Index to Anti-Aging Medicine
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Back Pain [Boswellia (Frankincense), Chondrocytes, Joint Injuries, Pain Medicine, Stiff Back].
Bacopa (Water Hyssop, Herpestis monniera) [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Terraternal/Bacopa Studies, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Telomerase Activators/(124) Bacopa, Product B Telomerase Activators/(136) Bacopa Extract; Memory Enhancing Nutraceuticals]. Bacopa is neuroenhancing and improves learning and memory. It has been used to alleviate symptoms of anxiety. In 2012 there are reports that it lengthens telomeres, and bacopa extract is a component of Product B, which was developed to support telomeres. It addition, it may increase thyroid hormone (T4) levels. It can increase thyroid hormone T4 levels by over 41% in mice. Bodybuilders use Bacopa Monnieri leaf as a fat-burner, taking it before breakfast at 1-2 grams, and with pre- and post-workout meals at 1-2 grams. Bacopa contains bacopasaponins, including the Bacosides A, which enhance SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) endogenous antioxidant activity. Bacopa is described in Indian Ayurvedic medicine [Index] as a brain tonic for enhancing memory, learning, and concentration. Bacosides A in Bacopa are thought to maintain the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial membrane by inhibiting excessive lipid peroxidation and creatine kinase, and by improving the activities of ATPases. The Bacosides A also maintain mitochondrial ionic equilibrium. Active components of Bacopa include:
alkaloids (brahmine and herpestine),
saponins (d-mannitol and hersaponin, acid A, and monnierin),
bacopa saponins (bacosides A, bacosides B, bacopaside II, bacopaside I, bacopaside X, __bacopasaponin C, and bacopaside N2 with minor components bacopasaponin F, __bacopasaponin E, bacopaside N1, bacopaside III, bacopaside IV, and bacopaside V.)
flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), and
betulic acid,
stigmasterol, and
- Wikipedia/Bacopa, Shape You/Wholesale directory/bacopa_monnieri.
See also Sebastian Aguiar and Thomas Borowski (2013), Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri, Rejuvenation Research, August 14, 2013. Check:
"Current evidence suggests Bacopa monnieri acts via the following mechanisms
antioxidant neuroprotection
___(via redox and enzyme induction) [Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books],
acetylcholinesterase inhibition [Links, Papers, Patents, Books]
and/or choline acetyltransferase activation [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] ,
beta amyloid reduction [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] ,
increased cerebral blood flow [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] ,
and neurotransmitter modulation [Links, Papers, Patents, Books]
(acetylcholine [ACh]) [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] ,
5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] ,
dopamine [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] [DA]).
Bacterial Infections [Main Essay/Infections, Links/Bacterial Infections, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon; Links/Bacteria, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon; Dental; Garlic; Index/Antibiotics, Links/Antibiotics, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon; Links/Disinfectants, Images]. Elimination of live bacteria from the diet increases life spans (excepting special bacteria designed to play the role of intestinal microflora). Cardiovascular mortality [Images] is 2-3 times higher in patients who have been infected with 4 or more viral pathogens including C. pneumonia, CMV, Epstein Barr Virus, H. Influenza, H.Pyroli, HSV-1, and HSV-2. (Caleb E. Finch, p.119 & 126). Note that infections can wear down the immune system by shrinking telomeres in cells with cell divisions that occur in response to infection, so that lymphocytes may become prematurely senescent and genomically unstable, making the body more vulnerable to pneumonia. Also see virology.
Bags Under the Eyes (Encyclopedia)
Baldness, treatment of hair loss [Index, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon] [74s]. The usual problem is is baldness from dihydrotestosterone (DHT) made from testosterone by the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, which impacts the hair follicle. It was noticed early on that testosterone could be blocked by testicle removal, in which case the hair did not fall out. A more popular approach is to use saw palmetto with beta sitosterol to block 5-alpha-reductase, which also may be done with finasteride or dustasteride. L-lysine [Images] also blocks 5-alpha-reductase, although this approach is patented. Recently, we have read that green tea blocks DHT formation and stops baldness. Another approach is to use Rogaine, which is based on minoxidil. In this case the mechanism is not so clear. Also, lost hair may be restored with astragalosides such as astragaloside IV, because the process depends on changes in gene expression that follow cellular senescence. Experiments at Artandi Labs indicate that products like Terraternal Astragaloside IV skin cream, which counteract cellular senescence in the scalp, work to restore hair. Experimenters like Vince Giuliano also report hair growth returning subsequent to application of astragaloside IV. See Index/Hair Loss.
Basil [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Images/Holy Basil Extract supplements]. Basil lowers COX-2 and cortisol levels, decreasing stress and anxiety effectively. Basil lowers both systolic and diastolic blood pressure over a period of weeks, and contains magnesium to improve endothelial function. Basil leaves also contain vitamin K, calcium, beta-carotene, anti-inflammatory beta caryophyllene, and highly antioxidant oils. The essential oils of basil are antibacterial, and include (antibacterial) eugenol, rosmarinic acid, estragole, linalool, methylchavikol, and oleanolic acid. Basil's eugenol may be combined with ginger to combat arthritic swelling. Basil also contains the DNA protective antioxidants orientin and vicenin, which protect against radiation damage. Basil leaf extract improves measures of immune system strength including T-cell counts, NK cell counts, and higher levels of interleukin-4. IL-4 inhibits telomerase in a number of cell types, including lung fibroblasts. See William Gamonski (2012), Basil: A Potent One-Two Punch of Robust Flavor and Medicinal Advantages, Life Extension Magazine, May 2012. Basil also contains luteolin, which may be used to treat colon cancer.
BCAAs - Branched Chain Amino Acids [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon]. The branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine are thought to turn on muscle synthesis, according to Jim Stoppani PhD of Muscle and Fitness magazine (Fall 2009) in Elements of a Stack. In particular, extra leucine [Index] is used with whey protein, together with fast digesting carbohydryates to drive insulin levels up and transport amino acids into cells. Whey protein isolates, possibly micronized, at 20-30 grams may be taken with 5-10 grams of extra leucine and 40-100 grams of dextrose after workouts. Insulin secretions can be further boosted by gymnema sylvestre (250-500 mg) to implement a post-workout bodybuilding shake. Note that high insulin makes one tired and eventually hungry, because blood sugar falls as it is transported into cells, so that inducing high insulin is best done at the conclusion of an evening workout, so that one falls asleep before the munchies strike. (See pre-workout bodybuilding shakes.) Whey protein by itself can boost HGH levels, as can bodybuilding exercises in the presence of an adequate diet. The HGH is turned by the liver into IGF-1, which is a telomerase activator for which an IGF-1 receptor exists in almost every human cell [Images, Papers, Video, Books, Amazon, Index/Gene]. HGH is believed to improve hTERT transcription, while IGF-1 phosphorylates hTERT for import from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Thus most bodybuilding exercise (9) is inherently life extending. The leucine : isoleucine : valine ratio 1:2:1 is sometimes recommended at 5-10 grams/serving with 4 servings per day. See also index entries for Anabolics and Bodybuilding. Branched-chain amino acids can be used to treat muscle-wasting old age sarcopenia [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Note that BCCAs also support GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate formation in brain cells, improving traumatic brain injury by accelerating cognitive performance (Cole JT, et al, 2010). Some athletes have noted that leucine activates the mTOR pathway for muscle synthesis, so that it is typically taken at 1 to 2 grams immediately before or after training.
Mitochondrial Biogenesis Improved by BCAAs [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. See D'Antona G, Ragni M, Cardile A, et al. (2010), Branched chain amino acid supplementation promotes survival and supports cardiac and skeletal muscle biogenesis in middle-aged mice, Cellular Metabolism, 2010 Oct 6; 12(4): 362-72. Also see Mitilde Parente, Can a Power Booster Also Be a Longevity Booster?, Life Extension Magazine, May 2011. Prior studies showed that branched-chain amino acids extended life span in yeast (Alvers, et al, 2009). BCCA-fed mice experienced a 12% increase in life span and a dose-dependent response for mitochondrial biogenesis, and exercise was shown to further improve the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis.
BCE-001 [Links/BCE-001, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. BCE-001 is a superior centrophenoxine analogue, theoretical function model due to Prof. Zs.-Nagy (13), improves the penetrability of cell membranes to potassium, so that potassium ion concentration does not build up to a high level in the cell, causing colloidal condensation and dehydration leading to reductions in enzyme function, gene transcription, and protein turnover important for lipofuscin removal ((4), (13)). BCE-001 and centrophenoxine (alias lucidril, or meclofenoxate) are well-explored for application to nerve and liver cells. DMAE has similar effect, although the strength of the cell membrane penetrability to potassium improvement goes as BCE-001 > Centrophenoxine > DMAE. (4). See The Membrane Hypothesis of Aging by Zs-Nagy from CRC Press.
Paul B. Beeson Career Development Awards in Aging Research Program, [4].
Ben Best [Home Page, Welcome], Articles on Life Extension, (1), Mechanisms of Aging, by Ben Best [Images]. Ben Best style is similar to Kimball: Reactive Oxygen Species (Kimball) [Books, LifeExtension].
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Index/Prostate Cancer]. About 50% of males eventually suffer from BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or prostate enlargement), which causes problems with urine flow or the urinary tract addressed in urology. BPH may be treated and prostate cancer prevented by applying:
Boron [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
Boswellia extract [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
Cernitin [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
Equol [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
___Both R-equol and S-equol exist. S-equol activates estrogen-beta receptors,
___which can cause broadening of the hips. (Wikipedia/Equol).
Flax lignans [Index/Lignans, Index/Oil, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
Lycopene [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
Nettle root extract [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
Norway spruce lignans [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
Pygeum Africanum extract [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF], or
Saw palmetto [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
in combination or singly. Saw palmetto, which includes beta-sitosterol and inhibits the production of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone by inhibiting the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, also interferes with DHT cell surface receptors. Green tea inhibits DHT (Jerry Brainum, Iron Man, March 2010). Saw palmetto is often combined with nettle root extract and pygeum africanum to protect the prostate. Other 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors reducing the expression of DHT competitive with saw palmetto include finasteride and dutasteride, which are also used to prevent the falling out of hair. One in six men will eventually develop prostate cancer, a leading disease of old age. Eating meat rich in arachidonic acid, or saturated fats, or omega-6 fatty acids (converted by the body into arachidonic acid), tends to the production of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX [Links]), which stimulates prostate cancer cell proliferation [Images]. 5-LOX also metabolizes arachidonic acid to leukotriene B5 [Links], a proinflammatory agent. Fish oil lowers 5-LOX activity in the body, and 5-LOX is also suppressed by lycopene [Links], saw palmetto extract [Links, Images, Video], and Boswellia extract (See 5-LOXIN) [Images]. Lycopene reduces PSA (prostate-specific antigen), decreases cancer risk, and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and their metastases away from the primary tumor. Loss of glutathione S-transferase precedes prostate cancer [Links], so ashwagandha, which elevates endogenous antioxidants, might help with this. Otherwise, sulforaphane [Wikipedia, Images, Video] from broccoli sprouts typically does a good job of preventing prostate cancer [Books, Papers]. I note that aging record holder Jeanne Calment put olive oil on her food. Also see Niki Chondrogianni, Ioannis P. Trougakos, Dimitris Kletsas, Qin M. Chen and Efstathios S. Gonos, Partial proteasome inhibition in human fibroblasts triggers accelerated M1 senescence or M2 crisis depending on p53 and Rb status, Aging Cell, Volume 7 Issue 5, Pages 717 - 732. Enterolactone(s) [LifeExtension, Links, Books] from plant lignans [Links, Wikipedia, LifeExtension] are also useful in preventing prostate cancer and may be obtained from flax or Norway spruce. See Lignans Protect Against Prostate Cancer By William Faloon, and Julius Goepp MD, Optimal Prostate Defense requires a Multi-Modal Strategy, Life Extension Magazine, Feb 2010. Also, according to Jerry Brainum (Iron Man, March 2010), pomegranate prevents IGF-1 from inducing prostate cancer. Vitamin D (a telomerase inhibitor and an anti-inflammatory agent) also inhibits IGF-1 from causing cancer. Obese men, those with a BMI higher than 30, were 1.6 times more likely to die from their disease, according to a recent report in the journal Cancer.
Benfotiamine [Wikipedia, Links/Benfotiamine, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Terraternal, LifeExtension; Links/Extraction of Benfotiamine, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Solubility of Benfotiamine]. Benfotiamine and Thiamine are fat & water-soluble forms of Vitamin B1 that prevent glucose from reacting with protein [QC/Benfotiamine, article, LifeExtension/Benfotiamine, IAAS/Benfotiamine, Books, Ray], counteracting glycation and glucose toxicity. Fujiwara discovered benfotiamine in 1954 in a group of lipid-soluble thiamine derivatives, subsequently named allithiamines [Papers] because they occur naturally in the Allium family vegetables--roasted, crushed garlic, onions, leeks, shallots, etc. [Links]. Benfotiamine is capable of normalizing nerve conduction velocity in aging specimens [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeLink]. See Balakumar, Rohilla A, Krishan P, Solairaj P, Thangathirupathi A (2010), The multifaceted therapeutic potential of benfotiamine, Pharmacological Research 2010 June;61(6):482-8. Schmid U, Stopper H, Heidland A, Schupp N (2008), Benfotiamine exhibits direct antioxidative capacity and prevents induction of DNA damage in vitro, Diabetes Metabolism Research Review 2008 Jul-Aug;24(5):371-7. Wu S, Ren J. (2006), Benfotiamine alleviates diabetes-induced cerebral oxidative damage independent of advanced glycation endproduct, tissue factor and TNF-alpha, Neurosci Lett 2006 Feb 13;394(2):158-62.
Berberine [Telomerase Activator: List/Berberine, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Telomerase Activator: List/Berberine Rhizome Extract, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Berberine activates AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) to obtain ATP by a catabolic process and improve autophagy in senescent cells, accelerating the removal of cellular junk. AMPK activity also allows pro-inflammatory cells to have enough ATP to self-destruct via apoptosis, and regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and other life-extending cellular processes. Berberine Rhizome Extract is known to function as a telomerase activator for dermal fibroblasts, and is a component of Product B. AP-1 transcription factor activator protein [List], which is modulated by berberine, operates directly on the hTERT promoter (AP-1). Berberine is often presented as an anti-inflammatory and is used in the treatment chronic inflammatory diseases. It seems that berberine is a telomerase inhibitor that suppresses activation of hTERT in cancer cells, but functions as a telomerase activator in normal cells. (Check.) Berberine is anticancer and antimicrobial.
Berries Boost the Heart [Food Navigator/Berries Boost the Heart: blueberries, cranberries, huckleberries], (0). See acai, aronia, bilberry, blackcurrant, blackberry, black soybean hull, blueberry, blue corn, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, grape, grape seed, pomegranate, prune, raspberry, strawberry. Berries according to Life Extension mag, 2001, LifeExtension/berries, Books/anti-aging berries; Links/anti-aging properties of berries, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] [25]. The ancients must have noticed that men who consumed "berries" were most likely to survive and "bury" their peers. Red grapes (1.25 mg/cup) and mulberries are among the berries high in resveratrol [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Resveratrol]. However, 200-400 mg/day of resveratrol is desirable and 1000 mg/cap resveratrol is available from RevGenetics. Also see Michael Downey (2013), Uncovering the Broad-Spectrum Protection of Anthocyanins, Life Extension Magazine, July 2013, which reviews the health benefits of many different berries.
Beta Alanine (pron. beta ala-neen) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Beta alanine increases carnosine levels in working muscles by up to 60% or more by combining with histidine (pron. hiss-ta-deen) [Links], which is present at higher concentrations in muscle tissue. Carnosine raises lowered, acidic pH in muscles, enabling more repetitions in bodybuilding exercise (9). [article]. According to Jim Stoppani, carnosine "enhances virtually all aspects of muscle performance...(improving) muscle mass, strength, power, and endurance. This is likely due to carnosine's ability to buffer the hydrogen ions that build up in muscles during intense exercise and normally increase muscle acidity, which zaps strength and endurance." Carnosine's rejuvenating effect on senescent cells may be related to its ability to restore normal pH, which might be associated with the bringing out of the cytoskeleton in senescent cells. (check). "Excellent sources of alanine include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products. Some protein-rich plant foods like avocado also supply alanine." Histidine is also found in meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products. Histidine is also found in fruits such as bananas and grapes. According to Jim Stoppani PhD of Muscle and Fitness magazine (Fall 2009) in Elements of a Stack,
(1) Beta Alanine improves muscle strength, mass, and endurance by reducing muscle acidity and should be taken at the 2-3 grams dosage level with a preworkout shake as part of a pre-workout stack.
(2) Glutamine, another element of the Stoppani preworkout stack, taken at 5-10 grams in the preworkout shake, which increases bicarbonate levels, also keeping muscle acidity down.
(3) Caffeine [Index], 200-400 mg taken preworkout, increases muscle calcium for superior muscle contraction quality.
Pre-workout caffeine (perhaps from coffee) also drives fatty acids into the blood, so that they can be consumed during exercise, improving muscle definition.
Beta Carotene [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Membrane Integrity]. Beta carotine is useful in overcoming insulin resistance and in improving membrane integrity.
Beta Ecdysterone [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Beta Ecdysterone is a chemical found in spinach, that has anabolic properties increasing muscle growth 20% according to recent studies at Rutgers University. Muscle & Fitness magazine recommends 100 mg with meals and before and after a workout, 400-500 mg/day. It may be that beta ecdysterone (20-hydroxyecdysone) from spinach activates telomerase like ecdysone [TA/ecdysone, Links, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], an insect hormone also called muristerone. 20-hydroxyecdysterone is derived from ecdysone in insects. Compare the molecules: Wiki/20-Hydroxyecdysone and Wiki/Ecdysone [Links]. However, it seems no one claims that beta ecdysterone boosts the immune system, which would be true if it had the telomerase activation properties we are seeking.
Beta Galactosidase [Wikipedia, Links/Beta Galactosidase, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/as an aging biomarker, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/testing, Links/test kits; Links/Senescence-associated Beta Galactosidase, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Beta galactosidase is often used to test for cellular senescence. Salivary levels of this enzyme were found to be correlated with oral malodor. (Wikipedia/Halitosis). I note that subtelomeric sequences turned on in late life by the telomere position effect [essay] encode olfactory receptor proteins enhancing our sense of smell, in addition to activating genes for zinc finger proteins that are probably associated with old age side effects in gene expression regulation.
Beta Glucan, [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Ray]. Beta glucan is used for immune system enhancement and cancer treatment. See beta glucan in immune system enhancement, and beta glucan in cancer treatment.
Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Anabolics, Index/Exercise, Bodybuilding]. Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine, which is often taken to promote muscle protein synthesis. Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate prevents catabolism, aids in fat reduction, and is useful in helping beginners do better with progressive resistance exercise. It may be useful in treating muscle-wasting sarcopenia.
Beta Phenylethylamine (Phenylethylamine) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Beta Phenylethylamine is a metabolite of the amino acid phenylalanine, improves the expression of norepinephrine to promote fat burning. By increasing brain levels of dopamine [Index] and serotonin, this substance also produces mild euphoria and reduces sensations of pain. Beta methoxyphenylethylamine [Images] is also available with a longer half-life in the body, making a single daily dose effective. Beta Phenylethylamine is recommended at 100-500 mg 1 or 2 times daily. - (after Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 2010).
Beta Sitosterol [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Beta Sitosterol ("beta site-o-stair-all") is used together with saw palmetto [Index] to treat BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) or male pattern baldness [74s, Hair Loss]. In fact, saw palmetto contains beta sitosterol.
Bilberries [Medi-Share/Bilberries, QC, LifeExtension, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Ray, Wikipedia; Links/Bilberry Extract, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Bilberries contain anthocyanidins, slow brain aging, improve night vision, and are used to strengthen capillary, vein, and arterial walls to guard against purpura and stroke. [25j]. Note that the anthocyanins (glucosides of anthocyanidins) differ from the anthocyanidins by the presence of a sugar in the molecule. Bilberries are also a good source of resveratrol.
Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics [Links/bioavailablity, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books/Bioavailability, Amazon, LibCong/Bioavailability, Boomer/Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics; Books/Pharmacokinetics, LibCong/Pharmacokinetics], [42s], [83s]. Bioavailability links and Pharmacokinetics with Pharmacokinetics links. See The Merck Manual on Bioavailability. See also the journal of Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, the NIH page on Bioavailability of Nutrients and Supplements. Also see links of The USC Laboratory of Applied Pharmacokinetics and Boomer's Phamacokinetic Resources with A First Course in Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics by David Bourne, PhD. Piperine can improve nutraceutical bioavailability up to 2000% in humans. [Wikipedia/Piperine, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. See also bioperine [Wikipedia/Bioperine, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. The bioavailability of astragalosides from astragalus extracts is improved by Chitosan [Images, Index/Chitosan] or Sodium Deoxycholate [Index, Images]. See Terraternal/Bioavailability of Astragaloside IV [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. It may be useful to apply histone deaceylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors) such as Tricostatin A, sodium 4-phenlybutyrate, or sodium butyrate [Links, Wikipedia] to facilitate transcription of hTERT mRNA. Note that substances that phosphorylate the hTERT protein (like resveratrol, which does this via the Akt kinase), can transport hTERT into the nucleus and increase telomerase activation activity while being HDACs that compact chromatin, tending to reduce the transcription of hTERT mRNA. Other drugs can phosphorylate hTERT protein via protein kinase C. Nanoencapsulation has been used to improve bioavailability. "CoQ10 must be ingested with high-fat food such as peanut butter or avocado. Soybean oil capsules increase bioavailability." See Links/improving the bioavailability of drugs and nutraceuticals, Links/topical bioavailability, Links/advances in bioavailability. Also see liposomes [Index], micronization, nanoencapsulation and Links/additives to improve the bioavailability of drugs and nutraceuticals. "Additionally, lecithin [Images] has been found to enhance the oral absorption of polyphenols like quercetin and resveratrol. [J Agriculture Food Chemistry 13; 50:1706-12, 2002]". Note that quercetin improves the bioavailability of resveratrol. See also the bioavailability of astragaloside iv [Images, Papers, Patents, Books], the bioavailability of cycloastragenol [Images, Papers, Patents, Books], and the bioavailability of astragalosides [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Further checking showed that cycloastragenol is more orally bioavailable (nearly 100%) than astragaloside IV (2.2% rats, 7.4% beagle dogs, sometimes higher in humans). See Zhu J, Lee S, Ho MK, Hu Y, Pang H, Ip FC, Chin AC, Harley CB, Ip NY, Wong YH (2010), In vitro intestinal absorption and first-pass intestinal and hepatic metabolism of cycloastragenol, a potent small molecule telomerase activator, Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2010;25(5):477-86. Epub 2010 Sep 22. Cycloastragenol may be absorbed at up to 100%, astragaloside IV at 2.2% in rats, 7.4% in beagle dogs, but higher in humans according to Terraternal. See Terraternal Astragaloside IV references/bioavailability. In 2010, Geron introduced new enhanced-bioavailability telomerase activators in Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity (WO/2010/135247), including enhanced-bioavailability cycloastragenol (4 C3-(L)-valyl-cycloastragenol), 2-(L)-amino-3-methyl-butyric acid 6-alpha, and 2-(L)-Amino-3-methyl-butyric acid. Butyric acid and variants, appropriately encapsulated, should be widely bioavailable and effective as telomerase activators.
Biocompare [Biocompare site index, Links] Buyers Guide for Life Scientists.
Bioflavinoids [Wikipedia, Links/Bioflavinoids, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. Bioflavonoids are useful in treating oxidant stress and inflammation. See Vitamin C with Bioflavinoids, [31].
Bioinformatics (Encyclopedia).
Biogerontology [Links/Biogerontology Journals; Biological; Links, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon, LibCong], also see the on-line journal Biogerontology, Biological, (1).
Biomarkers of Longevity [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension, Ben Best; Causes of Death, Diseases of Old Age, Mortality Charts, LifeXLabs], [77]. The DHEA-S rate of change of rhesus monkeys was 2.1 times the human rate, about equal to their lifespan ratio. "Testing prospective physiological biomarkers and/or molecular biomarkers for a defined period of time on both humans and shorter-lived species to see if they are proportional should allow the identification of prospective human biomarkers." - p.78, Arking. See Links/biomarkers of human aging. Lifespans of primates turned out to be proportional to their SOD concentrations per gram of tissue. (Ashwagandha, Bacopa, Chaga, Huperzine A, Chinese Wolfberry, GliSODin, and SODzyme are supplements that elevate SOD levels, as are Xango [Images] and Noni [Images].) It was also determined that the lifetimes of vertebrates were often proportional to the number of times cells could divide, that is, to telomere lengths. Extremely long-lived Pacific turtles have fibroblasts that can divide many more times than human dermal fibroblasts, which can divide about 50 times, the Hayflick Limit [Index]. (I have seen the average human cell Hayflick limit given as 60-70 cell divisions, although some stem cells express more telomerase to allow up approximately 1000 cell divisions.) However, in species such as mice (3 year lifetimes) that were very subject to predation, the animals tended to die young by comparison with similar species like bats (40 year lifetimes) that were not very subject to predation. In these cases the animals such as mice could have long telomeres, but were not subject to telomere-limited lives. They had telomeres that would take 6 generations to consume at their reduced life span, focusing on early reproduction of their species to reproduce ahead of predation. However, their lifetime lengths were optimized to avoid competetion within the species due to early births, so that they died quickly, even as grandparents. The cause of death was typically DNA damage (10), mitochondrial aging, and other factors due to high ROS levels connected with low SOD concentrations. Thus when animals are subject to predation, their lives are not limited by telomere lengths, but by environmental constraints involving reproduction that involve control of DNA-damaging oxidative stress (which can cause premature stress-induced senescence ahead of replicative senescence) with control via differently programmed expression of endogenous antioxidants including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase.
Biomarkers of Aging [LifexLabs/Measuring Cellular Senescence, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension, Ben Best/Biomarkers of Aging; Blood Tests; LifeXLabs/Telomere Measurements, LifeXLabs; Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; PhysioAge/diagnosics; Ceramides].
Senescence-associated increases in levels of β-galactosidase [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] are seen in both rodent and human tissues.
In addition p16INK4a [Index/P16, Wikipedia, Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] expression levels may increase by a factor of 10 in senescent cells. p16INK4a is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor [Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], functions as an effector of senescence [Links, Papers], and should be regarded as a senescence marker [Links, Papers] in physiological aging.
p19ARF [Links] is upregulated in various tissues during mammalian aging. ARF regulates p53 stability. [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books]. See Krishnamurthy et al. 2004, Ink4a/ARF expression is a biomarker of aging, J. Clin. Investigation, 114(9): 1299-3107.
p21Waf1/Cip1 is another accumulating senescence marker.
Many other markers of cellular aging are described in Senescence Pathway. According to, biomarkers of aging include: osteonectin, fibronectin, apolipoprotein J, smooth muscle cells 22 (SM22), and type II (1)-procollagen, and an increased activity of metalloproteinases [Index], which degrade the extracellular matrix. Senescent dermal fibroblasts, which have a Hayflick limit of about 50, express matrix metalloproteinases collagenase (MMP-1) and stromelysin (MMP-3) which degrade collagen and extracellular matrix proteins. Senescent fibroblasts also show reduced expression of TIMP1 and TIMP3, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases [Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia].
See also CD28, a surface glycoprotein that functions as a co-stimulator of T-cells that are activated through the TCR-CD3 complex, and a marker of cellular senescence in T-lymphocytes [Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]: "In neonates, only 1% of T-cells lack CD28, vs 40% lack in centenarians." (M.Fossel, p.196).
Phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin), a cell membrane component [Images], is depleted in aging specimens [Images], dropping from a high of 90% in infancy to 10% in very elderly specimens. Aged dermal fibroblasts or Werner Syndrome dermal fibroblasts may show
(1) an aged appearance (Salk et al. 1981, Tollefsbol and Cohen, 1984),
(2) a transcriptional profile characteristic of aged cells (Vijg and Calder, 2004), and
(3) deformation of the cellular nucleus (Adelfalk et al. 2005, Lans and Hoeijmakers 2006, De Sandre-Giovannoli 2003), which may also be true of Hutchinson-Gilford dermal fibroblasts.

The loss of thymopoietin with declining thymus gland function
Another major aging biomarker is the loss of thymopoietin [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], a polypeptide natural youth hormone secreted from the thymus gland, which can be rejuvenated with nitric oxide from arginine at 5-10 grams/day, or by arginine plus citrulline at 5-10 total grams/day. See Gary Goldfaden MD and Robert Goldfaden (2013), Unique Peptide Repairs Aging Skin, Life Extension Magazine, June 2013; (Associated Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2 Skin Cream [Images]). Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2 mimics thymopoietin. Normal aging leads to atrophy of the thymus gland, reducing the expression of thymopoietin, which "jeopardizes immune function, negatively affects the body's ability to produce DNA and undergo normal cell division", and "the body's capacity to maintain youthful function in everything from skin cells to brain cells. The loss of thymopoietin is considered by many immunologists to be a major biomarker of aging.".
Ceramide expression declines with aging. Ceramides are components of the sphingolipids that bind kornified skin cells together in the topmost layer of skin, and they are elastase inhibitors found in all 4 layers of the skin. Supplying orally bioavailable phytoceramides at 350 mg/day for 4-5 weeks can produce dramatic facial rejuvenation effects.
Biomarkers of Cellular Senescence - Measuring Cellular Senescence.
Senescent Cell Morphology
___[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Hayflick, His Limit, and Cellular Aging].
___The Cytoplasm/Nucleus Size Ratio is larger for senescent cells [Images].
___[Protocols (Video, Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Telomere Lengths LifexLabs/Telomere Measurements.
___[Protocols (Video, Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Beta-Galactosidase Detecting senescent cells with a stain sensitive to beta-galactosidase.
___[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Video, Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Lysosomal Beta-Galactosidase
___Senescence-associated β-galactosidase is lysosomal β-galactosidase
___Bo Yun Jung A. Han, et al., Ageing Cell 5(2), 187 195.
___[Protocols (Video, Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Heterochromatin foci formation [Links, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Video, Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
G1 phase arrest [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Video, Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
p16INK4a [Index] is an accumulating senescence marker
___measurable with flow cytometry. [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Article].
___[Protocols (Video, Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
p19ARF is upregulated in various tissues during mammalian aging. ARF regulates p53 stability.
___[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
___See Krishnamurthy et al. 2004, Ink4a/ARF expression is a biomarker of aging,
___J. Clin. Investigation, 114(9): 1299-3107.
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
p21Waf1/Cip1 is an accumulating senescence marker.
___[Links/p21Waf1/Cip1 as a senescence marker, Images,
___Papers, Patents, Books; Links/p21/Waf1/Cip1, Images, Papers, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
CD28 [Index] is a senescence marker associated with T-cell senescence. [Links, Images,
___Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/CD28 as a senescence marker].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Phosphatidylcholine (Phosphatidylcholine = Lecithin), a cell membrane component [Images],
___is depleted in aging specimens [Images], dropping from
___a high of 90% in infancy to 10% in very elderly specimens.
___Phosphatidylcholine measurements [Images], phosphatidylcholine protocols [Images].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Lipofuscin [Index, Links/Lipofuscin, Images, Video, Wikipedia, Papers, Patents, Books;
___Links/Lipofuscin Protocols; Links/Measuring Lipofuscin, Images, Papers, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
SAG (senescence-associated gene) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___SAG is a biomarker of cellular senescence.
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
ICAM-1 levels high on the plasma cell membrane
___[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___This is a feature associated with inflammatory conditions.
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-15, transforming growth factor β) secreted
___[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are found at upregulated levels in aged fibroblasts
___[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Cell membrane lateral diffusion constant D in aging cells
___[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, (The Membrane Hypothesis of Aging), (13)].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Membrane permeability to potassium in aging cells (nerve, liver cells)
___[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, (The Membrane Hypothesis of Aging), (13)].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Membrane permeability for chlorine in aging cells (muscle cells)
___[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, (The Membrane Hypothesis of Aging), (13)].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Cellular dehydration in senescent cells
___[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, (The Membrane Hypothesis of Aging), (13)].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential [Index]
___[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
ROS [Index, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
___ROS levels are higher in senescent fibroblasts.
Actin structure patterns [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Senescent cells resist apoptotic signals [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Senescent cells resist EGF growth factor stimulation [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Senescent cells have a high level of DNA breaks [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Senescent cells have a high caveolin-1 levels [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___[Protocols (Papers, Patents, Books), Assays, Kits, Stains, Software].
Telomere-dysfunction induced foci [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____measured from gamma-H2AX accumulation on uncapped telomeres
____[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
GAPDH mRNA expression (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA expression) ____[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Testing for Cell Senescence [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Cell Senescence Assay Kits [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]
Cell Biolabs, Inc. | Cell Biolabs/Senescence
Cell Senescence Kits [Links/detecting senescent cells, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Cell Senescence Protocols [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
See Bruno Bernardes de Jesus, Maria A. Blasco (2012), Assessing Cell and Organ Senescence Biomarkers [On-Line], Circulation Research, 2012; 111: 97-109.
Bioperine [Links/Bioperine, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Bioperine improves the bioavailability of many nutraceuticals. It appears as a component in some Immortality Diet proposals. See Li Ching-Yuen.
Biophysics [Wikipedia/Biophysics, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon].
Biopsy [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon; Links/biopsy instruments, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/biopsy techniques, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Biopsy Protocols, Papers, Patents, Books]. See Venipuncture and Phlebotomy.
Bioreactors [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong].
Airlift bioreactors [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Airlift bioreactors may be used to prepare hairy roots of Astragalus Membranaceus, for instance.
Bioregulators and Aging [Links/aging and bioregulators, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/peptide bioregulators, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; LifeExtension/Bioregulators; Links/geroprotective peptide bioregulators, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. The term "peptide bioregulator" was popularized by the St. Petersburg Institute for Bioregulation and Gerontology, and has been the subject of books by Khavinson and his team. The St. Petersburg Institute discovered epithalon peptide (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), the telomerase activator and peptide bioregulator produced by the pineal gland to control telomere homeostasis in the body in 2003. It was first obtained by extraction from the pineal gland, then synthesized. It has been given by injection but may be applied in liposome sprays, like IGF-1. Other geroprotective bioregulators like Livagen (Lys-Glu-Asp-Ala) and Vilon (Lys-Glu) have been discovered and promoted by the St. Petersburg Institute for Bioregulation and Gerontology. The dipeptide carnosine (Ala-His) is also highly geroprotective and promoted by the Russian school of gerontology.
Biosafety [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong].
Biotechnology [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong].
Biotechnology Industry Organization [ Index, Links/The Biotechnology Industry, Videos, Papers, Books, LibCong, Amazon].
Birth Control [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/she male birth control, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; She Male Longevity; Erotic Hots Study Guide]. Similar to the female birth control pill, scientists are using a combination of hormones (testosterone and progestin) to make men stop producing sperm all together. See testosterone with progestin male birth control pills [Images]. Gamendazole [Images], derived from an anticancer drug, interrupts sperm maturation so that one makes non-functional sperm, according to Gregory S. Kopf of Kansas Medical Center.
Biotin [Wikipedia/Biotin, LifeExtension; Links/Biotin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. "Biotin helps promote the health of skin, hair and nails by nourishing cells throughout the body, especially in hair follicles, nail beds and the outer layers of skin. Biotin is a water-soluble B-vitamin that assists protein and fat metabolism for energy use." - from the label for Spring Valley Biotin (1000 mcg), served 1-5 tablets daily. This was one of the ingredients described to me by Tristan Trefoil (also a member of The Immortality Institute in Cambridge) in his proposal for an Immortality Diet, which is partly based on modern scientific nutrition and recent theoretical insight, but which includes elements from from Chinese herbalism associated with Li Ching-Yuen and the Teachings of the Taoist Immortals. Wikipedia recommends 5000 mcg to 7500 mcg daily, claiming several months of treatment are needed to see results. Low biotin can result in hair loss and nails that flake easily. Biotin is usually supplied in abundance by intestinal bacteria. Recently, biotin is suspected of being an HDAC inhibitor for expanding chromatin that can allow telomerase activators to work better on subborn tissues such as connective tissues derived from mesenchymal cells [Ref].
Blackberries, [Wikipedia/Blackberry, LifeExtension; Links/Blackberry antioxidants, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. The Hull thornless blackberry [Images] is the most highly antioxidant berry [LifeExtension], [25L].
Blackburn, Elizabeth (Encyclopedia)
Black Cumin Seed Oil [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Anti-inflammatories]. Black cumin seed oil is an anti-inflammatory drug. Thymoquinone is an active component of black cumin seed oil that boosts anti-inflammatory interleukins and suppresses inflammatory interleukins. Black cumin seed oil helps reduce colitis, or inflammation of the colon. See Logan Bronwell (2013), What Doctors Don't Know About Inflammation, Life Extension Magazine, Jan 2013.
Black Tea (Camellia sinensis) [Links/Black Tea, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; sources, toxicity, side effects, dosage; Product B/Black Tea Extract, Product B/White Tea Extract; White Tea, Green Tea, Tea Polyphenols, Theaflavins; Coffee]. Green tea [Images], black tea [Images], and white tea [Images], "are all processed from the same bush called Camellia Sinensis. White tea only uses the finest leaves from each bush and is picked early. The tea leaves and white colored buds are slightly steamed and then mostly sun dried using a minimal amount of processing. Because the tea has been hardly processed it contains high levels of antioxidants.... white tea is 10% more effective than green tea..." Kayla Fioravanti (2011), A Closer Look at White Tea Extract Posted January 13, 2011. White tea fights cancer somewhat better than green tea. Note that black tea extract is an NF-kB inhibitor. Black tea extract, white tea extract, and green tea extract all improve telomerase activity in dermal fibroblasts according to Product B experiments, possibly because antioxidants confine hTERT to the nucleus. Green Tea is a lipase inhibitor blocking fat absorption, and black tea contains theaflavins (L-theanine) reducing fatty acids in blood serum to implement weight management.
Note that "Camilla Sinensis" is suggestive of the VD-blocking antiviral properties of black and green tea useful against HIV. Fusion/Entry Inhibitors interfere with the HIV virus ability to fuse with the cellular membrane, thereby blocking entry into the host cell. EGCG from green tea appears to interact with gp120 as do several other theaflavins. Actually EGCG binds to the CD4 molecule at the gp120 attachment site. Theaflavin, theaflavin-3-monogallate, and theaflavin-3,3-digallate extracted from black tea can inhibit HIV entry by targeting HIV gp41 [Ref].
Bladder Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Silymarin, TI/silibinin, Wikipedia/silibinin; Anticancer Nutraceuticals]. Bladder Cancer can be caused by alcohol consumption. However, smoking is the biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. Arsenic in drinking water increases the risk of bladder cancer. Aromatic amines used in the dye industry such as benzidine and beta-naphthylamine can cause bladder cancer. The industries carrying highest risks for bladder cancer include the rubber manufacture, leather, textiles, paint products and printing companies. Workers with an increased risk of developing bladder cancer include painters, machinists, printers, hairdressers (heavy exposure to hair dyes), and truck drivers (exposure to diesel fumes). Researchers determined that men who drank 1.5 liters of water a day had a reduced incidence of bladder cancer when compared with men who drank less than about 1 cup per day. Fruit and yellow-orange vegetables, especially carrots and those containing selenium reduce risks, and citrus fruits and cruciferous vegetables are also thought to be protective. See Tyagi AK, Agarwal C, Singh RP, Shroyer KR, Glode LM, Agarwal R. (2003), Silibinin down-regulates survivin protein and mRNA expression and causes caspases activation and apoptosis in human bladder transitional-cell papilloma RT4 cells, Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communications 2003 Dec 26;312(4):1178-84. "Diallyl disulfide (DADS), one of the major components of garlic (Allium sativum), is well known to have chemopreventative activity against human cancer such as colon, lung and skin", and also against bladder cancer. (H.F Lua, C.C Sueb, C.S Yuc, et al, 2004). See Cancer, anticancer supplements, angiogenesis inhibitors for discouraging tumor development, and metastasis for metatasis inhibitors including NFkB inhibitors such as genistein.
Blood [Wikipedia, Links/Blood, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Hemotology, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Blood-Brain Barrier [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Links/drugs and nutraceuticals that pass the blood-brain barrier, Links/drugs and nutraceuticals stopped by the blood-brain barrier, Links/criteria for passage through the blood-brain barrier]. Astaxanthin, an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties, passes through the blood-brain barrier.
Blood Pressure [Index/Hypertension, Index/High Blood Pressure; Wikipedia/Blood Pressure, LifeExtension, Links, Video, Books; Links/Blood Pressure and Aging, Books/Blood Pressure and Aging, LibCong; Links/Measuring Blood Pressure, Video, Books/Measuring Blood Pressure, Images/Measuring Blood Pressure; Wikipedia/Sphygmomanometer, Links/Sphygmomanometer; Index/Hypertension, Links/Hypertension Video, Books, LifeExtension].
Blood Sugar [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. For anti-aging purposes, we often desire to lower blood sugar to avoid glycation. Cinnamon capsules are sometimes used for this. Blood sugar driving glycation can be elevated by high stress producing high cortisol levels, which can be reduced by exercise or Ashwagandha. Note that the glucoregulatory agent L-arbinose reduces glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1C), a measure of chronically high blood sugar (hyperglycemia leading to type 2 diabetes) and glycation often associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and elevated levels of C-Reactive protein correlated to obesity. "Green coffee bean extract [Index] lowers blood glucose by inhibiting carbohydrate digestive enzymes (similar to the drug acarbose) and suppressing creation of glucose in the liver (like metformin)." See William Falloon (2013), Preparing Your Body to Eat, Life Extension Magazine, Feb 2013. Water soluble vitamin B1 and lipid-soluble benfotiamine prevent blood sugar from reacting with proteins in glycation reactions.
Blood Tests (Encyclopedia).
Blood Thinning Medications [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Note that astragalosides thin the blood and may cause vasodilation, and that resveratrol also thins the blood. Patients using Coumadin to thin the blood should check their use of astragalosides and resveratrol to avoid blood thinning leading to excessive bleeding. Also see
Anticoagulants (Blood Thinners) [Index, Links/Anticoagulants, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Note that resveratrol thins the blood with anticoagulant effect. Similarly, astragalosides also thin the blood and may cause vasodilation. A patient on a blood thinner like Coumadin may need to take less Coumadin while taking resveratrol or the astragalosides such as Astragaloside IV. Ginkgo Biloba may be used to make platelets less sticky, improving blood flow.
Blood Volume in Aging [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension Amazon, in Mortality Charts].
Blueberries (Encyclopedia)
Blue Corn [Links, Images]. Blue corn improves telomere lengthening by supplying selenium for glutathione peroxidase [Index], providing antioxidant effect.
Bodybuilding (Encyclopedia)
Bone Cancer [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension, Wikipedia/bone_tumor; Cancer; Carcinogens; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors]. See also Mortality Charts/Cancer. Bone cancer often results from cancer metastasis, which can be inhibited with NFkB Inhibitors. For instance, breast cancer cells metastasize to the lung, liver, brain, bone and other organs. In advanced prostate cancer (a carcinoma of epithelial cells) patients experience cancer metastases to bone. Patients may face excruciating bone pain. (See treating cancer bone pain). As bone cancer tumor cells cause calcium to be displaced into the blood, bone fractures may cause disabilities.
Multiple myeloma [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon]. Multiple myeloma is a bone marrow cancer involving cancerous B-lymphocytes originating from a lymph node germinal center that also destroys bone tissue, may also be treated with clodronate or with a more expensive biphosphonate drug approved of by the FDA in 1996 called pamidronate and sold as "Aredia" for about $2000/month in a typical program of treatment. "Multiple myeloma is the second most prevalent blood cancer (10%) after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma". See Morgan G. (2010), Future drug developments in multiple myeloma: an overview of novel lenalidomide-based combination therapies, Blood Rev, 2010 Nov;24 Suppl 1:S27-32. For a free directory of offshore companies that ship some unapproved medications, such as relatively inexpensive clodronate, to Americans, write to: International Society for Free Choice, 9 Dubnoc Street, 64368 Tel Aviv, Israel. (See Battling Back Against Cancer-Induced Bone Metastasis and Pain by William Faloon, Life Extension Magazine, January 1999.) Note that keeping telomeres long with telomerase activation from astragalus root, astragalus root extracts, Product B, or other telomerase activators keeps epithelial cells from the telomeric crisis associated with cells driven to divide past the M1 checkpoint for cellular senescence, preventing carcinomas, which may happen when the telomeres are short enough to fuse at the endpoints, after which further cell division produces cancer cells. Also, maintaining long telomeres allows cytotoxic T-cells in the immune system to divide more to counteract insults to the immune system that can result in cytotoxic T-cells too senescent to mount an effective blockade against internally defective or cancerous cells. T-cell functions might be weakened by wet exposure to very many sexual partners, for instance, after an orgy of cytotoxic T-cell division to produce cells to deal with foreign material. Immune function (defending the body against pathogens and its own tumor cells) declines dramatically with age, especially in T cell proliferative activity, as documented extensively in animals and in studies of the elderly. A similar proliferative decline is also seen in long-term T lymphocyte cultures used to study in vitro cellular senescence. Results suggest that the Hayflick cell division limit phenomenon leads to immunosenescence, which may be treated with telomerase activation medicines. See also index entries for T-cell and cancer.
Bone Growth [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/bone growth and hormones; Books/bone growth for height, Papers, LibCong; Links/Bone repair, Video/Bone repair, Links/bone repair supplements, LifeExtension/Bone Repair]. Bone length growth stops in early adulthood at about age 25, when epiphyseal plates [Images] containing hyaline cartilage [Images] at the ends of the bone become epiphyseal lines [Images], but bones can grow in thickness in response to stress from handling weights later in life. Perhaps untoasted wheat germ, salmon (the fish highest in DHA) halibut or whitefish can help with bone growth in later life, as well as during growth and development (check). There are indications that bone meal prepared from the bones of young animals is useful in building bigger bones. Using small molecule telomerase activators to return to an early stage of development just might be possible, to continue growth and development by supplying the proper bone growth factors, including minerals, other nutrients, and hormones such as HGH stimulated by whey protein in milk or yogurt. The supplements DHA (an HGH booster), vitamin C, vitamin D3, vitamin K, calcium, boron, and magnesium may be used. Consider collagen synthesis important in bone growth. Some supplements designed for bones or bone repair include plums or plum extract and collagen, because bone includes a substantial fraction of collagen in its structure. In the future, man may resemble a lobster that continues to grow in height and weight throughout his life span, unless he modifies his supplements program to prevent further growth. See world's tallest man Leonid Stadnik [Links, Video]. Greater height requires more food per unit time, and finally increasing height can become suboptimal for various reasons, including peer group approval. Vitamin pills with every meal, plus salmon steaks for breakfast, with a 4th meal just before bedtime, can produce exceptional height in growing boys. Usually the epiphyseal plates bounding active bone growth shrivel to ephysial lines by age 25, and bone growth ceases. See also
Bone Repair [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Note that CDP-choline can improve HGH levels 4x (LEF, Mar.2009), and that Wheat Germ [Links] may have application to bone growth. See HGH secretagogues like Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC), which can elevate HGH quite substantially after a bodybuilding workout. HGH activates hTERT mRNA transcription, so that HGH supplements are used in anti-aging applications, in addition to promoting bone growth between the ages of 15 and 25, when the epiphyseal plates [Images] become epiphyseal lines [Images] and bone growth stops. See Hodgson Mill Untoasted Wheat Germ. Note also that grape seed extract promotes bone formation. Lysine helps to maintain bone by assisting with calcium absorption and storage, so that it may be taken at 1 to 2 grams per day in connection with bone formation supplementation.
Bone Healing [Links/Bone healing, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Aging Bone, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Supplements for Aging Bone, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. "In Minnesota, 82 adult minimum trauma fractures were examined, 97% of which were hip fractures [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Of those hip fractures, all but two had vitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL. In a large British study, 95% of patients with hip fractures were found to have low vitamin D serum levels. In a separate Boston study, 78% of hip fracture patients had low vitamin D." - The Bone Architect (2010/01) p.3.
Bone marrow stem cells [Links/marrow composition; Anti-Aging Guide/Bone marrow stem cells, Links/Bone marrow stem cells, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension, Wikipedia/Bone Marrow; Links/Hemopoietic Stem Cells, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Index/Stem Cell Technology, Index/Stem Cells]. See bone marrow stem cells at Aastrom Biosciences, (8).
Bone Marrow Transplant [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension, (8)].
Boron [Links/Boron and the prostate; Links/Boron supplements, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Boron slows the elevation of prostate-specific antigens (PSAs) because of a positive effect on protein-degrading enzymes of the prostate. It is also used to restore bone [Links/Boron and bone restoration]. Boron citrate [Images] is used to increase free testosterone levels.
Boswellia Fruit Extract (Boswellia serrata) [Telomerase_Activator: List (139), Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; sources, toxicity, side effects, dosage; Product B/Boswellia Fruit Extract]. Boswellia serrata [Wikipedia] is also known as Indian Frankincense. Boswellia gum extract is anti-inflammatory, vascular supporting [Index], and is used to support the structural health of cartilage. It has been used for hundreds of years to treat arthritis. Note that cartilage is a mesenchymal-derived tissue like connective tissue, having poor expression of the hTR component of telomerase. It may be treated with mesenchymal stem cells. However, it gets positive telomerase activation hits when applied to fibroblasts, according to Product B/Boswellia. Perhaps boswellia can be used to correct for poor expression of hTR in mesenchymal-derived tissues. The major constituent is boswellic acid (beta-boswellic acid). It may be anticancer. Boswellia extract is used to suppress the dangerous pro-inflammatory enzyme 5-LOXIN (5-lipoxygenase), making it useful in preventing prostate cancer.
Botanical Medicines [Wikipedia, Links/Botanical Medicines, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Botanical Medicines by McKenna, et al.,/Astragalus, Amazon, LibCong, Phytochemicals as Nutraceuticals by Ben Best]. See also Botanical Medicine [Video, Books, Amazon, LibCong], Phytochemicals [Video, Books, Amazon], Phytomedicine [Video, Books, Amazon, LibCong].
Brain [Wikipedia/Brain, LifeExtension; Links/The Brain, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong; Links/Brain atlas, Books; Index/Brain Deterioration, Index/Brain Cancer, Index/Cognitive Decline, Index/Dementia; Hypoperfusion, Leukoaraiosis], [95]. See also Internet Use "Good for the Brain". Brain, building a better one, [43s]. New research done with brain scanning equipment shows that the brain shrinks as it ages and develops hypoperfusion and leukoaraiosis. Furthermore, a poor cardiac output ages the brain, and lower cardiac output is related to smaller brain volume. Note that exercise improves circulation in the brain, as does cocoa, arginine, nitric oxide, and a number of vasodilators. However, more severe shrinkage or atrophy occurs with dementia. Brain aging, like the aging of muscle tissues, is associated with mitochondrial aging and mitochondrial therapy. See Boveris A, Navarro A (2008), Brain mitochondrial dysfunction in aging, IUBMB Life, 2008 May; 60(5):308-14, Shankar SK (2010), Biology of aging brain, Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, 2010 Oct-Dec; 53(4):595-604. Grammas P, Martinez J, Miller B (2011), Cerebral microvascular endothelium and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, Expert Review of Molecular Medicine, 2011; 13:e19. Reddy PH, Reddy TP (2011), Microchondria as a therapeutic target for aging and neurodegenerative diseases, Current Alzheimer Research, 2011 June 1; 8(4):393-409. Onyango IG, Lu J, Rodova M, Lezi E, Crafter AB, Swerdlow RH (2010), Regulation of neuron mitochondrial biogenesis and relevance to brain health, Biochim Biophys Acta, 2010 Jan; 1802(1):228-34. Michelle Flagg (2011), Reverse Brain Cell Death by Growing New Mitochondria, Life Extension Magazine, November 2011. See also Medical Imaging and the Brain [Links, Images, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Brain Cancer [Wikipedia/Brain Cancer, Links/Brain Cancer, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension, Amazon, LibCong; Links/Brain Cancer Therapy, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Brain Cancer Surgery, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Links/Brain Surgery, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Cancer, Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors; Links/Brain Cancer Journals]. According to LEF, May 2010, "Brain tumors are the leading cause of solid turmor cancer death in children and young adults under 20." The survival rate is just 32% for malignant tumors of this type. Causative factors in brain cancer include vinyl chloride from plastics factories, acrylonitrile used to produce synthetic rubber and acyrlic fibers in textile factories, nitrates from pesticides used on golf courses, close proximity to large electric transformers, nitrates and nitrites in preserved meats such as hot dogs, poor air quality, diesel fumes, proximity to a toxic waste dump, and plastic wrap with vinyl cloride microwaved directly into food. LEF also promotes earpieces and hand-free kits for cell phones, noting that this reduces focused microwave energy near the brain. I note that microglial cells derived from hemopoietic stem cells are essential for brain clean-up operations (such as removal of amyloid beta), but may fail during aging due to telomere shrinkage leading to replicative senescence that can be opposed with telomerase activators. DHA induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells and protects normal neural cells from apoptosis. (LEF, June 2010; The FASEB Journal, 2010, Mar;24(3):906-15.) "A 2010 study in malignant brain tumors [Images] showed curcumin effectively inhibits tumor cell proliferation, as well as migration and invasion, and these effects may be mediated through interference with the STAT3 signaling pathway." - Wikipedia/Curcumin. In addition, garlic extracts may be used as NF-kB inhibitors to treat malignant neuroblastomas, preventing their growth and spread. Brain cancer may be curable via transfection of the adeno-associated virus AAV2, which attacks cancer cells without harming healthy ones. AAV2 transfects hepatocytes, neurons, and muscle cells.

Glioma [Index, Wikipedia/Glioma, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Images/glial cells, Images/glioma cancer cells, Images/glioblastoma; Links/Glioblastoma multiforme pathway, Images, Video, Qiagen/Glioblastoma multiforme pathway]. Cytomegalovirus (a virus treatable with garlic or glycyrrhiza) has been implicated in connection with glioblastoma multiforme [Lisa Antone (2014), LEF]. Note that Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate has been used to induce apoptosis in glioma cancer cells. Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor mutations exist that delete part of the receptor extracellular domain, so that inappropriate signals are continuously emitted as if from a stuck doorbell. This class of mutations is associated with glioblastomas. DHA induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells and protects normal neural cells from apoptosis. (LEF, June 2010; The FASEB Journal, 2010, Mar;24(3):906-15.) Curcumin inhibits the growth of neuroblastoma cells. (Teiten, Eifes, Dicato and Diederich, 2010).
See Cancer-Critical Genes. See also Ozawa T et al. (2004), Antitumor effects of specific telomerase inhibitor GRN163 in human glioblastoma xenografts, Neuro-oncology 6: 218-26, and Pallini R. et al. (2006), Telomerase inhibition by stable RNA interference impairs tumor growth and angiogenesis in glioblastoma xenografts, International Journal of Cancer, 118: 2158-67. p21WAF1/Cip1 overexpression downregulates hTERT transcription in glioma cell lines. (Jun-Ping Liu, 2001). Sun L, Yoshii Y, Miyagi K, Ishida A. (1999), Proliferation inhibition of glioma cells by vitamin K2, No Shinkei Geka 1999 Feb;27(2):119-25. Klaris, H., and A.V.Schally (1999), Decrease in telomerase activity in U-87MG human glioblastomas after treatment with an antagonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 226-231.
Vitamin E Suppression of Microglial Activation [Index/Microglial Activation].
Vitamin E suppression of microglial activation is neuroprotective [Links/suppressing microglial activation, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Brain Deterioration (Age-related) [Links/Age-related brain deterioration, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Wikipedia/Aging_brain; Index/Cognitive Decline, Index/Dementia, Hypoperfusion, Leukoaraiosis; Retinol, Regenerative Medicine]. See Eric R. Braverman, MD, with Dale Kiefer, BS (2011), Combating Age-Related Brain Deterioration, Life Extension Magazine, October 2011 and Patrick R. Hof, Charles V. Mobbs, editors (2009), Handbook of the Neuroscience of Aging, 1st edition, Academic Press. Obese people have smaller brains, and obesity is a risk factor in age-related brain deterioration. Dopamine deficiency leads to overeating, so that dopamine-enhancers such as DHA can help. See also dopamine receptors [Images], which also degrade with aging, and therapy for improving the expression of dopamine receptors. Obese people and drug addicts have fewer dopamine receptors in their brains, while exercise increases the number of dopamine receptors. Vitamin Research promotes gotu kola as a nerve growth regeneration component of a product for brain regeneration. Brain calcification [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; vitamin K2, vitamin D] slows brain processing speed, and bone loss in osteoporosis is a predictor of cognitive decline. Tobacco "accelerates dementia processes". Alcohol and other drugs may introduce long-term cognitive decline. Maintaining healthy muscle tissue with zero obesity and engaging in exercise decreases the incidence of cognitive decline in adults. Declining muscle mass is paralleled by a decline in cerebral circulation associated with greater risk of cognitive impairment. Exercise increases cerebral blood flow. Exercise increases levels of 4 key neurotransmitters serotinin, acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) and also of brain-related neurotrophic factor. Deficiencies in serotonin [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] result in depression, fatique, and poor sleep. Furthermore, aging is associated with declining levels of serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter, 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan). Acetylcholine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] is involved in memory, cognition, and learning; deficits in acetylcholine are associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Dopamine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] is associated with weight regulation, the experience of pleasure, and energetic feeling, such that declining dopamine levels are associated with obesity, addiction, and fatigue. GABA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] affects one's ability to handle stress and function at a steady pace. Brain levels of glutamate [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] also decline during aging. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] is associated in women with enhanced cognitive function and improved brain plasticity. The growth of new nerves (neurogenesis) is associated with improved brain plasticity. See also neural stem cells. Thus exercise improves neurogenesis [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Exercise promotes the expression of beneficial neurotrophins [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Also, the brain experiences changes in gene expression during aging that may be due to oxidative damage to gene promoters. According to Dr. Braverman, supplements and dosages for maintaining brain health include Omega-3 fatty acids (2,000-5,000 mg/day), Vitamin D3 (2,000-10,000 IU/day), CoQ10 (100-300 mg/day), Resveratrol (250-500 mg/day), Vitamin C ( < 4,000 mg/day), B complex (50-100 mg/day), Acetyl L-Carnitine (1,500-3,000 mg/day), Acetyl L-carnitine arginate (1,000 mg/day), R-lipoic acid (150-400 mg/day), Phosphatidylserine (100-200 mg/day), Ashwagandha (250 mg/day), Vinpocetine (1-30 mg/day), Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC, 600 mg/day), Zinc (30-90 mg/day), Vitamin K2 (100 mcg to 2,100 mcg/day). See Wilson AD, Hart A, Wiberg M, Terenghi G. (2010), Acetyl-l-carnitine increases nerve regeneration and target organ reinnervation - a morphological study, J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2010 Jul;63(7):1186-95. See also See Long J, Gao F, Tong L, Cotman CW, Ames BN, Liu J. (2009), Mitochondrial decay in the brains of old rats: ameliorating effect of alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine, Neurochem Res 2009 Apr;34(4):755-63. Note that doses of Zinc > 50 mg/day should be accompanied by at least 2 mg/day of copper. Note that Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and nerve growth factor expression, promoting healing and regeneration of nerve cells in the wake of neural injuries from Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and other sources.
Hypoperfusion from Reduced Blood Flow
Hypoperfusion with reduced blood flow due to high blood pressure is a primary factor in leukoaraiosis, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's, stroke, and age-related cognitive decline. See William Faloon (2014), Outwitting Our Aging Brain, Life Extension Magazine Jan 2014 and Brown WR, Thore CR (2011), Review: cerebral microvascular pathology in ageing and neurodegeneration, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2011 Feb;37(1):56-74.
Brain Degeneration by Synapse Loss Precedes Alzheimers
Brain degeneration by loss of brain synapses is an early event in the disease process prior to Alzheimers disease, and may be repaired with magnesium L-threonate [Index, Images], a highly bioavailable form of magnesium that effectively increases brain magnesium concentrations and prevents and reverses the synapse loss problem. Synapse loss impairs neural connectivity and is associated with old age cognitive decline. See William Falloon (2012), Reversing Brain Decay, Life Extension Magazine, January 2012. At "80-85 years, Alzheimers prevalence rises to a startling 25%-30%.". Both curcumin and DHA are useful in providing neuroprotective defense against this, and magnesium L-threonate is a new addition to this set of medicinal tools that increases synaptic density, reversing synapse loss. Furthermore, other forms of magnesium do not boost magnesium in the brain enough to substantially impact short-term and long-term scores, as magnesium L-threonate does. Substantial improvements in short- and long-term memory ( > 18% and > 100%) are measurable within a couple of weeks, and continue in experimental animals for about 30 days after stopping treatment, suggesting that magnesium L-threonate should be taken like a vitamin pill at 2000 mg/day. Note that magnesium is an essential cofactor for transcription from DNA, perhaps explaining the associated improvement in synaptic protein expression, and is needed for more than 300 biological reactions in the body. Supplement interventions for preventing Alzheimers disease include curcumin, EGCG (a green tea component), lipoic acid, N-acetyl cysteine, vitamin C, folic acid, B vitamins, and now also magnesium L-threonate. See DeKosky ST, Scheff SW (1990), Synapse loss in frontal cortex biopsies in Alzheimers disease: correlation with cognitive severity, Annals of Neurology 1990 May;27(5):457-64. Coleman P, Federoff H, Kurlan R (2004), A focus on the synapse for neuroprotection in Alzheimer disease and other dementias, Neurology 2004 Oct 12;63(7):1155-62. Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, et al. (2010), Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium, Neuron 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77. Scheff SW, Price DA, Schmitt FA, Mufson EJ (2006), Hippocampal synaptic loss in early Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment, Neurobiology of Aging 2006 Oct; 27(10):1372-84. See also Index/Metal Ions and Kathleen Anderson (2012), Excess Iron and Brain Degeneration: The Little-Known Link, Life Extension Magazine, March 2012. See also James Gallagher (2012), Range of brain diseases could be treated by single drug, BBC News, May 6, 2012 and Sophie Petit-Zeman, Treating protein folding diseases, via Nature.
Brain Growth and Development [Links/Human Brain Growth and Development, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Nutrition for Human Brain Growth and Development, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. See also Links/DHA in Brain Growth and Development. See Russell L. Blaylock, MD (2008), DHA Supports Brain Development and Protects Neurological Function, Life Extension Magazine, Jan 2008. Arachidonic acid is also important for the development of normal neurological function in infants, although it contributes to inflammation in elderly specimens. See Supplements for the development of normal neurological function in infants. Note that vinpocetine, a vasodilator, improves circulation in the brain and supports brain growth. It may be taken together with ginkgo biloba, which reduces the stickiness of platelets, to speed the processing of short-term memory. See BrainQuicken, arginine (improves brain circulation), nerve growth factor (improves neurite growth), benfotiamine (improves nerve conduction velocity), DHA (improves brain growth), and essential fatty acids.
Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) See Index/BCAAs.
Breast Cancer (Encyclopedia)
Breeding to improve longevity [Ben Best/Breeding to improve longevity, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Use nearly the last available eggs before menopause to breed for longevity. This works for Drosophila, for instance. [39s].
Bristlecone pine [Photo, Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books]. The bristlecone pine lives up to 5,000 years = 1.825 x 106 days. Sometimes bristlecone pines remind me of an artist's series I have seen at WSU, "The Clan of Munes", in which the munes were driftwood people.
Broccoli [Wikipedia, Links/broccoli, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; WhFoods/Broccoli, Books/Anti-Aging Broccoli, Books/Anti-Cancer Broccoli, Links/Anti-Cancer Broccoli, LifeExtension], [25f], [33,34,35]. Broccoli is a source of sulforaphane, indole-3-carbinol [Index], and vitamin K [Index]. Indole-3-carbinol can be used for estrogen protection after digestion converts it into diindolylmethane, or 3,3'-diindolylmethane, which is also available as DIM capsules. Broccoli is anticancer, and a good "cancer stopper", as are garlic and ginger.
Broccoli sprouts [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Broccoli sprouts contain indole-3-carbonol and anticancer sulforaphane [25f], [36s] (e). See the articles Brocolli sprouts and sulforaphane and sulforaphane and isothiocyanates, [25f], [34,35]. Broccoli and broccoli sprouts reduce prostate cancer risk. Broccoli sprouts are very useful in carcinogen detoxification and in treating and preventing many kinds of cancer, including bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer induced by cigarette smoke, skin cancer, stomach cancer, and in treating the metastasis of cancers. (Wikipedia/Broccoli_sprouts)
Bromelain [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images/Bromelain Supplements, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, QC]. Bromelain is an anticancer substance in pineapple, [36s] (p).
Buck Institute for Age Research Site/Buck Institute for Age Research.

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