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Caffeine is also thought to reduce pain during exercise. HSP72 is boosted by anabolic steroids such as Deca-Durabolin, allowing more high-intensity training. HSP (Heat Shock Protein) release is also stimulated by testosterone and catecholamines (stress hormones) including epinephrine and norepinephrine, which can be released by taking caffeine. The breakdown of norepinephrine can be inhibited at the same time with green tea (via EGCG), which simultaneously inhibits lipase, preventing fat absorption into the blood. Caffeine boosts HSP72 production during workouts. Caffeine increases the release of fatty acids from cells which can later be transported to mitochondria for burning. It also increases calcium levels for superior muscular contractions when taken an hour prior to a workout. 100-200 mg are recommended every 4 hours for fat loss. 100-200 mg every 3-4 hours is good for mental focus. For strength, 200-400 mg 1 hour before workouts is recommended. Caffeine is often used with green tea extract in a basic stack to improve muscular definition. Note that guarana [Images] contains 2-4 times as much caffeine as coffee beans [Images], and is often used to supplement caffeine [Images].
Caffeine is a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor that may be useful in preserving elevated cyclic AMP levels used to depress caveolin-1 levels in treatment to recover from cellular senescence.
Coffee Drinkers Have Fewer Strokes [Links, Papers, Books, LifeExtension].
An article published in Stroke found a lower risk of stroke in Swedish women that consumed coffee. "Susanna Larsson, PhD, and her associates evaluated data from 34,670 women enrolled in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. The women were followed for ten years, during which 1,310 ischemic strokes [Images], 154 intracerebral hemorrhages [Images], 79 subarachnoid hemorrhages [Images], and 137 unspecified strokes occurred. The researchers found a 22-25% lower adjusted risk of total stroke, cerebral infarction [Images], and subarachnoid hemorrhage among women who drank at least one cup of coffee per day compared with those who consumed less." - Dayna Dye, LEF News, Life Extension Magazine, June 2011. Ref: J Agric Food Chem, 2011 Mar 9;59(5):2097-106. The caffeine [Index] in 5 cups of coffee decreases levels of beta-secretase and gamma-secretase, proteins used in amyloid-beta production. Thus caffeine is an amyloid-beta inhibitor. See Michael Downey (2012), Discovering Coffee's Unique Health Benefits, Life Extension Magazine Jan 2012.
Cajal Bodies (Encyclopedia).
Calcification, Systemic (Systemic Calcification).
d Calcium [Ben Best, Links/calcium and aging, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong/calcium and aging; Links/calcium metabolism, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Soft tissue calcification can be avoided by taking calcium supplements [Images] to keep sufficient calcium in the blood. "In response to a deficit of calcium in the blood, the body excessively robs our bones and saturates soft tissues with calcium. As we age, we lose our ability to regulate calcium balance and then suffer the lethal consequences of systemic calcification. It is encouraging to know that a low-cost nutrient (vitamin K) can quickly restore calcium homeostasis." - William Falloon, Protection Against Arterial Calcification, Bone Loss, Cancer, and Aging! (LEF article), Life Extension Magazine, Jan 2009. Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 work together to incorporate calcium and phosphorus into bone and to prevent calcification of soft tissues, while vitamin C supports bone collagen synthesis. See Mark P. Mattson (2007), Calcium and neurodegeneration, Aging Cell, Volume 6, Issue 3, pages 337–350, June 2007. "Calcium... is critical for muscular contraction/relaxation... Adequate calcium ingestion increases fat metabolism, decreases fat storage... and can trigger greater anabolic testosterone release after a bout of heavy training". 1-2 grams of calcium should be taken per day. - Musclemag's Ultimate Guide to Nutrition and Supplements, Fall 2011. Note that caffeine increases calcium levels for superior muscular contractions when taken before a workout.
Calment, Jeanne (pron: Jon Calmon) [Wikipedia, Photo Gallery, Links/Jeanne Calment, Images,
Jeanne Calment's red wine contained resveratrol, another longevity booster that activates telomerase by phosphorylating hTERT for return from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and which is effective in opposing dangerous ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) as an antioxidant. The olive oil she took contains oleuropein, which improves proteasome function in way that can extend life span up to 15%, and hydroxytyrosol, a caliber antioxidant reducing dangerous ROS concentrations endangering mitochondria, protein functionality, and DNA. Jeanne Calment rode a bicycle for exercise until she was 100 years old. She was the last person to have seen Vincent Van Gogh.
Caloric Restriction (CR) Theory of Anti-Aging Treatment, [Wikipedia/Caloric Restriction, Wikipedia/CR-mimetics, QC, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Ben Best/articles, Ben Best/CRAN; Senescence.Info/Caloric Restriction, SIRT6/(18), SIRT6], (3).
CR-mimetic Resveratrol. Recently, rats on resveratrol [Wikipedia/Resveratrol, Links, Video, Images, LifeExtension] and a regular diet did as well as rats on a calorie-restricted diet, which should make resveratrol more popular among those who detest caloric restriction. Resveratrol activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which makes ATP energy available from a catabolic process to reduce weight and support many life-extending cellular events requiring ATP. Resveratrol also phosphorylates hTERT for import into the nucleus to promote telomerase activity. See [Wikipedia/CR-mimetics, Links, Images, LifeExtension]. For an inexpensive source of resveratrol, see the index entries on Polygonum Cuspidatum (Japanense Knotweed), the resveratrol source that grows easily in your backyard and makes pie that has been compared to rheubarb pie. Other good sources of resveratrol include mulberries, blueberries, bilberries, and muscadine grapes. "Red grapes generally yield about 0.24 and 1.25mg per cup." Peanuts have about half as much resveratrol as red wine. See [Links/Resveratrol content of foods, Links/Resveratrol content of plants]. By 2013 resveratrol is inexpensively available as a supplement in 250 mg capsules taken 4 times per day. See also
CR-mimetic drugs [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. CR-mimetic drugs such as metformin [Books, LifeExtension], acarbose (precose) [Books, LifeExtension], whey protein, trans-resveratrol, trans-pterostilbene, quercetin, grape seed polyphenols, black tea extract, and fisetin, which activate AMPK to support a catabolic process producing ATP for many life-extending cellular events. Note that pomegranate flower extracts inhibit the digestive enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which breaks complex carbohydrates down into simple sugars, making it useful in caloric restriction. Other nutraceuticals inducing CR-mimetic gene expression include pterostilbene, quercetin, black tea polyphenols, and grape seed (LEF). A high level of carbohydrates can result in high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) leading to type 2 diabetes and high risk factors for vascular disease such as high triglycerides and high C-reactive protein. According to William Falloon of Life Extension Magazine (Feb 2010), inhibiting three carbohydrate digestive enzymes has CR-mimetic effect:
Note that since caloric restriction improves expression of SIRT1, it is associated with chromatin compaction and gene silencing, and therefore with inhibition of hTERT mRNA transcription. Thus caloric restriction is best applied during the telomerase inhibitor phase of cyclic treatment with telomerase activators and telomerase inhibitors. However, phosphorylation of hTERT protein for import into the nucleus may still take place via SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol during caloric restriction. On the other hand, whey protein, which improves the expression of HGH, is best confined to the telomerase activation phase of treatment in a cyclic program, as whey protein is not particularly dietetic.
Fasting and SIRT6
SIRT6 depletion can induce telomere dysfunction and symptoms similar to Werner Syndrome [Article], with injury to the stable association of the WRN helicase. SIRT6 is boosted by fasting, SIRT1 expression, and Rosiglitazone (RGZ, trade name Avandia, GlaxoSmithKline), a prescrition drug used in the treatment of diabetes. Also, higher SIRT6 levels have anticancer effect. Thus periodic fasting to boost SIRT6 may have salutory anti-aging effect.
Bodybuilding Definition Stack
Jim Stoppani's Shredding Stack (from "Elements of a Stack") for fat burning to support muscular definition (which seems relevant to caloric restriction) is based on 4 elements:
after Muscle and Fitness Magazine's Ultimate Supplement Handbook 2010 edition.
The following links allow the student to check out some of the claims we find in their program for customer education.
__ 7-keto DHEA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. 7-keto DHEA (50 mg to 200 mg per day, take in the morning or early afternoon) is another supplement used in bodybuilding to improve muscular definition (by increasing the metabolic rate via upregulation of T3 thyroid hormone) that may be useful in implementing caloric restriction. Note that upregulating T3 upregulates UCP3, which protects mitochondria against lipid-induced oxidative stress, so that 7-keto DHEA upregulates UCP3. 7-keto DHEA, a DHEA metabolite, activates AMPK by promoting expression of thyroid hormone T3.
__ Beta-Phenylethylamine (Phenylethylamine) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Serenity Station/Phenylethylamine]. Beta-Phenylethylamine, a metabolite of the amino acid phenylalanine, improves the expression of norepinephrine to promote fat burning. By increasing brain levels of dopamine and serotonin, this substance also produces mild euphoria and reduces sensations of pain.
__ Caffeine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Caffeine increases the release of fatty acids from cells which can later be transported to mitochondria for burning. It also increases calcium levels for superior muscular contractions when taken an hour prior to a workout. 100-200 mg are recommended every 4 hours for fat loss. 100-200 mg every 3-4 hours is good for mental focus. For strength, 200-400 mg 1 hour before workouts is recommended.
__ Capsaicin [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Capsaicin, found in hot red chili peppers, increases metabolic rate by improving norepinephrine levels when taken an hour prior to a workout. Promotes AMPK activation.
__ Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine improves fat burning by enhancing the moving of fats into mitochondria like ordinary carnitine, but it also improves nitric oxide levels, providing vasodilation and telomerase activation in endothelial cells. One takes 1 to 3 grams before meals and before and after workouts. L-carnitine, acetyl L-carnitine, L-carnitine L-tartrate, and Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine are all used to promote fat loss via carnitine.
__ Chitosan (pron: cheat-o-san) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Chitosan, taken at about 2 grams before meals, attracts fat and binds it before it can be absorbed.
__ Chocamine [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Chocamine is a cocoa extract containing caffeine, phenylethylamine, theobromine, and tyramine that promotes combustion of fatty acids, elevates energy, and suppresses appetite while at the same time (phenylethylamine) enhancing mood, concentration, and alertness. 1 to 2 grams/serving is recommended, 1 to 3 servings/day.
__ Chromium Picolinate [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Chromium picolinate enhances fat loss and reduces carbohydrate cravings, while also reducing cortisol levels. 200-400 micrograms of chromium picolinate or chromium nicotinate are taken daily with food.
__ Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. CLA, taken with breakfast, lunch and dinner at 1-3 grams per serving, seems to help remove bodyfat while simultaneously building mass and strength after about 12 weeks, and it is anticancer.
__ Evodiamine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Evodiamine is an extract [Images] from the evodia rutaecarpa fruit [Images] that boosts metabolic rate by stimulating central nervous system receptors. It is taken 30-50 mg 2-3 times/day prior to meals.
__ Forskolin [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Forskolin comes from the mint family plant coleus forskohlii. Forskolin activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase (also involved in testosterone production) which finally activates hormone-sensitive lipase, which breaks down stored fat. Men on diets using Forskolin lose more weight and have higher testosterone levels. Forskolin promotes AMPK activation.
__ Glucomannan [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Glucomannan (derived from the Asian konjac root), expands to up to 50 times its original volume when mixed with water, curbing hunger by filling the stomach. It delays digestion of carbohydrates and all other nutrients, and binds to bile acids, carrying them out of the body in feces, promping the body to convert more cholesterol into bile acids and thus lowering cholesterol and other fats. One or two grams are taken before meals.
__ Green Tea Extract [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. EGCG is the principal catechin responsible for the thermogenic fat-burning action of green tea, via EGCG's inhibition of an enzyme degrading norepinephrine. In addition, green tea is anticancer and promotes joint healing. About 500 mg of EGCG standard green tea extract should be taken before meals. Blocks lipase [Index], a fat-digesting enzyme in the digestive tract, but not as strongly as orlistat . Promotes AMPK activation.
__ Guggulsterones [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Guggulsterones are plant sterols extracted from the Indian tree commiphora mukul [Images]. E guggulsterones and Z gugglesterones are the most bioactive, enhancing thyroid hormone output and thermogenesis for improved fat burning. Promotes AMPK activation. Guggulsterones Z and E produce increased conversion of thyroid hormone T4 into the more fat-burning thyroid hormone T3, as does Bauhinia Purpurea L. Guggulsterones also improve joint recovery and cholesterol levels. Guggulsterones are taken at 20-60 mg/dose 2 or 3 times per day. Thyroid hormone T3 improves levels of UCP3 for the defense of mitochondria and activates AMPK.
__ Gymnema Sylvestre [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Gymnema Sylvestre has been used to treat type 2 diabetes, suppresses the desire for sweets, increases glucose secretions, and decreases blood glucose levels. Gymnema Sylvestre seems to promote lean muscle mass while reducing bodyfat. Gymnema sylvestre extract is taken 250-500 mg standardized to 25% gymnemic acids 1-3 times per day, with a dose immediately following a workout.
__ Hoodia [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Hoodia is an extract from the South African plant hoodia gordonii [Images], and contains P57, which seems to trick the brain into thinking the stomach is full. Hoodia is recommended 300-500 mg/dose one or two times per day on an empty stomach.
__ Hydroxycitric Acid [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA) is extracted from the rind of the garcinia cambogia plant of Indonesia [Images]. Taken before exercise, it makes fat from fat cells available for combustion during exercise. Hydroxycitric acid is taken 500 mg to 1000 mg per dose 2 or 3 times per day, with one dose 30 minutes prior to a workout.
__ Synephrine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Synephrine (bitter orange) is the active component of citrus aurantium [Images] that stimulates receptors on fat cells that increase the release of fat, effectively increasing the metabolic rate and curbing appetite. Synephrine is recommended as 200-600 mg/dose of citrus aurantium standardized for 5-50 mg/dose of synephrine 2-3 times/day before meals. A top AMPK activator.
__ Simmondsin [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Simmondsin (a jojoba extract for weight loss) works by stimulating the stomach hormone cholecystokinin to increase satiety. Simmondsin is taken 100-500 mg/dose prior to meals.
__ Tyrosine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. The amino acid tyrosine is used by the body to make norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, and thyroid hormones that raise metabolism by activating AMPK, burn fat, and curb appetite. Tyrosine is recommended at 1/2 gram/day to 1 gram/day, 2 times/day, and also 30 minutes prior to workouts.
__ Yohimbine [Index, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Yohimbine is the primary alkaloid of the bark of the West African tree pausinystalia yohimbe [Images], used to enhance male libido and increase fat-burning by stimulating adipocyte alpha receptors [Images] to keep them from limiting the amount of fatty acids released by fat cells to be burned as fuel. Yohimbine is a vasodilator, like nitric oxide. It is described as most effective at increasing the number of alpha receptors in overweight people just beginning a program of exercise. Yohimbine is taken 2-10 mg/dose, 3 times/day with 1 dose 30 minutes prior to a workout.
__ Propolmannan (LuraleanTM) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. "Propolmannan is a polysaccharide fiber derived from a plant that grows only in remote mountains of Northern Japan. Propolmannan is patented in 33 countries as a purified fiber that does not break down in the digestive tract. Published studies reveal propolmannan's ability to not only increase the amount of bile acids in the feces, but also reduce the rate of carbohydrate absorption and the subsequent glucose/insulin spike in the blood. When propolmannan is taken before meals, consistent and significant reductions in blood triglyceride, LDL, and cholesterol are observed," - William Falloon, Reverse Age-Related Weight Gain, Life Extension Magazine, October, 2010, p.26. Patients taking propolmannan could lose an average of 5.5 pounds after 8 weeks without changing their diet. Other studies show 8 pounds of weight loss after 8 weeks. Propolmannan (2000 mg) is the primary ingredient in LifeExtension Calorie Control Weight Management Formula, which also includes White Kidney Bean (445mg, Phasoleus), Irvingia gabonensis (150 mg), and Green Tea Phytosome (150 mg).
__ Orlistat (XenicalTM, alliTM, a lipase inhibitor) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Orlistat blocks fat absorption in the digestive system. There have been reports of severe side-effects for Xenical [Images]. "Orlistat depletes the body of vitamin E, making supplementation vital." - Julius Goepp, MD, Block Absorption of Fat Calories Safely, Life Extension Magazine, October, 2010.
__ 5-Hydroxytryptophan [Links, Images/supplements, Images/molecule, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a serotonin booster that helps control appetite. (Wellness Profile, LEF, Oct. 2010, p.86). 5HTP should only be taken for a short period, to boost serotonin levels, which will remain elevated.
__ Bacopa [Links/Bacopa Monnieri, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Product B/Bacopa Extract]. Supplementation with Bacopa Monnieri leaf improves the expression of thyroid hormone T4 in mice by up to 41%. Bacopa is contained in some commercial fat-burning formulations. - after Dwayne Jackson, PhD, Essential Supplement Handbook, Fall 2011.
__ Bauhinia Purpurea L [Links/Bauhinia Purpurea L, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. New. Bauhiniastatins [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] from this plant seem to convert thyroid hormones T4 to T3, a more potent thyroid hormone for fat burning. T3 Increases of up to 83% have been observed in rats. Improving T3 expression increases levels of mitochondrially protective UCP3 and activates AMPK to promote catabolism and produce ATP. Bauhinia Purpurea is sold in some commercial fat-burning supplements. op.cit.
__ Cissus Quadrangularis [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Aliases include devil's backbone and veldt grape, an antioxidant including anti-asthmatic and bone-healing properties that promotes weight loss by regulating blood sugar and upregulating serotinin levels to decrease hunger. 100-500 mg of extract is taken or 3-6 grams of the plant. op.cit.
__ L-theanine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. L-theanine "contributes to weight management and reduction of abdominal fat... L-theanine also reduces fatty acids in blood serum." - Vince Giuliano, AntiAging Firewalls.
Safety Caution: "When taking drugs or nutrients that can block fat absorption, it is important to ensure that you continue to absorb vital fat-soluble nutrients such as Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin E, and the Omega-3s." - Julius Goepp, MD, Block Absorption of Fat Calories Safely, Life Extension Magazine, October, 2010. The solution is to take fat-soluble nutrients at a time during the day when they can best be absorbed.
cAMP (cyclic AMP) [Links/cyclic AMP, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Refs9/cAMPref, Plasma, Phosphodiesterase Inibitors].
Cyclic AMP can be elevated to lower caveolin-1 levels (gene CAV1) and recover cells from the senescent state when p16INK4A is kept low enough by exercise and/or retinol. cAMP can be boosted with forskolin, exercise, exercise plus creatine monohydrate (supplying ATP for conversion to cyclic AMP by adenylate cyclase), or by epinephrine or glucagon. Lipoic acid stimulates cAMP production in T lymphocytes and NK cells . Cyclic AMP can be preserved with phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as luteolin from celery, parsley, sage, rosemary, or thyme.
Is cyclic AMP a component of human blood plasma?
___No, cyclic AMP [Refs] is a "2nd messenger" made by adenylyl cyclase from ATP after a hormone is received by a cell membrane receptor activating a G protein interacting with adenylyl cyclase. - After The Hormones of the Human. Cyclic AMP is sometimes found in urine.
Plasma hormones activating receptors producing cyclic AMP from adenylyl cyclase [Links, Papers, Books] include epinephrine and glucagon.
Epinephrine [Links, Papers, Books; Links/Epinephrine supplements, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
___Tyrosine elevates dopamine levels, and dopamine is converted to epinephrine
______and norepinephrine. See Tyrosine supplements.
___Dopamine elevates epinephrine and norepinephrine levels.
____Dopamine supplements [Index, Ref, LifeExtension] include:
______L-Tyrosine, Rhodiola rosea, Mucuna pruriens, L-theanine (from green tea), and DHA.
Glucagon [Links, Papers, Books; Links/glucagon boosters, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Secretion of glucagon is stimulated by hypoglycemia,
_____epinephrine (adrenaline) [Links/epineprine supplements],
_____arginine [Links/arginine supplements],
_____alanine [Links/alanine supplements],
_____acetylcholine [Links/acetylcholine supplements], and
_____cholesystokinin [Links/cholesystokinin supplements].
See signaling molecules activating adenylyl cyclase [Links, Papers, Books].
cAMP, Growth Factors, and Activators for Senescent Cell Recovery
Recovery from cellular senescence might best be produced by forskolin (to increase cAMP and reduce caveolin-1 from CAV1) plus folic acid (to down-regulate CAV1) plus carrots (for luteolin and for retinol to reduce P16INK4A) plus exercise (to elevate growth factor expression, lower p16INK4A, phosphorylate AKT to isolate FOXO transcription factors, and increase cAMP) plus arginine with lysine (for increased HGH, nitric oxide, and glucagon levels) plus green tea (for dopamine-boosting theanine to elevate epinephrine during exercise) plus tyrosine with other dopamine boosters elevating epinephrine such as DHA, rhodiola rosea and mucuna pruriens, plus creatine monohydrate (for ATP to convert into cAMP) plus phosphodiesterase inhibitors (to maintain cAMP) such as luteolin from celery, parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme plus a selection of telomerase activators and antioxidants. Long workouts (45 min - 3 hours) to maximize cAMP and growth factor levels while featuring pumping up to increase lactates functioning as HDAC inhibitors to improve transcription of hTERT, are probably optimal.
Music: And I Love Her by the Beatles.
 Schillace RV, Pisenti N, Pattamanuch N, et al. (2007),
Lipoic acid stimulates cAMP production in T lymphocytes and NK cells,
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Mar 2;354(1):259-64.
Campisi, Judith (Judith Cam-P-Z) [Campisi Lab, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Rejuvenation Research Interview; Interviews].
Judith Campisi has worked extensively on replicative senescence and problems involving recovery from cellular senescence [Papers, Books]. See recoverability and replicative senescence [Papers, Books]. She has also worked on details of the maintainance of the excellular matrix and on matrix metalloproteinases and related factors such as tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases.
Camu Camu Extract [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Andes Health Camu Camu, LifeExtension], an unusually rich source of vitamin C and niacin [Index, Vitamin B3, Niacinamide, Nicotinamide].
Cancer [Carcinogens; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Chart of Cancers by Type and Mortality Rate, Ben Best/cancer death, cancer prevention; Anti-oxidants & cancer prevention; Links/Cancer, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Ray, Natural Therapy Center/Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology; Images/Cancers as a function of Age; Index/p38, telomere fusion, and cancer; Index/P53 and cancer suppression by cell cycle arrest, P53; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Apoptosis, Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors], , .
"Increased age is the leading cause of cancer." (Causes of death by Age). Tumors may be non-malignant or malignant, spreading tumors associated with cancer. Cancers frequently mutate and evolve up to 10 changes in their cancer cell DNA as they develop, though they may begin with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Note that cancer never occurs in non-mitotic cells, but only in mitotic, dividing cells. [article]. Cancerous tumors develop clonally from a single cell, as indicated by an analysis of X-inactivation of the X1 or X2 alleles of female tumor cells. X-inactivation is found in either X1 or X2 alleles in a group of normal cells, but is always entirely X1 or entirely X2 in associated cancer tumor cells, indicating a tumor cell clonal origin from a single cell. Cancer tumor cells, unlike normal cells in the body, are not subject to density-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation, and so grow to high cellular densities without arriving at the quiescent G0 state of the cell cycle. Some tumor cells may produce their own growth factors, producing autocrine growth stimulation. These cells typically lack cell surface adhesion molecules, a factor promoting metastasis of cancer tumor cells. Furthermore, cancer tumor cells [Images] typically emit proteases such as collagenase allowing them to penetrate the extracellular matrix, and produce factors supporting angiogenesis (capillary growth) required for tumor enlargement beyond about a million cells. See angiogenesis inhibitors. Internal DNA damage due to the original mutation may prevent cancer cell apoptosis, so that cancer cells often survive in the abscence of growth factors required by their normal counterparts. Cancer cells often also activate hTERT to allow continued cell division. Thus drugs inhibiting hTERT transcription with telomerase inhibitors, drugs promoting inhibition of angiogenesis, and drugs promoting apoptosis (often via telomerase inhibitors) provide targeted approaches to cancer treatment. Colon cancer is usually a consequence of eating meat fat, which results in secondary bile products produced by bacteria that generate carcinogens. Also see the index entries on anticancer diet and anticarcinogens, Mortality Charts/Cancer and the index entry for carcinogens. Cancer pertains to Oncology, cancer medicine, [Links, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension]. See:
___Carcinomas [Images, Images, Patents, Books, Cells, LEF] and
___Adenocarcinomas [Images, Images, Patents, Books, Cells, LEF] from epithelial tissues [Images],
___Sarcomas [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Cells]
___ from connective tissues [Images] and muscle cells [Images],
___Leukemias [Index, Images, Papers, Patents, Cells, LEF] from hemopoietic cells [Images],
_____or B-lymphocytes [Images] in Chronic B-cell lymphocytic leukemia (CLL),
___Lymphomas [Index, Images, Papers, Patents, Cells, LEF] from B-lymphocytes [Images], and
___Brain Cancers [Index, Images, Papers, Patents, Cells, LEF] from CNS neurons [Images].
Note that nearly 90% of cancers are epithelial cell carcinomas, while leukemias and lymphomas account for 7% of cancers and sarcomas and brain cancers are rare. See Mortality Charts for Cancer Death Charts and Cancer Death Statistics. Cancer incidence rises steeply as a function of age, rising in nearly exponential form from t0=25. However, cancer is often associated with a substantial delayed-onset time in regard to exposure to carcinogens. The time delay between carcinogen exposure to the onset of cancer may be on the order of a decade or two. Telomerase inhibitors are often employed to cure cancer [Links, Amazon] by limiting cancer cell division, usually inducing massive apoptosis in tumors [Links, Papers, Books]. See Role of Telomerase in Cancer and Telomerase Inhibitors (2009), which also includes a table of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy. Treatment of tumors is more effective when a telomerase inhibitor is given with angiogenesis inhibitors [Wikipedia, Index]. See Laura K. White, Woodring E. Wright, Jerry W. Shay (2001), Telomerase Inhibitors, Trends in Biotechnology, V.19,3,March 2001. This technique fails when the cancer uses the ALT mechanism [Index, Papers, Books] to continue cell division. Most cancers (85%-90%) do not use the ALT mechanism. Those that do especially include specific subtypes of soft tissue sarcomas where ALT occurs most often in tumors with complex karyotypes, astrocytic brain tumors and osteosarcomas. See [Links/Treating ALT mechanism cancers, Books/ALT mechanism cancers]. Monoclonal antibodies [Books, Amazon] may be useful in treating cancers [Books, Amazon] not treatable with telomerase inhibitors. About 90% of human cancers are carcinomas or adenocarcinomas in epithelial tissue. More than 50% of human cancers contain inactivating mutations of the p53 gene. See Weisz L, Damalas A, Liontos M, Karakaidos P, Fontemaggi G, Maor-Aloni R, Kalis M, Levrero M, Strano S, Gorgoulis VG, Rotter V, Blandino G, Oren M (2007), Mutant p53 enhances nuclear factor kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha in cancer cells, Cancer Research 76:2396-2401. NF-kB activates genes associated with inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to apoptosis (cell survival genes) that can be dampened with NF-kB inhibitors. In cases involving p53 mutation cell division may continue past the M1 senescence checkpoint at a telomere length of about 4000 bp until telomeres are so short that they fuse at the critical length. (See p38, telomere fusion, and cancer.) Then fused chromosomes [Images] lead to fusion-bridge breakage [Images], non-reciprocal translocations from fusion-bridge breakage [Images] and aneuploidy [Images] supportive of tumor initiation. Adeno-associated virus AAV2 may be used to transfect skeletal muscles, neurons, vascular smooth muscle cells and hepatocytes, and apparently kills cancer cells without harming healthy ones. Also see surgical removal of tumors [Links, Books/surgical oncology, Amazon], and the index entries for cancers with the percentage of USA cancer cases/year:
___Bladder Cancer [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF, Amazon] (4.6%),
___Bone Cancer [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF, Amazon],
___Brain Cancer [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF Amazon],
___Breast Cancer [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF Amazon] (15.5%),
___Cervical Cancer [Links, Video, Images, Books, Papers, LEF, Amazon],
___Colon Cancer [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF, Amazon] (10.6%),
___Endometrial Cancer [Wiki, Links, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF],
___Epidermal Basal Cell Carcinoma [Wiki, Links, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF],
___Esophageal Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF],
___Gastric Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF],
___Kidney Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF] (2.6%),
___Leukemia [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF] (2.5%),
___Liver Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF],
___Lung Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF] (12.6%),
___Lymphoma [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon] (4.6%),
___Melanoma [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF, Amazon] (4.3%),
___Mesothelioma (asbestos) [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF, Amazon],
___Ovarian Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF],
___Pancreatic Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF] (2.3%),
___Prostate Cancer [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF, Amazon] (16.9%),
___Retinoblastoma [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF, Amazon],
___Skin Cancer [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, Books, LEF, Amazon],
___Stomach Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF],
___Testicular Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF],
___Uterine Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LEF] (3.7%),
_______HIV [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Cells, HIV Virus, Books, LifeExtension Amazon].
____________T-cells [Links, Video, Papers, Images, Viruses, Books, LEF, Amazon].
See also AboveTopSecret/The Cancer Research Project and Natural Therapy Center/Cancer. Note that copper from beef seems to help cancer spread, so that it is useful to avoid beef, switch to salmon (DHA, EPA) and swiss cheese (Vitamin K2), and chelate copper with resveratrol, quercetin, R alpha lipoic acid, curcumin, or carnosine.
Modified Citrus Pectin inhibits cancer metastasis, as does regular citrus pectin to a lesser degree. See Anticancer Diet with Anticarcinogens, which identifies some nutraceuticals that can be mobilized against existing cancers. Women deficient in vitamin D have a 253% increased risk of colon cancer, and women with the lowest level of vitamin D had a 222% increased risk of breast cancer. Men with higher levels of vitamin D have a 52% reduced incidence of prostate cancer. "In September 2006, a long-term study concluded that taking vitamin D can substantially cut the risk of pancreatic cancer (as well as other cancers) by up to 50%." - Wiki/Pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D is anti-inflammatory and a telomerase inhibitor. Vitamin K2 reduces prostate cancer risk. Populations with diets rich in phytoestrogens (as in soy products, which contain the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein) have a lower risk of hormonally-induced cancers. See Maximum Telomere Support [Links], which contains both 40 mg astragaloside IV and 2000 IU of vitamin D per tablet. (dose: 2/day, 60 Capsules $89.95). See J. Brent Richards, et al, (2007) "Higher serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in women". See also Morales CP, Holt SE, Ouellette M, Kaur J, Yan Y, Wilson KS, White MA, Wright WE, Shay JW (1999), Absence of cancer-associated changes in human fibroblasts immortalized with telomerase, Nature Genetics, 21: 115-18. Cancer feeds on sugar, as is readily determined with PET scan technology, which provides a tool for pinpointing cancer hotspots, although the patient is exposed to dangerous radioactivity that may introduce complications such as B-cell Chronic lymphocytic leukemia induced by a radioactive contrast injection for CT scan, typically radioactive glucose, which is also used to highlight metabolically active tissues in PET scans. Search for MRI technques for pinpointing cancers. Cancer also feeds on folic acid, which is heavily used in DNA synthesis, which goes on at an amplified rate in cancer cells. On the other hand, fasting promotes elevated levels of SIRT6, which markedly promotes cancer cell apoptosis.
The over-the-counter drug cemetidine at 800 mg/night is anticancer, preventing the adhesion of cancer cells to vessel walls where they establish metastatic colonies and also preventing tumor angiogenesis. Cemetidine is given 5 days prior to a cancer operation and for a year therafter to prevent surgerical oncology itself from introducing cancer metastasis. (William Falloon, So Many Needless Cancer Deaths, Life Extension Magazine, April 2010). See circulating tumor cell (CTC) technology. Metformin, a prescription drug often used as a caloric restriction mimetic, was recommended in the same article at 850 mg/day x 2 or x3 for its antitumor effects, which are possibly related to its ability to enhance insulin sensitivity. See analytical tests performed on a primary tumor [Papers]. See also Volgelstein B. and K.W.Kinzler, 2004, Cancer Genes and the Pathways they control, Nature Medicine, 10: 789-799, and Hanahan, D. and R.A.Weinberg, 2000, The Hallmarks of Cancer, Cell, 100:57-70. See Sawyers, C.L. 2004, Targeted Cancer Therapy, Nature 432: 294-297, and Thun, M.J., S.J.Henley and C.Patrono, 2002, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as anticancer agents: Mechanistic, pharmacologic, and clinical issues, J. Natl. Cancer Inst 94:252-266. Bhatia N, Zhao J, Wolf DM, Agarwal R (1999), Inhibition of human carcinoma cell growth and DNA synthesis by silibinin, an active constituent of milk thistle: comparison with silymarin, Cancer Letters 147 (1–2): 77–84.
We typically fight cancer by using angiogenesis inhibitors to oppose tumor development, while applying NFkB inhibitors to oppose cancer cell metastatis, proliferation, and invasion, simultaneously applying telomerase inhibitors and anticancer nutraceuticals to induce apoptosis, while lowering sugar levels and perhaps introducing fasting to promote SIRT6 anticancer apoptosis.
 Hursting SD, Smith SM, Lashinger LM, Harvey AE, Perkins SN (2010),
Calories and carcinogenesis: lessons learned from 30 years of calorie restriction research,
Carcinogenesis 2010 Jan;31(1):83-9.
 Kim JW, Dang CV (2006),
Cancer’s molecular sweet tooth and the Warburg effect,
Cancer Res 2006 Sep 15;66(18):8927-30.
Cancer-Critical Genes [Links/Cancer-critical genes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Links/Oncogenes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; P53].
About 100 cancer-critical genes repeatedly altered in human cancer are known.
Proto-oncogenes [Links/Proto-oncogenes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. A gain-of-function mutation in a proto-oncogene produces an overactive cancer-associated oncogene. Conversely, a loss-of-function mutation in a tumor suppressor gene also causes cancer. Proto-oncogenes are dominant genes, because they need only appear on one allele of a diploid cell to lead to cancer. Tumor-suppressor genes, conversely, are recessive genes, because they must be missing from both alleles of a diploid cell or damaged on both alleles in order for cancer to occur. The proto-oncogenes from normal cells were taken over by retroviruses in mutated form or in abnormally expressed oncogene form to become the retroviral oncogenes.
Retroviral Oncogenes [Links/Retroviral Oncogenes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. The RSV Rous Sarcoma Virus gene src associated with tumors in chickens was the first retroviral gene to be identified. Two of the most prominent are ras and raf. More than two dozen retroviral oncogenes have been identified in animal species.
Oncogenes in Human Cancer [Links/Oncogenes in Human Cancer, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. In humans, oncogenes are activated by point mutations, DNA rearrangements, gene translocation, and gene amplification. Some of the more important human oncogenes found in tumor cells include ras, c-myc, abl, N-myc, and erbB-2. They are homologous to retroviral oncogenes appearing in carcinogenic retroviruses.
Oncogene Protein Functions [Links/Oncogene Protein Functions, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. Oncogene proteins can
___stimulate cellular proliferation (Fos and Jun, Ras),
___stimulate cell cycle progression (cyclin D1 oncoprotein CCND1 and Cdk4),
___interfere with cellular differentiation (PML/RAR-alpha and ErbA), or
___inhibit apoptosis (PI3 Kinase, Akt, and Bcl-2).
"Normal Ras proteins are monomeric GPTases that transmit signals from growth factor receptors on the cell surface. The point mutations found Ras genes isolated from human tumors generate an overactive Ras protein that persists abnormally in its active state - transmitting an inappropriate signal for cell proliferation.... Ras genes are mutated in a wide range of human cancers..." - Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts and Walter, The Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition, Garland Science, 2002, page 1335. An oncogenic mutant form of the Ras gene was found early in cancer gene sequencing research, which was dramatic because the same mutant form of Ras was discovered shortly beforehand in a retroviral oncogene known to cause sarcomas in rats.
"Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor can be activated by mutation that deletes part of its extracellular domain. The faulty EGF receptors are able to form active dimers even in the absence of EGF, and thus they produce a stimulatory signal inappropriately, like a faulty doorbell that rings even when nobody is pressing the button...", ibed, p.1338. Mutations of this type are found in glioblastoma brain cancers [Index].
Tumor Suppressor Genes
___[Links/Tumor Suppressor Genes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. Early research established that retinoblastoma can occur when the tumor suppressor gene Rb is missing in both alleles of a diploid cell. Thus retinoblastoma is associated with a recessive trait. Mutation of the p53 gene or its product protein p53 is a feature in more than 50% of human cancers. P53 is required for apoptosis caused by DNA damage induced by carcinogens, so cancer cell survival is enhanced when p53 is disabled. INK4, p53, and Rb are negative regulators of cell cycle progression, so that inactivating them can cause cell cycle runaway until telomere fusion occurs, resulting in breast cancer, for instance. On the other hand, BRCA1 and BRCA2 maintain genomic stability, which can be upset by point mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2. Tumor suppressor genes include p53, p16, pRb, and ARF. (Paula Martinez and Maria A. Blasco, 2011).
Oncogene Targeted Cancer Therapies
___[Links/Oncogene Targeted Cancer Therapies, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon].
Cancer-Inhibiting Telomerase Activators (Encyclopedia Entry).
Capsaicin [Links/Capsaicin, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. See capsaicin anticancer links. See also Index/Anticancer. Found in hot red chili peppers, capsaicin increases metabolic rate by improving norepinephrine levels when taken an hour prior to a workout. - (after Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 2010).
Carbo-loading [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Taking carbohydrates like baked potatoes prior to a workout can be used to build supplies of muscle glycogen for endurance-oriented exercise. It can almost double the amount of muscle glycogen available for a trained athlete.
Carcinogens [Wikipedia/Carcinogen, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Wikipedia/Carcinogenesis, Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. For known and suspected carcinogens, see What causes cancer?, Cancer Death - Causes and Prevention by Ben Best and Teratogens [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong] dangerous to the developing human, . See also Mutagens [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong, Amazon]. Mutagens functioning as tumor initiators can cause DNA damage that can produce small papillomas that can subsequently be further developed by a tumor promoter. Peyton Rous isolated the first virus shown to cause cancer in chickens, the Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV), in 1911. RSV turned out to be a retrovirus with just 10,000 bp in its genome. About 20% of human cancers are virus-induced, including anogenital cancers (papilloma viruses), liver cancer (hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus) and some lymphomas (Epstein-Barr virus and T-cell lymphotropic virus). Infection of the wall of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori [Links, Images, Video, LifeExtension] can cause gastric cancer [Links, Images, Video, LifeExtension]. Bacterial infections such as Helicobacter pylori, by inducing chronic inflammation associated with the tumor promoters NF-kB and TNF-alpha, can induce cancer. - J.Parsonnet (1995), Bacterial Infection as a Cause of Cancer, Environ Health Perspect 1995 Nov; 103(8):263-268. High fat consumption from beef can lead to carcinogens produced by bacteria that live on beef fat generating secondary bile products causing colon cancer [Index, Links, LifeExtension].
Viral pathogens may cause cancer (although 80% of cancers are not from viruses):
___Adenovirus, a tumor provirus (DNA genome 36 kbp) [Micklos, et.al, DNA Science, p.225].
_____Adenovirus causes only flu-like symptoms in humans, but develops malignancies in mice.
___Epstein-Barr virus can cause lymphoma [Index].
___Hepatitis B virus (DNA genome 3 kb) can cause liver cancer in 10-20% of chronic infections,
___Hepatitis C virus (RNA genome 10 kb) can cause liver cancer in 5% of chronic infections,
___HTLV-1 virus can cause lymphoma or adult T-cell leukemia via the viral gene tax.
___Herpes viruses can cause Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer, and Kaposi's sarcoma.
___HIV virus leads to higher rates of lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma via immunosuppression.
___Papilloma virus [Images] (DNA genome 8 kb) can cause cervical cancer.
___Polyomavirus, a tumor provirus, (DNA genome 5292 bp).
___Rabbit fibroma virus.
___Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) (DNA genome 60 kbp), a chicken tumor provirus.
___Simian virus 40 (SV40), a provirus, (DNA genome 5243 bp).
___T-cell lymphotropic virus can cause lymphoma [Index].
___Retroviruses (RNA-genome 9-10 kb) can cause adult T-cell leukemia [Index].
___C-myc, if translocated by viral infection, may become unregulated and carcinogenic.
___Viral oncoproteins [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] can cause cancer.
Bacterial pathogens may cause cancer:
___Helicobacter pylori (causes stomach ulcers) can cause gastric cancer.
___Bacterial infections cause cancer [Links], by inducing chronic inflammation.
___Bacteria living on beef fat producing secondary bile products may cause colon cancer.
Parasitic Flatworm infections can cause cancer:
___Schistosoma haematobium [Images] causes bladder cancer.
Children born reduce cancer rates under age 35, but can increase cancer rates over age 35:
___Over age 35, children born are associated with an increasing rate of breast cancer.
___Risks go up with the length of exposure to reproductive hormones up to the birth of the
___first child. The breast tissue state of differentiation changes after the first birth.
Common chemical carcinogens [LEF] include:
___2-naphthylamine (an industrial chemical), causes bladder cancer,
___Acrylamide (generated in fried or overheated carbohydrate foods such as french fries)
___Acrylonitrile from textile plants (if burnt) causes brain cancer.
___Aflatoxin B1 from moldy peanuts, activated by Cytochrome P-450.
___Asbestos (an industrial substance inducing Mesothelioma),
___Benzopyrene in cigarette or marijuana smoke, activated by Cytochrome P-450.
___Chromite iron ore dust (FeCr2O4) causes lung cancer.
___Dimethylnitrosamine is found in cigarette smoke.
___Hair dye mutagenic carcinogens leading to Lymphoma.
___Inflammatory factors secreted by senescent cells
_______[Links, Images, Papers, Books, LibCong/senescent cells,
________Papers, Patents, LifeExtension] "have been implicated in
________focal remodeling of premalignant cells." - Caleb E. Finch, p.32.
___Nitrates (in pastrami, frankfurters, bacon) in vivo become carcinogenic nitrosamines.
___Nitrites (in pastrami, frankfurters, bacon) in vivo become carcinogenic.
___Polycyclic hydrocarbons in smoked or in burnt food.
___Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grape seed oil may be dangerous because drying
_____can involve direct contact with combustion gases. - Wikipedia
___Sunburn causes skin cancers such as melanoma.
___Tobacco smoke (which contains benzopyrene) causes lung cancer.
_______(N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) reduces cigarrete smoke carcinogenicity at 1800 mg/day).
___Vinyl chloride from plastic factories causes brain cancer.
Tumor promoters [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] include:
______TNFα (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha),
______NFκB (Nuclear Factor kappa Beta) [68s].
______Phorbol esters such as tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA).
Estrogen promotes tumors by promoting cellular proliferation.
Tumor promoters often promote the expression of genes mutated by tumor initiators. Telomerase activation with small molecule telomerase activators (7) to avoid replicative senescence, reducing inflammatory factors and improving genomic stability, tends to protect against cancer. See Index/Anti-inflammatory Nutraceuticals and Index/Anticancer Diet. Note that carcinogens can work by interfering with the p53 tumor suppressor, in some cases while accelerating cell division leading past the M1 senescence checkpoint, leading to telomere-telomere fusion. See Anticarcinogens [LEF, Index/Anticancer Diet & Anticarcinogens, Links, Papers, Books].
See also AboveTopSecret/The Cancer Research Project and Natural Therapy Center/Cancer.
Note that about 100 cancer-critical genes impacted by mutagenic carcinogens include:
___proto-oncogenes [Books] (gain of function drives cell toward cancer [Myc family]),
___oncogenes [Books] (overactive form of proto-oncogene [such as mutant Ras]), and
___tumor suppressor genes [Books] (lack of function drives cell toward cancer [Rb, p53]).
Identification of retroviral oncogenes as in the case of RSV (Rous Sarcoma Virus) led to the identification of cellular oncogenes produced primarily by chemical carcinogens from proto-oncogenes. Retroviral oncogenes themselves seem to have originated from cellular genes that became incorporated into viral genomes. Oncogenes may be detected by transfecting extra copies of the gene of interest to a suitable type of cell with a viral vector, whereas tumor suppressor genes are detected by removing or suppressing gene copies on both alleles of a diploid cell. Note that proto-oncogenes are often described as oncogenes after a crucial mutation, perhaps from a SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and that tumor suppressor genes also become oncogenic after a characteristic carcinogenic mutation (that may disable p53 or Rb, or as in cervical cancer, via papilloma oncoproteins E6 and E7 disabling p53 and Rb.) Chromosomal translocations of genes that become unregulated oncogenes may also be associated with cancer, as in lymphoma's C-myc translocations [Links/oncogenic C-myc translocations]. Active human tumor oncogenes may be activated by translocation, amplification, DNA rearrangement, or point mutation of proto-oncogenes. Novel oncogenes have been identified by molecular cloning and analysis of DNA sequences amplified in tumors. Note that some carcinogens, like alcohol and estrogen, work by increasing the rate of mitosis, so that the victim runs out of telomere length sooner. - Wikipedia/Carcinogen. In perhaps 80% of cancers, point-mutations caused by chemical carcinogens transform proto-oncogenes into oncogenes associated with cancerous cellular transformations. In other cases, a translocation of a proto-oncogene (which may delete an exon or assemble a new gene producing fused proteins) to a site in the genome where it becomes unregulated produces an oncogene, as in Burkitt's lymphoma or chronic myeloid leukemia. Amplification of proto-oncogenes may begin with point mutations of proto-oncogenes induced by chemical carcinogens. See DNA amplification in cancer cells. Oncogenes are often involved in the ERK signaling pathway influencing growth regulation and often encode growth factor receptors that are frequently tyrosine kinases [Images]. Oncogene proteins in the ERK signaling pathway include polypeptide growth factors, growth factor receptors, intracellular signaling proteins, transcription factors, and the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1. Oncogenes may also be obtained from components of other signaling pathways including the G-coupled protein signaling pathways, the NFkB signaling pathway, and the Hedgehog, Wnt, and Notch signaling pathways. The ras oncogenes obtained by SNP mutations rasH, rasK, and rasN that drive unregulated cellular proliferation are the oncogenes most frequently found in human tumors, appearing in about 20% of malignancies, and in 50% of colon cancers and 25% of lung cancers.
Carbonylation of Proteins [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Sugars may react with proteins to form carbonylated proteins that may evolve into advanced glycation end-products (AGES) that elevate free radical levels up to 50x, leading to DNA damage (10), lipid peroxidation, and cross-linking of proteins and DNA. "Carnosine both protects proteins from carbonylation and helps reverse proteasomal decline.", [75s]. See glycation and glycation inhibitors.
Carbonylation of Proteins or DNA [LifeExtension, Links/Carbonylation, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Books/Carbonylation of Proteins, Books/Carbonylation of DNA, LifeExtension/Carbonylation of Proteins, LifeExtension/Carbonylation of DNA, L-Carnitine (Linus Pauling Institute)], (5). Carbonylation leads to elevated levels of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) due to the formation of AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products), which can result in inflammation and a cellular malfunction cascade. See index entries for Anti-inflammatory Nutraceuticals, Antiglycating Drugs, and Glycation.
Cardiac Surgery (Encyclopedia).
Cardiology, heart disease & treatment, [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension; Anatomy.tv; Links/Heart Anatomy, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; 3D animation/Heart Failure]. The heart is dense with mitochondria, requiring more energy than any other organ, and studies show that chronic heart conditions such as congestive heart failure are characterized by diminished levels of mitochondrial antioxidant CoQ10 in heart tissue. Ubiquinol-type CoQ10 (600 mg/day) with CoQ10 x2 density improver shilajit is recommended with R-lipoic acid (part of alpha lipoic acid 800 mg/day) and acetyl L-carnitine (1600 mg/day) to reverse mitochondrial damage in heart tissue. Smaller amounts of CoQ10 (as low as 120 mg/day) may be quite useful in diverting 2nd heart attacks, according to studies. Patients pre-treated with CoQ10 prior to heart surgeries exhibit improved metabolic stress response and faster recovery following ischemia (loss of blood flow). CoQ10 can be used to improve endothelial function and reduce cardiac enlargement. For targeted mitochondrial defense against glycation, carnosine, luteolin, benfotiamine, and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate are recommended . (After ) Also, note that astragaloside IV is a cardioprotective agent (Zhang WD, et al., 2006). See Angina, Arjuna, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Carnitine, CoQ10, Hawthorn, Heart Attack, Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Nitric Oxide, PQQ, Taurine, Ubiquinol, Vasodilators, Index/Smoking, and Main Essay/Smoking.
 Julius Goepp MD (2010),
Reverse Mitochondrial Damage, Life Extension Magazine, Feb 2010.
 Rosenfeldt FL, Pepe S, Linnane A, et al (2002),
The effects of ageing on the response to cardiac surgery: protective strategies for the ageing myocardium, Biogerontology 2002;3(1-2):37-40.
 Rosenfeldt F, Marasco S, Lyon W, et al (2005),
Coenzyme Q10 therapy before cardiac surgery improves mitochondrial function and in vitro contractility of myocardial tissue, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005 Jan;129(1):25-32.
Cardiomyopathy [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension]. Weak heart diseases are cardiomyopathies. Weak heart performance can be boosted by carnitine, which helps mitochondria in the heart burn fat. Hawthorn is useful in improving heart muscle tone. Arjuna extracts [Index] reduce total and LDL cholesterol, reduce trigycerides, and elevate HDL, limiting atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and improving endothelial function.
 Harvey PA, Leinwand LA (2011),
The cell biology of disease: cellular mechanisms of cardiomyopathy,
J Cell Biol 2011 Aug 8;194(3):355-65.
Cardiovascular Disease [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Amazon]. See index entries for AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products), AGE Inhibitors, Angina, Arginine, Arjuna, Atherosclerosis, Arteriosclerosis, Bodybuilding, Cardiology, Carnitine, Cellular Senescence, Cholesterol, Citrulline, Cocoa, CoQ10, Cortisol, Endothelium, Endothelial Dysfunction, Estradiol, Exercise, Glucoregulatory Agents, Glycation, Hawthorn, Heart Attack, Homocysteine, Hypertension, Magnesium, Nitric Oxide, Pomegranate, Smoking, Main Essay/Smoking, Stroke, Taurine, Telomerase Activators, Ubiquinol, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin K2, and Vascular Diseases. See Jose J. Fuster and Vicente Andres (2006), Telomere Biology and Cardiovascular Disease, Circulation Research, 2006; 99:1167-1180 and related papers. Also search author-recommended papers under Cellular Senescence Contribution to Atherosclerosis, Progenitor Cell Senescence, Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Disease in Accelerated Aging Systems, and Mechanisms Underlying Caloric Restriction, Lipid Metabolism, and Life Span Regulation. Hawthorn extracts at 80 mg - 180 mg twice daily, and Arjuna bark powder at 500 mg every 8 hours are useful in preventing and reversing heart failures. Hawthorn extracts are termed cardiotonic because of their ability to improve heart muscle tone. Hawthorn extracts can improve coronary blood flow up to 70% and prevent ischemia-reperfusion injuries, reducing mortality rate in cardiac ischemia. Hawthorn extract substantially reduces arrhythmias that may follow or accompany ischemia and reperfusion, and pre-treatment prior to ischemia-reperfusion very substantially reduces the prevalence of deadly arrhythmias manifesting themselves as ventricular fillibration and flutter. Arjuna extracts [Index] reduce total and LDL cholesterol, reduce trigycerides, and elevate HDL, limiting atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and improving endothelial function. See Silas Hoffman (2013), Novel Support for Chronic Heart Failure, Arrhythmia and Coronary Artery Blockage, Life Extension Magazine, Feb 2013. Cardiovascular problems may be reduced by taking green coffee bean extract at 350 mg before meals to reduce consequent elevated glucose. See William Falloon, Preparing Your Body to Eat, Life Extension Magazine, Feb 2013.
Taurine Reduces Mortality Due to Congestive Heart Failure [Index/Taurine].
"Congestive heart failure responds favorably to taurine therapy." (Life Extension), [36s] (k). In animal studies, taurine reduced mortality due to heart failure by 80% [Ian Macleavy, 2013, LEF]. Taurine is abundant in fish.
 Wojcik OP, Koenig KL, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Costa M, Chen Y. (2010), The potential protective effects of taurine on coronary heart disease, Atherosclerosis, 2010 Jan;208(1):19-25.
 Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM (1999),
Overview of the use of CoQ10 in cardiovascular disease, Biofactors 1999;9(2-4):273-84.
Carnitine (L-Carnitine) [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Amazon; Dietary Sources; Acetyl L-Carnitine, L-carnitine, L-Carnitine L-Tartrate].
L-carnitine is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. Carnitine deficiency is a causitive factor in kidney disease. On the other hand, kidney disease also leads to carnitine deficiency. Carnitine therapy treats cardiovascular disease, anemia, low tolerance for exercise, weakness, and fatigue. Carnitine preserves exercise capacity. See Julius Goepp, MD, "Innovative Strategies to Combat Kidney Disease", Life Extension Magazine, May 2010, p.30. According to Muscle & Fitness Magazine, carnitine is an effective fat-burner that transports fat into the mitochondria where it is consumed, and is therefore often featured as the primary element in a stack for improving muscular definition. It is also a powerful anabolic stimulant that helps store carbohydrates as glycogen in muscle, keeping muscles full and large. Furthermore, it is said to boost nitric oxide levels and increase the number of testosterone receptors in muscles, which helps more testosterone to bind in a way that promotes muscle growth. In addition, carnitine is believed to facilitate the action of insulin-like growth factor IGF-1, which stimulates muscular hypertrophy. Acetyl L-Carnitine is more readily digested than L-carnitine, and increases muscle L-carnitine content better than L-carnitine, which is anti-catabolic by promoting fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria. L-Carnitine is made in the body from methionine (perhaps from fish) and L-Lysine in the presence of Vitamin C.
In training for bodybuilding definition, carnitine is used to create carnitine palmitoyltransferase, an enzyme crucial to the transport of fat into mitochondria. 1-3 grams of L-carnitine or L-carnitine L-tartrate is taken with each meal and before and after each workout. I note that Acetyl L-carnitine is more easily digested than regular carnitine. See also Glycine propionyl L-Carnitine, which elevates nitric oxide in addition to promoting fat burning in mitochondria. See also Logan Bronwell (2013), Carnitine Restores Cellular Function, Life Extension Magazine, March 2013. "With advancing age, carnitine levels decline [Papers] in all of our tissues. Carnitine deficiency leads to wholesale destruction of mitochondria... [Papers]. The heart muscle uses fat as its primary energy source. Carnitine is a fat-transporting compound that is absolutely essential for normal heart function. Over time, the decline of carnitine plays a role in the weakening of the heart’s muscles."
Carnosine [IAAS/Carnosine, L-Carnosine article, QC, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Ben Best; Links/Carnosine eyedrops, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Eye Problems of Old Age, Index/Cataracts; Links/N-acetylcarnosine, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Carnosine is a dipeptide of beta-alanine and histidine used to fight glycation of proteins and DNA leading to the formation of AGEs (irreversibly oxidized Amadori products formed from Schiff bases). Note that beta-alanine [Images] is the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, which is to say carnosine levels are limited by the amount of available beta-alanine. Carnosine is found naturally in high concentrations in skeletal muscle, especially in fast-twitch (Type II) muscle fibers. Carnosine fights the carbonylation of proteins, extends the Hayflick limit for cells in vitro, latest supplement, , (1), (4). Carnosine chelates both copper and iron, helping it both oppose the spread of cancer via copper and helping it to protect hippocampal mitrochondria against copper and iron, opposing cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease.
Carnosine's Mechanism of Action regarding cellular senescence is under investigation. [Patents/Carnosine's mechanism of action, Links, Books, LifeExtension, ImmInst Forum]. See also article on beta-Alanine, which combines with abundant histidine in muscles to form carnosine, raising muscle pH from the acidic range back to the normal range. Carnosine works to buffer high levels of hydrogen ions (H+) produced by energy pathways to keep pH in a normal physiological range, allowing forceful contractions to continue in exercise. I think that the present preponderance of opinion is that carnosine works against cellular senescence by preventing oxidative damage to telomeric DNA. Carnosine dosage is recommended at 500 mg to 1000 mg twice a day. Rather high doses of carnosine have been observed to both prevent cellular senescence and restore senescent cells to their youthful state. See G.A. McFarland, R. Holliday (1994), Retardation of the Senescence of Cultured Human Diploid Fibroblasts by Carnosine, Experimental Cell Research, Vol 212, Issue 2, June 1994, Pages 167–175.
Carnosine Nasal Spray [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension 2s].
Carnosine article - Carnosine: nature's pluripotent life extension agent, [9s].
Carnosine Face Serum [LEF/Carnosine face serum, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], Resilience Rescue, [9s], .
Carnosine as a cure for glycation of proteins in the brain, [Books, LifeExtension] (5), .
Carnosine and cellular senescence [LifeExtension, Links/How does carnosine rejuvenate cells?, Papers].
Carotenoids [Ben Best/Phytochemicals as Nutraceuticals/Carotenoids, QC, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension, Ray]:
__Beta-Carotene [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] (lipid-soluble),
__Lutein [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
__Lycopene [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
__Mesozeaxanthin [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], ect.
__Zeaxanthin [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
Cartilage Aging [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. Boswellia gum extract [Product B/Boswellia Fruit Extract] is an anti-inflammatory nutraceutical that is often used to treat cartilage and associated joint problems such as arthritis. See collagen capsules, hyaluronic acid, glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which contains a list of cartilage components and medicines used in cartilage therapy for arthritis and joint injuries. Cartilage is a connective tissue obtained from mesenchymal cells, which are best telomerase-activated in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor to spread their chromatin, making their telomeres more accessible for telomerase repair and the hTERT gene more accessible for hTERT mRNA transcription. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy may benefit cartilage and joint repair.
Casein Protein [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Casein protein is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. Recent Chinese studies have identified it as a tumor promoter, and it activates telomerase by increasing IGF-1 levels. Therefore your cottage cheese, the casein protein usually separated from whey protein by precipitation with lemon juice or vinegar, is a tumor promoter. When in the diet, it causes rats to develop neuropathy by 27 months of age. However, according to Muscle & Fitness Magazine, casein protein (especially micellar casein) produces a slow-digesting gel in the stomach that takes 7 hours for stomach enzymes to consume, providing a steady stream of amino acids inhibiting muscle catabolism. Recent studies show that casein promotes protein synthesis after workouts, and today the recommended whey/casein protein ratio is about 2 for bodybuilding applications. Note that cow's milk has a whey/casein protein ratio of about 1/4, while human milk has whey/casein = 3/2. Purified whey protein supplements [Images] and casein protein supplements [Images] are available that may be blended to achieve any desired ratio of whey protein to casein protein. See Whey protein.
Castor Oil [Wikipedia, Links/Castor Oil, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Effect of Castor Oil on Hair, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Castor oil is obtained from the castor seed Ricinus communis, probably named for castor oil benefits when applied to the problems of smoothing the way for sexual communion. Castor oil, which contains vitamin E and has antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties, improves circulation in the scalp with ricinoleic acid, improving hair growth, inhibiting hair loss, and tending to restore lost hair. It has also been used on the skin, and as a laxative. It is sticky, and sometimes mixed with lighter oils such as olive oil or jojoba oil for more convenient application. Omega-9 acids in castor oil lock moisure into your hair and scalp.
See The Health Site/8 amazing haircare benefits of castor oil.
Castration [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Books/castration and aging, Links/castration and aging]. Castrated salmon live up to 18 years longer than regular salmon , but if you opt for castration, have the remains cryopreserved. Eunuchs live slightly longer than normal men (Arking, p.326). (8). See Shang-xue Yan, Wei Wei (2011), Castration reverses immunosenescence in aged mice, Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, Vol 32, Issue 8, pp1085-1086, September 2011.
Catalase [Wikipedia, Links/Catalase, Images, Images (catalase supplements), Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/supplements upregulating catalase, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; LifeExtension; Links/the catalase promoter, Images, Papers, Patents, Books], (1). Catalase is an endogenous antioxidant. Catalase is found most abundantly in peroxisomes and in the mitochondria, working to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into oxygen and water, as does glutathione peroxidase.
Note that hydrogen peroxide causes premature senescence in fibroblast cultures, and that melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes generates free radicals thought to produce stress-induced senescence. Catalase acts to neutralize hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), turning it into water and oxygen, and is included in many of the new popular solutions for graying hair. "Our bodies produce hydrogen peroxide which bleaches our hair from the inside out. Our bodies also produce an enzyme called Catalase which breaks down the hydrogen peroxide. As we get older, we don't produce enough Catalase and then the hydrogen peroxide cannot be broken down. As a result, hair is bleached from the inside out, turning it gray." - The Stylelist/2010 "Ashwagandha on chronic administration markedly augmented endogenous antioxidants (GSH, GSHPx, SOD, CAT)" (Ray). [63s]. Recently low catalase levels have been linked to hair greying, so ashwagandha may help. Bacopa also increases endogenous antioxidant levels, including catalase levels, and so may have application to treating gray hair.
Cataracts [Links, Images, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Wikipedia, LifeExtension; Eye Problems of Old Age; Links/Cataract Eye Drops, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See carnosine eye drops for cataracts, . "The senescence of ocular keratocytes correlates with the development of cataracts and may be another target for a telomere relengthening drug." - Sierra Sciences. See eye drops for cataracts [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Cataracts can be caused by the sugar alcohol sorbitol, but sorbitol can be controlled with quercetin, which decreases the expression of the enzyme that produces sorbitol. Onions and apples are suitable dietary sources of quercetin for blocking cataract formation, and onions also contain benfotiamine for improving nerve conduction velocity. Intracellular accumulation of sorbitol reduces osmotic capacity and cell integrity. Acetyl L-carnitine plus alpha lipic acid markedly reduces sorbitol levels in the sciatic nerve and occular lens of experimental animals. See the US Patent by Claudio Cavazza (2002), Antioxidant Composition Comprising Acetyl L-Carnitine and Alpha-Lipoic Acid. Alpha lipoic acid prevents protein glycation and ultimately inhibits the formation of cataract-inducing sorbitol from glucose and galactose by inhibiting aldose reductase. Also note that lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) increases the bioavailability of quercetin (which controls sorbitol), and that lecithin levels decrease by 80-90% during aging.
Cataracts increase in frequency as sun exposure goes up. Note that Fenugreek seeds reduce cataract incidence in diabetic rats. "Scientists found a 40% lower rate of cataracts occuring at the center of the lens for every milligram increase in their daily intake of lutein and zeaxanthin!" - LifeExtension. See Foods Containing Lutein and Zeaxanthin [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Green vegetables such as kale, spinach, turnip greens, collard greens, romaine lettuce, broccoli, zucchini, garden peas and brussel sprouts are the finest sources of lutein [Index] and zeaxanthin [Index]. Sustained excess glucose > 85 mg/dL can lead to Maillard reactions associated with glycation, AGEs, and browning that can result in cataracts, atherosclerosis, kidney disease, neurological deterioration, and tissue stiffening in arteries that can lead to a subclavian anuerysm during athletic stress.
DHA is associated with dendrite formation and complexity, brain synaptogenesis, and corneal nerve regeneration in experimental animals, making it useful for treating cataract surgery problems. See DHA with Epithelial Growth Factor Enhances Nerve Regeneration After Corneal Surgery, PUFA Newsletter, Issue 79.
Cathodic protection of genes [Adam Heller, Spiers Memorial Lecture. On the hypothesis of cathodic protection of genes, Links, Papers].
Cat's Claw Extract (CAE) [QC, LifeExtension, Ray Sahelian, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Cat's Claw Extract Supplements, LifeExtension; Links/cat's claw extract for DNA repair]. Cat's Claw extract is a DNA repair enhancer [Optigenex AC-11, Books/DNA repair enhancement, LifeExtension] and anticancer drug [LifeExtension, Books] described in The Anti-Aging Solution by Giampapa, Pero, and Zimmerman. Cat's claw extract is available for topical application in DNA repair skin creams [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] or in DNA repair capsules [Links, Books, LifeExtension] for internal application. The pharmacologically active components of Cat's Claw Extract are thought by some to be oxindole alkaloids [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Dr. Ron Pero came to realize that a class of active compounds called carboxyl alkyl esters (CAEs) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] synergistically increased the anti-inflammatory, DNA repairing and immune modulating properties of Uncaria Tomentosa [Images, Video], supplied in Pero's AC-11 without oxindole alkaloids. Cat's Claw extract is a telomerase inhibitor (35) according to RevGenetics/Astral Fruit C. However, confirmation was not easy to find.
Causes of Death [Mortality Charts, Ben Best, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. Below: Leading Causes of Death in New York State.
See index entries for Alzheimer's Disease, Aortic Stenosis, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Cardiovascular Disease, COPD, Dementia, Heart Attack, HIV, Parkinson's Disease, Pneumonia, Smoking, and Stroke.
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