-Diindolylmethane) [Estrogen protection],
__Ellagic acid [Index],
__Enterolactone,
__Equol [Index],
__Gamma-Tocotrienal [Index],
__Garlic [Index],
__Genistein [Index],
__Glycyrrhiza [Index],
__Indole-3-Carbinol (from broccoli, cauliflower, & collard greens),
_____anticancer cell, zaps Cdc25A, a molecule required for cell division and proliferation.
__Lactobacillus acidophilus,
__L. bulgaricus,
__Limonene,
__Lutein [Index],
__N-Acetyl Cysteine (Index/NAC) [Images] (cancer chemopreventative),
__Milk Thistle [Index] (Silibinin, Silymarin),
__Modified Citrus Pectin [Encyclopedia] and Citrus Pectin,
__Pomegranate Seed Oil [Index, Links, Images, Video, Papers, LifeExtension],
__Pterostilbene found in blueberries reduces the multiplicity of colon cancer adenocarcinomas.
__Quercetin [Images, Index],
__Reishi mushroom [Index, Images],
__Resveratrol [Index].
__Saffron [Index, Images], Ref.
__Silibinin from milk thistle is effective against many malignancies, including those of
____the liver, colon, skin, and prostate, and inhibits cancer metastasis.
__Silymarin,
__Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate,
__Sodium Butyrate (induces apoptosis in Breast Cancer, various cancers),
__Sphingolipids,
__Sulforaphane [Index] (Broccoli, Wiki/Broccoli sprouts [Index]).
__Vitamin D3 (anti-inflammatory, telomerase-inhibiting).
__Vitamin K2.
Also see Anticancer Telomerase Activators.
In general, the telomerase inhibitors are also anticancer, and these commonly include curcumin (from turmeric), resveratrol, quercetin, melatonin, green tea (EGCG), unsaturated vitamin E, allicin from crushed garlic, EPA and DHA from fish oil, and silibinin (a major component of silymarin) from Milk Thistle (Silymarin, Silibinin). The telomerase inhibitors can squelch cancers that activate telomerase as part of their program for undesirable cellular proliferation. Tumors are more effectively controlled if telomerase inhibitors are combined with angiogenesis inhibitors [Index] to prevent blood vessel formation in tumors. On the other hand, if one does not already have cancer, then cyclic application of telomerase activators such as astragalus root, astragalus root extracts, colostrum, IGF-1, HGH, black cohosh, fenugreek seed, testosterone, nitric oxide, cycloastragenol, TA-65, astragaloside IV, or exercise may be employed to lengthen telomeres and improve the genomic stability of tissue against cancer, including cancers due to end-point telomere fusions [Meeker, et al, 2004, Links/Telomere Fusion], so that the telomerase activators have cancer-prevention power. This applies to carcinomas and adenocarcinomas in epithelial tissues, which comprise 90% of observed cancers. Telomere remodeling with cyclic telomerase activation uses telomerase activation periods followed by telomerase inhibition periods to catch any cancers that might crop up and not be squelched if telomerase activation were continuously employed. Note that some factors which activate telomerase are carcinogenic, or may become carcinogenic under certain conditions. For instance, C-myc protein has receptor sites on the hTERT promoter (as c-Myc dimerized with Max), so that c-Myc transcription may be activated to turn on hTERT and activate telomerase. However, if the c-Myc gene is translocated (as in lymphoma) to the wrong site by a virus, it may become unregulated, in which case it may be carcinogenic. Also, activating Bcl-2 activates telomerase and inhibits apoptosis. But if c-Myc transcription is simultaneously activated, Bcl-2 transcriptional activation may lead to cancer. However, I found cases in which Bcl-2 and c-Myc were both elevated without much danger. One should always remember to apply telomerase inhibitors and anticancer nutraceuticals for 2 weeks a week or two after using telomerase activators in order to counter the tendency of telomerase activators to behave like weak tumor promoters. This comes about because telomerase activators sometimes work against telomerase inhibitor-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Tumor promoters such as NFkB and TNF-alpha may be inhibited with NFkB inhibitors or TNF-alpha inhibitors. Some chemicals and factors which activate telomerase have been obtained from cancer cells and are also carcinogens. Appropriate caution is necessary when applying a telomerase activator in life extension therapy.
The over-the-counter drug cemetidine at 800 mg/night is anticancer, preventing the adhesion of cancer cells to vessel walls where they establish metastatic colonies and also preventing tumor angiogenesis. Cemetidine is given 5 days prior to a cancer operation and for a year therafter to prevent surgerical oncology itself from introducing cancer metastasis. (William Falloon, So Many Needless Cancer Deaths, LifeExtension, April 2010). See circulating tumor cell (CTC) technology. Metformin, a prescription drug often used as a caloric restriction mimetic, was recommended in the same article at 850 mg/day x 2 or x3 for its antitumor effects, which are possibly related to its ability to enhance insulin sensitivity.
Anticoagulants (Blood Thinners) [Links/Anticoagulants, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Anticoagulant nutraceuticals; Links/blood thinners, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension, Links/blood thinning control, Papers, Books]. Note that resveratrol thins the blood with anticoagulant effect. Garlic and Amla Fruit (Indian Gooseberry) are anticoagulants, as are vitamin C, vitamin E, green tea, and fish oil. Astragalosides also thin the blood and in addition may cause vasodilation. A patient on a blood thinner like Coumadin may need to take less Coumadin while taking resveratrol or astragalosides such as Astragaloside IV. Ginkgo Biloba makes platelets less sticky to improve circulation, and Gotu Kola is also used to improve microcirculation. See Links/Resveratrol and blood thinning, Links/Astragalosides and blood thinning.
Antidepressants [JamesSouth/Antidepressant agents , Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. Antidepressants include:
5HTP [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] (5-hydroxytryptophan, Images),
DHA [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
L-Tryptophan [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
Prozac [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
Imipramine [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
Serotonin enhancers [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
St. John's Wort [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], and
Saffron extract [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
In addition, anti-inflammatory fish oil or DHA or other anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids are recommended, along with vitamin D derivative calcitriol levels between 50 and 100 nanograms per milliliter. (Wellness Profile, LEF, October 2010, pp.86-87).
Antiglycating Drugs [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/glycation, LifeExtension; Index/glycation].
The Antiglycation Agents include:
__benfotiamine [Index, Video, Images/benfotiamine supplements; Onions], and
__carnosine [Index, Video, Images/carnosine supplements],
__vitamin B1 [Index, Video, Images/Vitamin B1 supplements],
__vitamin C [Index, Video, Images/Vitamin C supplements].
__green tea [Index, Video, Images/Green tea supplements]. Limits hepatic glucose formation.
See also the AGE inhibitors:
__aminoguanidine [Index, Video, Images/aminoquanidine supplements, Links/side effects],
__carnosine [Index, Video, Images/carnosine supplements],
__OPB-9195 [Index, Images/OPB-9195],
__phenazinediamine [Video, Images/phenazinediamine supplements],
__pimagedine [Index, pimagedine Images/AGE inhibitor pimagedine],
_____an AGE inhibitor from Alteon, and
__pyridoxamine [Index, pyridoxamine, Images/pyridoxamine supplements].
_____(a component of vitamin B6). See also
__tenilsetam [Index, Video, Images/tenilsetam supplements],
and the AGE-breakers,
__phenacylthiazolium [Video, Images/phenacylthiazolium supplements] and
__phenacyldimethylthiazolium bromide [Video, Images].
Antihistamine Nutraceuticals [Links, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension].
Antihistamines for Cranberry Hives
I note that too many cranberries can cause your body to break out in hives with raised flesh that itches. In December 2014 and January 2014 I ate so many cans of cranberry sauce for ursolic acid that I came down with a case of these cranberry hives. See antihistamines for cranberry hives (natural oral antihistamines such as Vitamin C) and anti-inflammatory skin creams for hives. Histamine is released when foreign particles enter the body and generate an immune response such as hives, watery eyes, or sneezing. Quercetin exhibits anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory effect by preventing histamine release from mast cells and basophils. Rosmarinic acid, luteolin, astaxanthin, and perilla leaf extract also exhibit antihistamine effect.
Anti-Inflammatory Nutraceuticals [Links, Video, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension] include:
__Acetyl L-Carnitine [Video, Images/Acetyl L-Carnitine supplements, Index],
__Alpha Lipoic Acid [Video, Images/Alpha Lipoic Acid supplements, Index],
__Aspirin [Video, Images/Aspirin supplements, Index],
__Astaxanthin [Video, Images/Astaxanthin supplements, Index],
_____found in Alaskan sockeye salmon, the marine microalgae Haemateococcus pluvialis,
_____lobster, rainbow trout, red caviar, shrimp, crawfish, and crab.
__Basil [Video, Images/Basil supplements, Index],
__Beta Caryophyllene [Video, Images/Beta Caryophyllene supplements, Index/BASIL],
__Bioflavonoids [Video, Images/Bioflavonoid supplements, Index],
__Black Cumin Seed Oil [Video, Images/Black Cumin Seed Oil supplements, Index],
__Boswellia gum extract [Video, Images/Boswellia supplements, Index],
__Capsaicin [Video, Images/Capsaicin supplements, Index],
_____found in red peppers.
__Cat's Claw Extract [Video, Images/supplements, Index],
__Cod Liver Oil [Video, Images/Cod Liver Oil supplements],
__CoQ10 [Video, Images/CoQ10 supplements, Index],
__Curcumin [Video, Images/Curcumin supplements, Index] (COX-2 inhibitor),
_____found in turmeric.
__Dexamethasone [Images], 26.6 x cortisol potency in treating arthritis,
__DHA [Video, Images/DHA supplements, Index],
_____found in fish oil.
__EPA [Video, Images/EPA supplements, Index],
_____found in fish oil.
__Fish Oil [Video, Images/Fish Oil supplements, Index],
__Flax Seed Oil [Video, Images/Flax Seed Oil supplements, Index],
__Garlic [Video, Images/Garlic supplements, Index].
__Ginger [Video, Images/Ginger supplements, Index] (COX-2 inhibitor).
__Ginseng [Video, Images/Ginseng supplements, Index].
__Glycyrrhiza (source of Licorice) [Video, Images/Glycyrrhiza supplements, Index].
__Green Tea Extract [Video, Images/Green Tea Extract supplements, Index].
__Hyaluronic Acid [Video, Images/Hyaluronic Acid supplements, Index].
__Irvingia [Video, Images/Ginger supplements, Index],
__Isoflavones [Video, Images/Isoflavone supplements, Index],
__Krill Oil [Video, Images/Krill Oil supplements, Index],
__Linoleic acid [Video, Images/Linoleic acid supplements, Borage Oil, Index],
__Luteolin [Video, Images/Luteolin supplements, Index],
_____found in celery, green pepper, thyme, perilla and camomile tea.
__Melatonin [Video, Images/Melatonin supplements, Index],
__Modified Citrus Pectin [Links, Video] combats inflammation from galectin-3.
__Prednisone [Video, Images, prescription drug, treats Inflammatory Bowel Disease],
__Quercetin [Video, Images/Quercetin supplements, Index],
_____found in apples, onions, grapes, and red wine.
__Rutin [Video, Images/Rutin supplements, Index],
__Selenium [Video, Images/Selenium supplements, Index],
__Sodium Butyrate [Video, Images/Sodium Butyrate supplements, Index],
__Soluble Fiber [Video, Images/Soluble fiber supplements, Index],
__Theaflavins [Video, Images/Theaflavin supplements, Index],
__Uncaria Tomentosa [Video, Images/supplements, Index],
__Vitamin C [Video, Images/Vitamin C supplements, Index],
__Vitamin D [Video, Images/Vitamin D supplements, Index],
__Vitamin K [Video, Images/Vitamin K supplements, Index],
Also see anti-inflammatory compounds [Links, Papers, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension] and
anti-inflammatory drugs [Links, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension].
In addition, see Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme.
Topical anti-inflammatory creams and salves include many of the above and:
__Arnica montana [Video, Images/Arnica montana creams and salves].
Supplements "...with anti-inflammatory actions protect against neurodegenerative diseases, improve cardiovascular and endothelial function, prevent fatty liver disease, improve muscle function, and fight cancer." See Susan Machado (2012), Nutrient Cocktail Delays Aging and Extends Life Span, Life Extension Magazine, May 2012.
Antioxidants (Encyclopedia)
Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention (Encyclopedia).
Antiviral Drugs (Encyclopedia)
Aortic Sclerosis [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Aortic sclerosis is due to calcification of the aortic vascular tissues and preceeds aortic stenois, which thickens and calcifies the aortic valve so that it cannot open fully. This can be prevented with vitamin K2. It might help to add vitamin D3 to promote bone matrix formation. Osteoporosis promotes the systemic calcification of tissues outside the bone and promotes aortic sclerosis and arotic stenosis. See William Falloon (2011), Avoiding the Catastrophic Event, Life Exension Magazine, Nov. 2011. Foods high in vitamin K2 include MK-7 supplements, natto, Swiss cheese, Gouda cheese, hard cheese, soft cheese, and egg yolks. The disease begins with damage to the arterial wall due to homocysteine, which can be screened with homocysteine blockers including vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, and trimethylglycine. Rates of the disease are elevated by high LDL cholesterol, high trigycerides (fats), and high C-reactive protein, which is associated with obesity. See Lee JC, Zhao XQ, Otto CM (2005), Aortic valve sclerosis, Journal of Echocardiography, 2005; 3:51-9.
Aortic Stenosis [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Aortic stenosis is due to calcification of the aortic valve and is preceeded by aortic sclerosis, which calcifies the aortic vascular tissues. It can be prevented with vitamin K2. See William Falloon (2011), Avoiding the Catastrophic Event, Life Exension Magazine, Nov. 2011. "In aortic stenosis, the aortic valve does not open fully." Blood flow out of the heart is obstructed by the disease. Aortic stenosis can be induced by surgical trauma or warfarin, an anticoagulant drug. Foods high in vitamin K2 [Mercola] include MK-7 supplements and fermented foods such as natto (fermented soy), Swiss cheese, Gouda cheese, curd cheese, hard cheese, soft cheese, or egg yolks, peas, and green beans. The disease begins with damage to the arterial wall due to homocysteine, which can be screened with homocysteine blockers including vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, and trimethylglycine. Rates of the disease are elevated by high LDL cholesterol, high trigycerides (fats), and high C-reactive protein, which is associated with obesity. Hypertension, smoking, and diabetes make aortic stenosis more likely. High homocysteine, high glucose, obesity and renal impairment are also associated with greater liklihood of aortic stenosis. See Schurgers LJ, Cranenburg EC, Vermeer C (2008), Matrix Gla-protein: the calcification inhibitor in need of vitamin K, Haemost 2008 Oct; 100(4):593-603. See the calcium-regulating protein carboxylated by vitamin K2 to functionally reject tissue calcification, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Note that Jack Lalanne had replacement surgery for his aortic valve at 95, probably for using green leafy vegetables as a source of vitamin K2. He died of pneumonia at 96, from a weakened immune system due to low DHEA, perhaps, or failure to use telomerase activators like astragalus extract to rescue the immune system. See Pomerance A (1972), Pathogenesis of aortic stenosis and its relation to age, British Heart Journal, 1972; 34(6):569-74.
Aphrodisiacs [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension; Ray Sahelian on Aphrodisiacs (Video)]. Aphrodisiacs include horny goat weed, tribulus, saffron, damiana [Images], yohimbine, and cynomorium songaricum extract from the maltese mushroom. Longjack (Tongkat Ali) is said to boost testosterone and exhibit aphrodisiac side-effects when taken at 300 mg/day 5 days/week for more than 8 weeks. Tribulus improves the expression of melanocyte-stimulating hormone, so that it can restore hair color. Damiana binds to progesterone receptors and is sold as an aphrodisiac. Cynomorium songaricum extract from the maltese mushroom is sold as an aphrodisiac and penis enlarger.
Telomerase activators in this class include (181) Cynomorium songaricum extract, (144) Horny goat weed, and Longjack, since it boosts testosterone.
Apigenin [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension]. A flavonoid found in celery, parsely, thyme, peppermint, and tomato sauce, added by LEF to cruciferous vegetable extract [Links, Video, Images] to improve cell protection. Apigenin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties [Ray Sahelian/Apigenin] and reduces ovarian cancer risk.
Apoptosis [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Diet with Anticarcinogens; Links/Nutraceuticals inducing cancer cell apoptosis, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Ben Best/Cellular Senescence and Apoptosis in Aging]. Apoptosis is used in embryogenesis to sculpt tissues by selectively destroying cells without messy cell lysis, also used to maintain tissue homeostasis during some kinds of infections. Products of apoptosis are cross-linked, spacially confined, and relatively easy for the body to manage. Senescent cells (human fibroblasts, T-cells, and mammary epithelial cells) resist apoptosis [Books], so that they accumulate with age. Activating the gene Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis, so that sometimes Bcl-2 is seen as a nuisance in cancer therapy, when one is trying to induce apoptosis in cancer cells with, say, telomerase inhibitors. See Links/apoptosis inhibitors, Links/activating apoptosis in cancer therapy and Links/targeted therapeutic activation of apoptosis.
Inducing Apoptosis [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Telomerase Inhibitors, Anticancer Agents]. Tumor necrosis factors (including TNF-alpha) are a group of cytokines that can cause cell death by apoptosis. For instance, TNF-alpha destroys brain cells in Alzheimer's Disease. TNF-alpha inhibitors such as luteolin and curcumin from turmeric oppose TNF-alpha induced apoptosis. Mitochondrial signaling may activate apoptosis, in which case it may be a symptom of mitochondrial failure.
Anticancer drugs and nutraceuticals typically induce apoptosis in cancer cells [Papers, Patents, Books].

Cat's Claw Extract alkaloids may be used for inducing telomerase inhibition and apoptosis in leukemic cells.

DHA induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells and protects normal neural cells from apoptosis.

Fucoidan [Wikipedia/Fucoidan, Links/Fucoidan; Links/Fucoidan induces apoptosis in lymphoma cell lines] can induce apoptosis in lymphoma cell lines.

Genistein combined with indole-3-carbinol from cruciferous vegetables strongly enhances apoptosis of colon cancer cells.

Ginger containing gingerol and zerumbone induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

NAC (N-Aceyl Cysteine) induces apoptosis in many kinds of cancer cells.

Sulforaphane from broccoli sprouts induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

Telomerase inhibitors are often used to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.

See Alexander Gosslau and Kuang Yu Chen (2004), Nutraceuticals, Apoptosis, and Disease Prevention [PDF], Nutrition, v20,no1, 2004.
Apoptosis Inhibitors
[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Note that survivin activates telomerase and inhibits apoptosis. Bcl-2 also activates telomerase and inhibits apoptosis, and may be a hinderance to cancer therapy when it is desired to induce apoptosis with telomerase inhibitors. Note that anti-apoptotic genes are up-regulated and proapoptotic genes are down-regulated in skeletal and cardiac muscles in response to prolonged endurance exercise. See PM Siu, RW Bryner, JK Martyn, et.al. (2004), Apoptotic adaptations from exercise training in skeletal and cardiac muscles, The FASEB Journal, 2004. DHA protects normal neural cells from apoptosis and induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. Telomerase inhibits apoptosis, so that telomerase activators are associated with apoptosis inhibition. See Mark P. Mattson, Peisu Zhang, and Weiming Fu (2000-2012), Roles for TERT and Telomerase in Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis, Madame Curie Bioscience Database.
Apple Polyphenols [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LifeExtension/Polyphenols]. Apples contain quercetin (sold in Product B as a telomerase inducer for dermal fibroblasts) and also ursolic acid. "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." Apple polyphenols can lower body fat. There are about 200 mg of polyphenols per apple. FLEX magazine recommends 500 mg before breakfast and dinner, with one apple before workouts to improve definition. "...Treatment with apple polyphenols extended fruit fliesí average life span by 10% and prolonged their ability to walk and climb in recent experiments by Zhen-Yu Chen and colleagues. Apple polyphenols also reversed markers of aging and markers of imminent death, while upregulating the genes for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2, and catalase." [1], [2]. The best results are associated with eating apple skins only. Eating whole apples can actually drive triglycerides up. The skins contain ceramide-boosting ursolic acid and the apple polyphenol phloridzin, which is effective against glycation by lowering blood sugar associated with intestinal absorption of nutrients mitigated by pancreatic lipase, which breaks down triglycerides. Phloridzin inhibits pancreatic lipase to lower blood sugar [3]. Apple polyphenols defend well against colon cancer when larger amounts of apple polyphenols are consumed (op cit.). Apple polyphenols lengthen animal model lifetimes by about 12%. Quercetin, found in apples and onions, is used as a telomerase inducer in Product B. The mythology of the apple tree in the Garden of Eden has been used to explain children about the longevity advantages of apples. The skins and the flesh helped extend life, but seeds from the apple core are poisonous due to cyanides. A whole apple sliced and mixed with water in a blender can be used to make an apple polyphenol skin cream from raw apple sauce containing telomerase-activating quercetin and also ursolic acid [Ref].
References
[1] Dana Dye (2011),
Apple Polyphenols Extend Life Span in Fruit Fly Experiment, LEF News, Life Extension Magazine, June 2011.
[2] Zhen-Yu Chen, et al. (2011), Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 2011 Mar 9;59(5):2097-106.
[3] George Randall (2012),
Apple Polyphenols and Longevity, Life Extension Magazine, April 2012.
[4] Carley Eder (2011),
The Awesome Apple, Life Extension Magazine July 2011.
[5] Boyer J, Liu R. (2004),
Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits, Nutri J 2004 May12;3:5.
[6] Puel C, Quintin A, Mathey J, et al (2005),
Prevention of bone loss by phloridzin, an apple polyphenol, in ovariectomized rats under inflammation conditions, Calcif Tissue Int 2005 Nov;77(5):311-8.
Arachidonic Acid [DrDeBe/Arachidonic Acid, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Arachidonic acid is found in meat, poultry, and eggs. "Free radical mediated arachidonic acid oxidation [LifeExtension, Links, Papers, Books] can produce a mixture of gamma-isoketals capable of reacting with proteins to produce structures that are not only resistant to proteolysis [Links, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] but inhibit proteasome function [Index, Links, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]." - pg. 160, Hipkiss in Aging at the Molecular Level, ed. T. Zglinicki." Proteasomes [Index, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] must function to eliminate defective proteins [Books]: the build-up of defective proteins in the cell is associated with aging. However, some arachidonic acid is required, and is especially crucial during the developmental phase. [2s]. High levels of arachidonic acid from eggs increase the incidence of prostate cancer in elderly patients.
Arginine [Innvista/Arginine (pron. "R"-je-neen), [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon, Terraternal/Arginine Studies, (Anti-aging effects of L-arginine, Mohamed Z. Gad, 2010)]. Arginine raises HGH levels and activates telomerase in endothelial cells via nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator produced by the action of nitric oxide synthase on arginine. Arginine also elevates epinephrine and norepinephrine, and promotes insulin release. Arginine at 5 grams per day or more has a restoring effect on the thymus gland, which manufactures T-cells from pre-T-cells produced by the bone marrow and NK cells from pre-NK cells also produced in the bone marrow. Rejuvenating the thymus gland restores production of thymopoietin, a natural youth hormone and biomarker of aging. Sources include: Spanish peanuts (best plant source), cashew nuts, pecan nuts, walnuts, almonds, chocolate, coconut, cereal grains, dairy products, gelatin, tuna (best animal source), meat, oats, soybeans, and edible seeds. Arginine is taken with whey protein to raise nitric oxide (NO) levels in bodybuilding exercise, which improves circulation and stimulates the endothelial cells of the vascular system, also promoting mitochondrial biogenesis [Index, Links, Papers, Patents, Books]. We have believed that Nitric Oxide improved telomerase activation in endothelial cells [Vasa, et. al, 2000; Hayashi, et.al, 2006], although this was been questioned in [Erusalimsky JD, 2009] and [Hong Y, Quintero M, Frakich NM, Trivier E, Erusalimsky JD, 2007], who suspected that beneficial NO effects derive instead from activation of SIRT1. This seems doubtful to me, as telomerase activation was measured. Furthermore, activation of SIRT1 deacetylizes histones, producing chromatin compaction and gene silencing that squelches telomerase activation via hTERT transcription. See lysine and arginine content of foods and amounts of arginine in foods, in mg per 100 mg. Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Louis B. Ignarro recommends taking L-arginine (4000 mg to 6000 mg/day) with L-citrulline (200 mg to 1000 mg/day) just before bedtime with antioxidants including vitamin E, vitamin C, folic acid (400 mcg to 800 mcg) and alpha lipoic acid in his book NO More Heart Disease. On the bodybuilding side, Jim Stoppani PhD, author of Elements of a Stack in Muscle and Fitness magazine (Fall, 2009), cites studies showing that experimenters could exercise longer before reaching fatigue using arginine as a NO-booster, and that NO-boosters taken pre-workout yielded muscle gain. Stoppani recommends an Arginine Stack:
(1) Arginine, 3-5 grams in the morning & 30-60 min prior to a workout & 30-60 minutes before bedtime.
(2) Pycnogenol, 50-100 mg when arginine is taken, to increase the activity of nitric oxide synthase creating NO from arginine.
(3) Horny Goat Weed, 500 mg, to inhibit the enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5), which normally breaks down NO. Horny Goat Weed (144) may be a telomerase inducer (in Product B) via this mechanism.
(4) Ginkgo Biloba, 40-80 mg with arginine, to reduce the stickiness of blood platelets, improving the flow of blood to the muscles and the brain.
By dialating blood vessels, NO from nitric oxide synthase working on arginine produces a bigger pump from bodybuilding exercise. Arginine is one of the most effective endogenous vasodilators [Index]. To elevate NO levels Muscle & Fitness Magazine recommends 3-5 grams of arginine as L-arginine, arginine alpha-ketoglutarate, arginine ketoisocaproate, arginine malate, or arginine ethyl ester before breakfast, 30-60 minutes prior to a workout, and 30-60 minutes before bed. According to their research, arginine can raise HGH levels, but for this purpose each dose should be increased to 7-10 grams. Arginine is also involved in molecular signaling via mTOR for muscle growth.
Arginine Pyroglutamate [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Arginine pyroglutamate improves HGH levels and may be used with exercise and other HGH secretagogues such as Arginine+Ornithine or Arginine+Lysine or Alpha GPC (alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine) to improve HGH levels. This promotes transcription of hTERT mRNA, and the resulting HGH is processed by the liver into IGF-1, which activates hTERT protein (the catalytic component of telomerase) by phosphorylating it, promoting its transport into the nucleus of the cell from the cytoplasm.
Aricept [IAAS, Links, Images, Video, LifeExtension]. Aricept is an acetylcholine-booster for treating Alzheimer's Disease. Other acetylcholine boosters [LEF] include ashwagandha.
Arjuna See Ayurvedic Medicine/Arjuna.
Aroma Therapy [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. Essential oil of Rosemary [Links/and cognition; Links] improves memory and alertness when taken from an inhaler. Memory speed may not improve. See also
rosmarinic acid [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LEF],
carnosol [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LEF] and
carnosic acid [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LEF],
which are the active antioxidant compounds found in rosemary [Index]. Note that carnosic acid also stimulates Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) synthesis, which may be responsible for memory improvements when rosemary is used or essential oil of rosemary is inhaled through the nose. Perhaps inhalation of antioxidants in rosemary oil is good for the lungs. I note that there are stories of men who lived many years using astragalus root, but who seemed to "die young" at 90 to 100 from whooping cough, possibly preventable by antioxidant mists such as vitamin C mixed in steam, or essential oil of rosemary constituents mixed in steam or from essential oil of rosemary vapor. Perhaps astragaloside IV could be taken in a mist or from a vaporizer to better defend lung tissue. See medicinal aerosols [Links, Books], inhalation delivery [Links, Books], aerosols and sprays [Links, Books], atomizers [Links, Images], nebulizers [Links, Images], and vaporizers [Links, Images].
Aromatization of Testosterone [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Wiki/Aromatization, Wiki/Testosterone, LifeExtension/Testosterone, Index/Testosterone]. Aromatization of testosterone produces low levels of testosterone and sometimes dangerously high levels of estrogens. Low testosterone levels increase the risk of death, and are associated with heart disease, osteoporosis, muscle wasting (sarcopenia), prostate cancer, chronic inflammatory disorders, and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Bodybuilding, of course, can help elevate testosterone levels, so pump up, if your blood pressure and heartbeat are normal, so that you are likely free of atherosclerotic plaque. Sometimes glycation hardening of the arteries from too much ice cream can cause a subclavian aneurysm during a heavy bench press, but it is usually beneficial to exercise, even for elderly specimens. Furthermore, chrysin and nettle root reduce the conversion of free testosterone to estrogen, and are available in LEF's Super Miraforte. BioperineTM improves the bioavailability of chrysin. High testosterone aids reverse cholesterol transport, by elevating the enzyme hepatic lipase and the liver scavenger receptor B1. Hepatic lipase removes phospholipids from HDL cholesterol surfaces, enhancing the uptake of HDL by B1 scavenger receptors. LEF suggests that male testosterone levels of 20-25 pg/ml are desirable. High levels of DHEA, IGF-1, and testosterone are associated with an 83% heart disease survival rate in a recent study, and low levels of all three hormones reduced heart disease survival rate to 27%. See Blood Tests. (after Life Extension Magazine, As We See It, William Falloon, June 2010).
Arteriosclerosis [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon LifeExtension, LibCong; Hypoperfusion, Leukoaraiosis]. Arteriosclerosis is a condition involving hardening (sclerosis) of small arteries called arterioles [Images] resulting from high blood pressure (hypertension), and is not always the same as atherosclerosis [Encyclopedia], which is associated with plaques that form as a result of lipoprotein profile imbalances and cellular senescence of the vascular endothelium, as aggravated by high homocysteine levels treatable with a homocysteine screen [Images]. Note that hypoperfusion and leukoaraiosis are also characteristically associated with hypertension. However, atherosclerosis is often described as the most common form of hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). Arteriosclerosis involving calcification of the arterial wall is treatable with Vitamin K or Vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 makes osteocalcin directing calcium into bones instead of leaving it in the blood in the blood to calcify arteries. Glycation and AGEs have also been implicated in hardening of the arteries, causing collagen cross-linking that stiffens the arterial wall. In this case, antiglycating drugs including crosslink breakers (AGE-breakers) such as Alagebrium have been developed to soften arterial walls stiffened by glycation crosslinking. On the other hand, reverse cholesterol transport is possible with testosterone [Index], which can help in atherosclerosis to reduce atherosclerotic plaque, which can be uncapped of any calcium deposits by using Vitamin K2. See also the index entry for atherosclerosis. Arterial health and arterial elasticity improves with long-term antioxidant supplementation including vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and CoQ10 (Nutrition and Metabolism), cited in Life Extension Magazine, October 2010, p.21. Arteriosclerosis induced by glycation from too much ice cream can lead to a subclavian aneurysm during heavy exercise such as weight lifting. The arterial wall balloons at a weak spot, which may be quite painful.
Arthritis (Encyclopedia)
Asc2P (Asc-2-O-phosphate) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Asc2P (Asc-2-O-phosphate) is an oxidation-resistant derivative of vitamin C that is more effective at reducing telomere shortening than ordinary vitamin C. "In this study, it was shown that repetitive addition of Asc2P to human endothelial cells in vitro slowed telomere shortening by a dramatic 52-62%. Regular Vitamin C had no effect." - from Terraternal on Terraternal Telomere Guard.
Ascorbyl Palmitate [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Vitamin C] (fat-soluble vitamin C), [36s] (a). According to [Links/ascorbyl palmitate toxicity] one finds: "Ascorbyl palmitate (C-ester) is toxic to skin cells when applied topically and exposed to sunlight, as noted by the prestigious Mayo Clinic." Also, in topically applied skin creams, "Ascorbyl palmitate is used at concentrations between 0.01 and 0.2% , and Erythorbic Acid is used at concentrations of 0.5-1% . Ascorbyl Palmitate has vitamin C activity approximately equal to that of L-ascorbic acid, whereas Erythorbic Acid has only 5% activity." - from F. Allen Anderson (1999), Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and sodium erythorbate, International Journal of Toxicology, 1999. According to Wikipedia/Ascorbyl_palmitate, "Ascorbyl palmitate taken orally is less effective, due to the substance breaking down again into ascorbic acid (not necessarily Vitamin C) and palmitic acid (a saturated fatty acid) before being digested. Ascorbyl palmitate is also marketed as "vitamin C ester"".
Ashwagandha [LEF/Ashwagandha, (Indian Ginseng, Withania Somnifera), QC, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, Ray, Terraternal/Ashwagandha Studies]. Ashwagandha is a stress reliever reducing cortisol levels [Books, LifeExtension] up to 26%, lowers blood sugar, and improves lipid profiles, ups sense of well-being, regenerates axons, dendrites, synapses, re-grows brain, reversing Parkinsonian neurodegeneration [Books], and fights Alzheimer's Disease. Ashwagandha exhibits endogenous antioxidant boosting effects, including elevation of SOD levels. It inhibits many kinds of cancer, and is anti-microbial for Salmonella. "Ashwagandha on chronic administration markedly augmented endogenous antioxidants (GSH, GSHPx, SOD, CAT)" (Ray). [63s]. Recently low catalase levels have been linked to hair greying. Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera) may be used as a cortisol inhibitor after bodybuilding exercise to prevent destructive catabolism of muscle tissue.
Aspirin [LEF/Aspirin anti-inflammatory, QC, Wikipedia, Links/aspirin and life extension; Links/Aspirin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. I get the impression that continual use of asprin leads to stomach ulcer because it inhibits stomach-protective COX-1 enzymes [cyclooxygenases, Books, LifeExtension] along with the COX-2 enzymes [Books], although it protects against many ailments. It seems clear that for most purposes COX-2 inhibitors [Books, LifeExtension] curcumin from turmeric or gingerols in ginger are a better solution for life extension applications.
Astaxanthin (Encyclopedia).
Astragalosides [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, 81s, TA Sciences, Astragalus and Astragalosides Vendors, Notes5/Chemical Glossary, Links/Chemical Synthesis of Astragalosides, Links/Molecular Spectra of the Astragalosides, Links/Separation of the Astragalosides, Links/Quantitative Chemical Analysis of the Astragalosides; Refs3/Astragalosides; Refs3/Biological Activity of Astragalosides]. There are typically about 0.15 mg of astragaloside IV per gram of astragalus root. See also Geron's documents Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity, Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity, A' alternate-source version Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity, A'', and Formulations Containing Astragalus Extracts and Uses Thereof regarding the application to life extension and telomere remodeling for rejuvenation (7). See also [Patents/Astragaloside receptors, Books/astragaloside transcriptional activators, Links]. See Chromadex kits of astragalus saponins, including the astragalosides. The bioavailability of astragalosides in astragalus root or astragalus root extract is improved by chitosan [Links, Video, Images, Wikipedia] or sodium deoxycholate [Links]. It may be useful to take the histone deaceylase inhibitor (HDAC inhibitor) sodium butyrate [Links, Wikipedia] to facilitate transcription of hTERT and hTR. Finally, it seems that astragalosides are treated like nuclear superfamily transcription factors complexed with the heat shock protein Hsp90 [Index, Links, Wikipedia, Papers, Books, Amazon] before tranfer into the nucleus of the cell. It may accelerate matters to improve Hsp90 expression by some means, perhaps by raising Interleukin 6 levels [Links, Books, Papers, Amazon] via exercise. Alpha Lipoic Acid increases the expression of HSP90. We might pump up just before taking our astragalus root extract with Chitosan to facilite its march into the nucleus complexed with HSP90 elevated by the exercise session. See Medicass for astragaloside IV and cycloastragenol, and also supplement vendors/Astragalus, astragalosides. See Notes5/Astragalus Extract for a breakdown of the astragalosides content in astragalus extract, and for related chemical nomenclature and links to relevant literature.
According to the now-defunct VIDA Institute, the most effective astragalus formulation for the human body is astragalus root extract, perhaps in combination with raw astragalus root. See http://vidainstitute.org/index.php/astragalus-formulations (quote). Astragaloside IV was determined by the VIDA Institute as failing to lenthen telomeres, and cycloastragenol was determined to be quite marginally effective. Astragalus root extract was pictured by the VIDA Institute (quote) to most effectively lengthen telomeres in Natural Killer cells, but to also lengthen telomeres in other blood cell types, including granulocytes, native T-cells, and memory T-cells, while holding B-cell telomere lengths constant. A higher dose might have lengthened B-cell telomeres. Note that NK cells attack and consume senescent cells showing proinflammatory status or signs of oncogenic stress [William Falloon, Jan 2015; Campos C, et al, July 2014]. Video: Jim Green at Age 63.
Caution 1: According to Medicinal Nutraceutics, "Astragaloside IV should be avoided if taking a blood thinning medications such as Coumadin." See Links/astragalosides and blood thinning.
Caution 2: Bcl-2 from astragaloside activation and together with simultaneous EGF activation increases the likelihood of lymphoma. Astragalosides and colostrum, which contains EGF, should perhaps not be mixed. "Because of the increased risk of cancer by EGF, inhibiting it decreases cancer risk." - Wikipedia/EGF. However, it now seems likely that a program of telomerase activation for 2 weeks followed by telomerase inhibitor treatment with anticancer nutraceuticals 2 weeks in a cyclic protocol will make mixing the telomerase activators safe enough in most cases. I have observed no problems with EGF at conventional maximum dosages of colostrum and astragalus root while exercising and using a monthly program of cyclic application.
Astragaloside Metabolites [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/metabolites of Astragaloside IV found in the blood, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/metabolites of Astragaloside IV excreted in urine, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Astragaloside IV C41H68O14 (Encyclopedia)
Astragaloside IV Metabolites (Encyclopedia)
Astragalus Membranaceus (goat's horn, green dragon, huang-qi, milk vetch, yellow leader) (pronounced "ass-straggle-us, reminiscent of Aquarius at the end of sidereal time, or the rim of the new moon.") [Monograph, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension, GAIA HerbalMedicine Database, Sources: Herbs Wholesale - Astragalus Store, Links/astragalus root extract supplements, Vendors/astragalus, Notes5/Chemical Glossary, Notes12/Astragalus Composition]. Astragalus root contains the molecule used in TA-65 (Geron's GRN-665), a telomerase activator sold by TA Sciences. Small-molecule telomerase activators obtained from astragalus include astragaloside IV [Links, Video, Books, Amazon, Links/astragalosides, Video/astragalosides], cycloastragenol [Links], astragenol [Links], and other chemicals [81s/6b]. There are typically about 0.15 mg of astragaloside IV per gram of astragalus root. See also Astragalus & Toxicology of Astragalus, with vendors and Geron's Compositions and methods for increasing telomerase activity (or see A' alternate-source version Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity, or A'') with Formulations Containing Astragalus Extracts and Uses Thereof. See also Astragalus Botanical Data from Botanical Medicines by McKenna, Jones, Hughes, and Humphrey. See GAIA Herbs Astragalus Extract in glycerin. See also Vitamin Research Products on Astragalus and their Astragalus Extract. I note that "Anecdotal reports have recommended astragalus to be standardized to a minimum of 0.4% 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-isoflavone-7-glycoside per dose. However, since astragalus is often added to herbal mixtures with unclear amounts used, standardization is not always possible." - Medline Plus, quoted in Enotalone.com/Astragalus : Dosing and Safety. 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-isoflavone-7-glycoside [Links, Books, Books/4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-isoflavone].
According to the VIDA Institute, the most effective (astragalus formulation for the human body is astragalus extract, perhaps in combination with raw astragalus root. See http://vidainstitute.org/index.php/astragalus-formulations (quote)quote). Astragaloside IV was determined by the VIDA Institute as failing to lenthen telomeres, and cycloastragenol was determined to be quite marginally effective. Astragalus extract is pictured by the VIDA Institute to most effectively lengthen telomeres in Natural Killer cells, but to also lengthen telomeres in other blood cell types, including granulocytes, native T-cells, and memory T-cells, while holding B-cell telomere lengths constant. A higher dose might have lengthened B-cell telomeres. Note that NK cells attack and consume senescent cells showing proinflammatory status or signs of oncogenic stress [William Falloon, Jan 2015; Campos C, et al, July 2014]. Video: Jim Green at Age 63.
Dosage Schedule and Telomerase Component Half-Lives
The common adult dosage [Links, Papers, Books] is 2 to 6 g per day of the powdered root, taken in divided doses 3-5 times a day. The maximum dosage used is 33 grams/day in Chinese medicine. Higher doses sometimes result in selenium poisoning. Rejuvenating results seem to be observed in elderly Chinese specimens (70 looks 40) after a number of years with this approach, as if higher telomerase levels could be built up gradually and sustained with small doses of astragalus taken every few hours. It could be a consequence of the fact that the half-life of hTERT protein is 4 weeks. Note that the half-life of hTERT mRNA is 1-3 hours, the half-life of the active telomerase complex is 24 hours, and the half-life of hTR RNA is 5 days. Thus, dosing with astragalus every few hours may allow hTERT mRNA levels to gradually increase over time. See hTERT mRNA [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
How to Swallow Astragalus Root at 16 grams/cup
Empty 32 x 500 mg capsules of NOW Astragalus Root powder into a coffee cup. Add water and stir until in suspension. Then add vanilla extract and 3 packs of artificial sweetener to make an "astragalus root beer" beverage.
Growing Astragalus Membranaceus (Encyclopedia)
Astragalus Membranaceus Root Metabolites [Links/Metabolites of astragalus membranceus, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/metabolites of Astragaloside IV found in the blood, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/metabolites of Astragaloside IV excreted in urine, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Astragalus Membranaceus Root Extracts (Encyclopedia)
Astragalus Membranaceus Hairy Roots [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Amazon, Notes5/Astragalus Extract Astragalosides Content]. "Hairy roots of Astragalus membranaceus were produced with a yield reaching 10 g/L. The results from RP-HPLC detection showed that the contents of crude saponin and astragaloside IV in the hairy roots were 5.81% and 0.14%, respectively. Six flavonoid compounds were also determined. Polysaccharide analysis showed that the total polysaccharide content in the hairy roots was 22.97%; of this content, acidic 8.29% and soluble 14.88%. In comparison with the dry roots, the hairy roots contained higher crude saponin and soluble polysaccharide contents, similar astragaloside IV content and lower contents of 6 isoflavonoids, total and acidic polysaccharides, showing that the quality of both types of roots was similar." - Zheng Z, Liu D, Song C, Cheng C, Hu Z. (1998), Studies on chemical constituents and immunological function activity of hairy root of Astragalus membranaceus, Chin J Biotechnol. 1998;14(2):93-7.
"Hairy roots of Astragalus membranaceus were grown in bioreactors [Images] up to 30 L for 20 d. Cultures from a 30 L airlift bioreactor [Images] gave 11.5 g/L dry wt with 1.4 mg/L astragaloside IV, similar to cultures from 250 ml and 1 L flasks, but greater than yields from a 10 L bioreactor (dry wt 9.4 g/L, astragaloside IV 0.9 mg/L). Polysaccharide yields were similar amongst the different bioreactors (range 25-32 mg/L). The active constituent content of the cells approached that of plant extracts, indicating that large scale hairy root cultures of A. membranaceus has the potential to provide an alternative to plant crops without compromising yield or pharmacological potential." - M. Du, X.J. Wu, J. Ding, Z.B. Hu, K.N. White and C.J. Branford-White (2003), Astragaloside IV and polysaccharide production by hairy roots of Astragalus membranaceus in bioreactors, Journal Biotechnology Letters, Springer Netherlands, Issue Volume 25, Number 21 / November, 2003, pp.1853-1856.
Astragalus Membranaceus Root Extract [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; astragalus membranaceus root images from Informaworld, Images/astragalus membranaceus roots].
Astragalus Membranaceus Seeds [Links/Astragalus Membranaceus Seeds, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Astragalus Seeds, Images].
Astragalus Polysaccharides [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. Astragalus polysaccharides distinct from the astragalosides may potentiate IL-2 [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], which is a telomerase activator. They may also activate the genes for anti-viral interferon production. See GeneFamiliesHUGO/Interferons (IFN).
Astrocytes [Links/Astrocytes in the aging brain, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Books/astrocyte aging, LifeExtension/astrocyte aging; Books/neurons and aging, LifeExtension/aging neurons, Books/glial cell aging, LifeExtension/glial cell aging].
Astron Biosciences [10].
Atherosclerosis (Encyclopedia)
Atherosclerotic Plaque (Encyclopedia)
Atorvastatin (Lipitor) (Encyclopedia)
Attention Deficit disorder [Links/Attention Deficit Disorder, Papers, Patents, Books, James South/Attention Deficit disorder].
Aubrey de Grey [SENS, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Aubrey de Grey, speaker at the Extreme Futurist Festival (2012). LifeExtension]. Video: Aging of the Other Genome (Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey on Aging of the Mitochondrial Genome, 62 minutes.) See The Mitochondrial Free Radial Theory of Aging by Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey and Ending Aging by Aubrey de Grey and Michael Rae. Also see associated Aubrey de Grey videos:
Ending Aging Index/Mitochondrial Themes.
How to End Aging: Aubrey de Grey at TEDxOxbridge (SENS).
Austad, Steve N. Why We Age [18].
Autoimmune Disorders and Aging [Ben Best, LifeExtension, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/Autoimmune Disorders, Amazon].





Ayurvedic Medicine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Links/Ayurvedic Herbs, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. See Ray Sahelian, Himalaya Herbal and Solaray Ayurvedic Herbs. These include:
Amla [Index, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Ray, Amazon],
___Also see Micheala Harrod (2014), Enhance Endothelial Function and Reduce Arterial Stiffness,
___Life Extension Magazine March 2014.
Arjuna [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Ray, Amazon],
____Arjuna extracts reduce total and LDL cholesterol, reduce trigycerides, and elevate HDL,
____limiting atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and improving endothelial function.
____Arjuna is cardio-protective against ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury.
____Arjuna may be used with hawthorn to treat cardiovascular disease. (Silas Hoffman, 2013).
____Terminalia arjuna, Alternative Medicine Review, 1999 Dec;4(6):436-7.
Ashwagandha [Index, Wiki, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Ray, Amazon],
Bacopa [Index, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Ray, Amazon],
Boswellia [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Ray, Amazon],
Caralluma [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Ray, Amazon],
Forskohlii [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Ray, Amazon],
Guggul [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Ray, Amazon],
Gymnema [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Holy Basil [Index, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Shatavari (Aspargus Racemosus) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Triphala (Chebulic Myrobalan (TA/Haritaki) + Belleric Myrobalan + Amla)
___[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon].
5th Dimension: "Now reach your summit of beauty." Remember Vedic Mount Meru.

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