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CDP-choline (cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) [Links/CDP-choline, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/CDP-choline]. "Molecules like CDP-choline are vital for proper synapse function in the brain and for associated cell growth and repair. It is said to have nootropic effect. UMP supplementation [Links, Images, LEF] in laboratory animals "dramatically increases the production of vital brain cell membrane structural molecules such as CDP-choline." - LifeExtension, March 2009. "Administration of CDP-choline to healthy adults resulted in a dramatic 4-fold increase in Growth Hormone levels, compared with baseline levels." - LifeExtension, March 2009. "CDP choline, arginine, ornithine, glycine, glutamine, and niacin (vitamin B3) can help support HGH secretion, assist muscle growth and recovery from exercise, and help sleep.", ibed. CDP-choline (Citicoline) "helps make phosphatidylcholine in human brain cell membranes in older individuals; may increase acetylcholine synthesis; improves mental performance in patients with Alzheimer's Disease; and even improves memory in elderly patients with memory deficits." - Ray Sahelian/CPD-Choline. CDP-choline has been produced from the uridine 5'-monophosphate obtained from the milk of nursing mothers. Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC) is similarly an HGH Secretagogue that is a source of that is a source of choline useful for treating old age cognitive decline.
Cellular Biology [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LibCong, Amazon], .
Cellular Immortalization [Index/Immortalization of Cells, Links/Cellular Immortalization, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Links/Cellular Immortalization Protocols, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; The History of Cellular Immortalization, Images, Papers, Books].
Telomerase (7) was discovered by Elizabeth Blackburn and Carol W. Greider in 1985, just a few years before Woodring E. Wright's 1989 paper on cellular immortalization or reversible senescence [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Cell Membrane and Lipofuscin Wastes Theory of Aging [Links/Membrane Theory of Aging, Books/Cell Membrane and Lipofuscin Wastes Theory of Aging, LifeExtension/lipofuscin] Membrane detoxification, (4), (13). See Lipofuscin, Ceroid and The Membrane Hypothesis of Aging by Imre Zs-Nagy.
Cellular Senescence [Index/Replicative Senescence, Index/Senescence, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, Senescence.info, LifeExtension, Wikipedia; Links/Senescent cells, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Senescence.info/cell_aging, Therapy for Recovery from Senescence, Restore or Replace Senescent Cells?; Supplements Eliminating Senescent Cells; Ben Best/Cellular Senescence and Apoptosis in Aging; (7)], .
Cellular senescence (replicative senescence in dividing, mitotically competent cells) typically takes place in humans when cell division (mitosis) shortens a cellular telomere to the M1 point at which the telomere t-loop opens, supplying a double-strand DNA break that activates a cell-cycle checkpoint associated with senescence and growth arrest. "Senescent cells are growth arrested in the transition from phase G1 to phase S of the cell cycle." - Senescence.info/cell_aging. Senescence growth arrest cannot be trivially reversed by the application of growth factors without lowering caveolin-1 (gene CAV1) levels, and once it starts in a population of cultivated cells, the percentage of senescent, growth-arrested cells gradually increases until finally all of the cells are in their morphologically diverse, frequently enlarged growth-arrested state [Images, Pic(Normal fibroblast frame, then 3 senescent fibroblast frames)]. See Thomas Kuilman, Chrysiis Michaloglou, Wolter J. Mooi and Daniel S. Peeper (2010), The essence of senescence, Genes and Development, 2010, 24: 2463-2479. After senescence, we find that caveolin-1 (gene CAV1) levels have increased until growth hormone signal-processing caveolae on the cell membrane have vanished and become internalized, so that EGF and PDGF growth factors cannot signal though receptors in cell membrane caveolae and the cell has changed its morphology to that of the swollen, distended senescent phenotype.
If p16INK4A levels are too high after p53 is activated, telomere t-loops are more difficult to close after cell divisions, making replicative senescence effectively irreversible. (Then only adult stem cells can save the situation by replacing the cell after apoptosis.) "Most senescent cells seem to express P16INK4A, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and tumour suppressor that enforces growth arrest by activating Rb." (Darren J. Baker, et al, (2011)). Therefore we try to keep P16INK4a levels low with nerve growth factor, which promotes the expression of ID-1 helix-loop-helix transcription factor that keeps P16INK4a levels low. Exercise, resveratrol, and retinol from carrots also keep P16INK4A low.
The population of nearly irreversibly senescent cells may be reduced prior to senescence by applying a telomerase activator such as astragalus root (< 33 grams/day), astragalus root extract, Product B, cycloastragenol, astragaloside IV, astragalosides, astragalus extract, trichostatin A, Nitric Oxide (for the vascular endothelium, via arginine and citrulline), or epithalon peptide, among others in a program of cyclic application [Example 2012]. In animals such as mice, cellular senescence is typically observed as stress-induced premature senescence before the cell runs out of of telomere length and opens the telomere t-loop, typically being a consequence of DNA damage [Wiki/DNA damage theory of aging] due to oxidative stress from ROS (perhaps from ROS due to glycation) that results in activation of the cell cycle checkpoint via DNA damage detection proteins, typically including the tumor suppressor protein p53. For this senescence pathway (which may be a factor in humans) one prescribes antioxidants, iron-chelating drugs like curcumin to prevent Fenton reactions, and anti-glycating drugs such as vitamin C, vitamin B1, benfotiamine, and vitamin B6 [Index] together with a low-sugar, low-fat diet featuring caloric restriction to prevent glycation reactions leading to AGEs and consequently elevated ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) levels. Cat's Claw extract preparations such as AC-11 may be taken to accelerate and improve DNA repair, which may also be assisted by using nicoplex [Links]. Ashwaganda [Index] helps prevent DNA damage by keeping endogenous antioxidant levels high. DNA damage to mitochondrial DNA, which is less well defended than nuclear DNA [Links], may sometimes lead to cellular failure including apoptosis and/or growth arrest. Mitochondrial DNA damage [Links/consequences] is typically fought with Acetyl L-carnitine and alpha lipoic acid, and also with ubiquinone or ubiquinol CoQ10. DMAE, centrophenoxine, or BCE-001 may be used to rehydrate old cells (with membrane proteins cross-linked by OH radical reactions) in order to facilitate transcription and other desirable internal cellular reactions during treatment, according to The Membrane Hypothesis of Aging by Zs-Nagy (13).
I might add that I get the impression that telomere t-loops transiently open and shut to allow telomere homeostasis to operate and extend telomeres without the temporarily open t-loop being detected as a double-strand DNA break that invokes p53 and stops the cell cyle. Telomerase does not work on a closed t-loop, but only after it opens, according to Elizabeth Blackburn. T-loops open when the telomere nucleoprotein complex (Shelterin) loop-closure protein TRF1 is poly(ADP-ribosylated) by tankyrase 1, which may be phosphorylated for the reaction by insulin, PDGF, or EGF. On the other hand, if p53 functions to stop the cell cycle after recognizing an open telomere t-loop as a double strand DNA break, the ensuing state of replicative senescence is irreversible if p16 (which enforces growth arrest by activating Rb) is at too high a level, according to Judith Campisi and her colleagues.
Cell Types [Links/Human Cell Types, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon, LibCong/Human Cell types; Wikipedia/Human_cells, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon/Human Cells]. Human cell types in the human body number 220, (3). Also see The Cell, The Molecular Biology of the Cell, Cell Types, Procaryotic cells, Eucaryotic Cells, Viruses, Plant Cells, and Animal Cells.
Cellulite Fat [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Wikipedia, Amazon, LifeExtension, Links/anti-cellulite cream, Bodyshape by Hydroderm]. Cellulite is due to collagenase released during the menstral cycle, which attacks collagen in the top layer of the three fat layers in the skin. This causes globules of fat to appear between degraded collagen sectors. Cortisol from stress may be a factor in fat deposition. The Life Extension Foundation attacks the problem using glycyrrhetinic acid (Glycyrrhiza) from licorice to fight fat deposition due to corisol secretion, horse chestnut to improve circulation and reduce capillary leakage, and gotu kola, to stimulate collagen synthesis. In addition, they use several fat-reducing compounds [Index/Caloric Restriction]. See Life Extension's Cellulite Suppress Formula. Women are more vulnerable to cellulite than men, and the disease is usually pictured as due to the cyclic hormones of the menstral cycle.
Centrophenoxine (Lucidril, Meclofenoxate) [Index/Lucidril, IAAS/Centrophenoxine, (DMAE + Auxin), Links/Centrophenoxine, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong; Links/Lucidril]. Centrophenoxine produces higher brain DMAE levels [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] than taking DMAE itself , (4). See also Centrophenoxine - anti-aging brain booster. Centrophenoxine is a lipofuscin formation inhibitor that extends rat life spans up to 33%. Centrophenoxine slows accumulation of lipofuscin without reversing or completely eliminating it [Alexei Terman & Martin Welander, 1999]. (13)
Anthony Cerami [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Home Page, LifeExtension]. Anthony Cerami was the father of the glycation theory of aging.
Age in Years
Fluorescence of AGEs due to glycation in human tissue VS. Age in years. (Photo from text.)
Ceramides (See Phytoceramides and Facial Rejuvenation).
Cernitin [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] A European pollen extract that regulates inflammatory reactions [Links], counteracts dihydrotestosterone (DHT) causing hair loss, and relaxes smooth muscles of the urethra.
Certificate of Analysis [Links, Images, Books]. TA-65 has one, for instance.
Cervical Cancer [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon; Cancer, Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors; Curcumin; HPV virus, Genital Warts]. Cervical cancer in the cervix of a woman's womb can originate from some varieties of papilloma virus (HPV) [LifeExtension]. See also Mayank Singh and Neeta Singh, (2009), Molecular mechanism of curcumin induced cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells, Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Vol 325, No 1-2 / May, 2009, pp 107-119. Perhaps turmeric (which includes curcumin) may be taken with black pepper to promote cytotoxic destruction of cervical cancer cells, or LEF Super Bioavailable Curcumin may be taken. Curcumin is a telomerase inhibitor that ought to promote cancer cell apoptosis, especially if taken with an angiogenesis inhibitor. Papilloma virus-positive women (HPV-positive women) who consume vitamin supplements have a lower risk of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia (cervical dysplasia). - Int. J. Gynecol Cancer 2010, April; 20(3):398-403, after Dayna Dye, Supplement Use Associated with Lower Risk of Cervical Dysplasia in HPV-Positive Women, Life Extension Magazine, July 2010. There are about 60 types of papilloma virus [Images] (DNA genome of about 8 kb) infecting epithelial cells [Images], some of which are carcinogenic. Cervical cancer mortality has been reduced in the USA by the introduction of the Pap smear developed by George Papanicolaou in the 1930s, but still accounts for 5-10% of cancer around the world. Cell transformation by the papilloma virus results from expression of viral genes E6 and E7 producing E6 and E7 proteins interacting with the tumor-suppressor genes p53 and Rb. E6 protein stimulates ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of p53 protein, and E7 protein binds to Rb. Zur Hausen, H., 2002, Papillomaviruses and Cancer: From basic studies to clinical application, Nature Rev. Cancer 2:342-350. Note that silibinin, the primary constituent of silymarin in milk thistle, is a telomerase inhibitor that works well as an anticancer agent against cervical cancer, human prostate adenocarcinoma cells, breast cancer carcinoma cells, ectocervical cancer cells, colon cancer cells, and both small and large lung carcinoma cells. See Yu HC, Chen LJ, Cheng KC, Li YX, Yeh CH, Cheng JT. (2012), Silymarin inhibits cervical cancer cell through an increase of phosphatase and tensin homolog, Phytotherapy Research 2012 May;26(5):709-15.
Retinoic acid [List, Retinol] is useful for treating cervical cancer, and is used to cure acute myelocytic leukemia. Retinoic acid has been reported to down-regulate telomerase in HPV-transformed model cervical cancer cells by Z Ding, AG Green, X Yang, G Chernenko, SC Tang, et al. (2002), Retinoic Acid Inhibits Telomerase Activity and Downregulates Expression but Does Not Affect Splicing, Experimental Cell Research, 2002. [Papers/Retinoic acid and telomerase activation]. "All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of HPV-immortalized HEN-16-2 cells and transformed/MDR HEN-16-2/CDDP cells inhibited telomerase activity and downregulated expression of hTERT mRNAs..." (Z Ding, AG Green, et al, 2002). See Sutapa Mahata, Alok C Bharti, Shirish Shukla, Abhishek Tyagi, Syed A Husain and Bhudev C Das (2011), Berberine modulates AP-1 activity to suppress HPV transcription and downstream signaling to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells, Molecular Cancer, April 15, 2011 (online edition). See also Berberine supplements. The most effective home remedy for genital warts associated with HPV infection seems to be apple cider vinegar.
Music: Along Comes Mary by The Association.
CGK 1026 [TelomeraseActivator/CGK1026, CGK 1026 Article, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
CGK1026 "derepresses hTERT expression". The HDAC inhibitor CGK1026 inhibits the recruitment of HDAC [histone deacetylases] into E2F-pocket protein complexes assembled on the hTERT promoter.  Source: Linscott's Directory of Immunological and Biological Reagents, catalog # 565730. Merck CGK 1026 - Order # 565730-5MG. CGK1026 binds to E2F binding sites [Images, Papers, Books] on the hTERT promoter, and inhibits the binding of histone deacetylase 1 [Images, Papers, Books] and histone deacetylase 2 [Images, Papers, Books] to derepress hTERT transcription. EMC Biosciences CGK1026. CGK 1026 has been used to replace Tricostatin A in some medical applications. See also Won J, Chang C, Oh S, and Kim T, Small-molecule-based identification of dynamic assembly of E2F-pocket protein-histone deacetylase complex for telomerase regulation in human cells [PDF], PNAS, 2004, and related articles on CGK1026. Won and coworkers identified CGK1026 from a library of 20,000 compounds using an hTERT promoter screen and high-throughput testing technique. There are indications that CGK1026 is orally bioavailable, relatively non-toxic, and penetrates the cell membrane directly. CGK 1026 probably works to accelerate the transcription of hTERT mRNA when other telomerase activators [Index] that promote hTERT mRNA transcription are used, so that it may make a good component in a package designed for parallel activation of hTERT transcription.
Scriptaid 565730 CGK1026; 6-(1,3-Dioxo-1H,3H-benzo[de]isoquinolin- 2-yl)-hexanoic Acid Hydroxyamide. A relatively non-toxic, cell-permeable hydroxamic acid-containing histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Facilitates transcriptional activation (TGFß/Smad4) in both stable and transient receptor assays in a concentration-dependent manner. At ~2 µg/ ml (6-8 µM) concentrations, results in a greater than 100-fold increase in histone acetylation in PANC-1 cells. Reported to derepress hTERT [Images, Papers] by inhibiting the recruitment of HDAC into E2F-pocket protein [Images, Papers] complexes assembled on the hTERT promoter [Images]. - Calbiochem Brochure. In November 2013, CGK1026 was available for $119.00 per 5 mg from EMD Millipore Chemicals.
Chaga Mushroom [Wikipedia/Chaga_mushroom, Links/Chaga, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Inonotus obliquus, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Chaga extract tea, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Chaga toxicity]. Chaga (400 mg) may be used to elevate SOD levels. Google quotes: "The SOD content of Chaga is 25-50 times higher than any known medicinal mushroom." Chaga is believed to be the strongest anticancer medicinal mushroom [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]. - Wikipedia/Chaga. See Anticarcinogens. Chaga contains massive amounts of melanin, and may be useful in reversing hair greying. (Wikipedia/Chaga_mushroom) Perhaps Chaga may be filtered or separated to remove melanin before use. See melanin solubility. Extracts for chaga polyphenols [Papers, Patents] and chaga polysaccharides [Papers, Patents] are made by hot water extraction, but for anticancer betulinic acid [Papers, Patents], betulin [Papers, Patents] and phyto-sterols [Papers, Patents], extraction is done with ethanol. Phyto-sterols, betulinic acid and betulin are missing from hot water extracts. Fermentation methods are also used to prepare chaga extracts. See also Li Ching-Yuen and Immortality Diet. Note that there are medicines such as Ashwagandha, Huperzine A, Bacopa, Wheatgrass, Shilajit, and Chinese Wolfberry (GoJi Berry) that elevate SOD and endogenous antioxidant levels without actually containing any SOD, which is (for SOD1 (cytoplasmic SOD), SOD2 (Mitochondrial SOD), and SOD3 (Extracellular SOD)) a molecule of low bioavailability. GliSODin and SODzyme also elevate SOD. I get the impression that some aqueous extracts of chaga are high in SOD and very high on the ORAC scale. See the following lab report on an aqueous extract of chaga, Chaga International’s Wildcrafted Siberian Chaga Extract. "The SOD tests on Wildcrafted Siberian Chaga extract demonstrated values of 3,781 kunits SODeq/ liter, 5 times more SOD than Xango [Images] and 9.8 times more than Noni [Images] on a volume comparison. The SOD data on Chaga International’s Wildcrafted Chaga compared to various other medicinal mushroom tinctures shows that your Chaga aqueous extract has
Cheeses [Wikipedia, Links/Composition of cheeses, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Books/cheeses and medicine, LibCong, LifeExtension/Cheese]. Many cheeses are up to 70% unhealthy fat, a promoter for carcinogenesis and artherosclerosis, but valuable for vitamin K2, which puts calcium back into bones and inhibits systemic calcification leading to aortic stenosis and calcified atherosclerotic plaque. Calcium supplements also inhibit systemic calcification. Cottage cheese is a casein protein curd low in fats and carbohydrates and high in protein, but containing no whey protein. Casein protein was identified as a tumor promoter by Chinese scientists, so that perhaps even cottage cheese should be avoided in favor of yogurt. I seem to recall that casein protein eventually causes neuropathy in rats. However, hard cheeses such as Swiss cheese are very high in vitamin K2, only natto having more. Therefore little bricks of hard cheese may be taken like vitamin K2 supplement pills, which are also available. The vitamin K2 in cheese arises from bacterial fermentation, which also produces vitamin K2 in the stomach.
Chelation [pronunciation, Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, Ben Best] - Lipoic acid supplementation reduces free iron levels [Links], NAC (N-acetyl cysteine, Links) chelates heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead, while carnosine and curcumin chelate iron and copper. Resveratrol chelates copper only. (12). Curcumin chelates aluminum, which can produce neurofibrulary tangles associated with Alzheimer's Disease. See the index entries for Metal Ions and Metal Ion Chelation.
Chemotherapy [Wikipedia/Chemotherapy, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension/Chemotherapy]. The Life Extension Foundation claims that many chemotherapy techniques from the past are now outmoded and comparatively dangerous or ineffective by comparison with modern targeted anticancer therapies [Books, LifeExtension/Targeted Anticancer Therapies, Amazon].
Cherries [Links/medicinal properties of tart cherries, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/tart cherries]. - Tart cherries contain medically valuable melatonin and anthocyanidins.
Chili peppers & broccoli anticancer [Aphrodite/Chili peppers & broccoli anticancer, Links/Capsaicin, LifeExtension/Capsaicin, Index/Capsaicin], .
Chitosan (pron: cheat-o-san) [Wikipedia/Chitosan, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/chitosan, LibCong; Images/the chitosan molecule]. Chitosan improves the bioavailability of astragaloside IV [Papers], a small molecule telomerase activator [81s/TA] which is more bioavailable from ethanolic astragalus extracts, as does sodium deoxycholate [article, Links, Books]. "Chitosan enhances the transport of polar drugs across epithelial surfaces." [Papers, Books/Drug transport]. See also Maria Jose Cano-Cebrian, et al., 2005: Intestinal Absorption Enhancement via the Paracellular Route by Fatty Acids, Chitosans, and Others: A Target for Drug Delivery, Current Drug Delivery, 2005, 2, 9-22. See also Chitosan and sodium deoxycholate can be used as absorption enhancers for Astragaloside IV, (Huang CR 2006). Chitosan, taken at about 2 grams before meals, attracts fat and binds it before it can be absorbed, and is used as an aid to caloric restriction.
Chlorella [Links/Chlorella, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Chlorella has appeared as a component of an Immortality Diet proposal, as a source of chlorophyll, which is a source of magnesium having anticancer properties. See Li Ching-Yuen.
Chlorophyll [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Chlorophyll nutraceuticals, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See Chlorophyll Can Help Treat Cancer. Also, I note that chlorophyll should be a good source of magnesium, a cofactor for DNA helicases such as the WRN DNA helicase implicated in telomere malfunction. Note that in primitive times man has subsisted on grasses, so that chlorophyll may have been prevalent in the diet of early man.
Chocamine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Chocamine is a cocoa extract containing caffeine, phenylethylamine, theobromine, and tyramine that promotes combustion of fatty acids, elevates energy, and suppresses appetite while at the same time (phenylethylamine) enhancing mood, concentration, and alertness. 1 to 2 grams/serving is recommended, 1 to 3 servings/day. - (after Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 2010).
Chocolate [Health Eating Club/Dark Chocolate, QC, LibCong, Esthechoc with astaxanthin]. for longevity, anti-aging chocolates, benefits, WebMD on chocolates, more, may inhibit lipid peroxidation, Chocolate about 50% saturated fat, Cocoa powder low in fat, high in polyphenols, super antioxidant. See Chemopreventive Effects of Cocoa Polyphenols on Chronic Diseases [Books/Cocoa polyphenols]. [25k]. See Cocoa Polyphenols, below. Chocolate boosts the blood supply in the brain (probably due to its arginine content), according to Life Extension Magazine, reducing the risk of dementia, another good reason for aging record holder Madame Jeanne-Louise Calment (1875 - 1997) [Photo Gallery] to take 5 lb. per week of it. There are 4,500 mg of arginine per 3.5 oz of chocolate [Ref]. I compute that 2 lb of chocolate/week yields 5.877551 grams/day of arginine, or 5 lb of chocolate/week yields 14.696 grams/day of arginine. Increased chocolate consumption improves blood flow to the brain for 2 to 3 hours. Arginine in cocoa (100 mg/tablespoon) or chocolate is processed by nitric oxide synthase into the vasodilator Nitric Oxide, which may also have telomerase-activating effect on vascular endothelial cells. Up to 12 grams of arginine (corresponding to 120 tablespoons of cocoa at 10 tablespoons of cocoa per gram of arginine) may be taken per day in various forms of nitric oxide therapy. Dark chocolate is superior to milk chocolate because it contains more cocoa flavonols per gram. See also Health Eating Club/Chocolate...What's in the cocoa bean?, (0). Chocolate polyphenols such as catechins are telomerase-inhibiting dietary polyphenols that should not be taken when using telomerase activators to activate hTERT. In fact, while trying to activate telomerase it is best be on a low-polyphenol diet, because digestion of high-polyphenol diets produces telomerase inhibitors.
Theobromine [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
The cAMP-preserving phosphodiesterase inhibitor theobromine is found in chocolate and in concentrated form in supplements. Cyclic AMP inhibits the expression of caveolin-1 to enable recovery from the senescent cellular phenotype. The effects of theobromine supplements are seen at concentrations between 100 to 560 mg, and a 50 gram piece of dark chocolate may contain on average 378 mg theobromine.
Anti-aging chocolate Esthechoc, which includes astaxanthin, is promoted as keeping old skin in youthful condition.
Cholesterol, [QC, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension; Atherosclerosis], low cholesterol diet no-nos, , . Cholesterol is composed of HDL (High Density Lipoprotein), LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein), and VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein).
LDL Cholesterol and Senescence
LDL Cholesterol can increase the expression of the membrane gatekeeper protein caveolin-1, which can cause premature cellular senescence by destroying receptor-mediated signaling from flask-shaped caveolae in the cell membrane as caveolae are pinched off and internalized, and by acting to increase the expression of p53 and p21. Lowering the expression of caveolin-1 can reverse the senescent phenotype of the cell, restore the youthful cellular phenotype, and revive receptor-mediated endocytosis (Refs 9), so that low LDL levels help to prevent senescence and support cellular rejuvenation. See Bist A., Fielding P. E., Fielding C. J. (1997), Two sterol regulatory element-like sequences mediate up-regulation of caveolin gene transcription in response to low density lipoprotein free cholesterol, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997;94:10693–10698 and Cho KA, Ryu SJ, Park JS, Jang IS, Ahn JS, Kim KT, Park SC (2003), Senescent phenotype can be reversed by reduction of caveolin status [Papers, Patents, Books], Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2003 Jul 25;278(30):27789-95.
LDL Cholesterol and Amyloid Beta
Patients who have higher levels of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol have higher levels of amyloid in the brain. - After Bruce Reed; Sylvia Villeneuve; Wendy Mack; Charles DeCarli; Helena C. Chui; William Jagust (2013), Associations Between Serum Cholesterol Levels and Cerebral Amyloidosis, JAMA Neurology, 30 Dec. 2013. "Elevated cerebral [beta-amyloid] level was associated with cholesterol fractions in a pattern analogous to that found in coronary artery disease”.
LDL Cholesterol and Atherosclerotic Plaque
If the LDL/HDL ratio is low enough, reverse cholesterol transport can take place. On the other hand, a high LDL/HDL ratio makes conditions more favorable for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Gymnema Sylvestre increases the excretion of cholesterol in feces, so that it is useful for lowering cholesterol (P.Kanetkar, R. Singhal, and M. Kamat (2007), Gymnema Sylvestre: A Memoir, Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 41, 77-81, September 2007). Gymnema Sylvestre reduces both serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Testosterone, amplified by forskolin or fenugreek extract, also promotes reverse cholesterol transport. Also note that the senescence of vascular endothelial cells makes them more adhesive to monocytes, also facilitating the build-up of atherosclerotic plaque. This mechanism can be opposed by rejuvenating the cells of the vascular endothelium with nitric oxide (NO) obtained from bodybuilding exercise, which produces nitric oxide synthase, in the presence of L-arginine (5 grams/day) and L-citrulline (200 mg to 1 gram per day), as suggested by Nobel Prize Winner Louis B. Ignarro in his popular book NO More Heart Disease. Note that bodybuilding exercise (9) also produces Interleukin 6 [List], which leads to production of HSP 90, a heat shock protein useful in transporting nuclear transcription factors such as astragaloside IV metabolites (TA-65, probably cycloastragenol) into the nucleus for further rejuvenation via telomerase activation and telomere reconstruction leading to longer telomeres and reclosure of telomere t-loops, prevention of the associated DNA damage signal halting the cell cycle via p53 or Rb protein, and recovery of the youthful cellular phenotype [Images] via the telomere position effect. Longer telomeres produce more youthful patterns of gene expression, preventing growth arrest and the senescent state of the cell, although both are difficult to reverse most of the time. Note that if p16INK4a levels are too high, open telomere t-loops cannot be resealed after cell division and replicative senescence seems to be irreversible. Then only apoptosis of the cell and stem cell repair (using vigorous stem cells with long telomeres) can restore tissue at the site. Nerve Growth Factor from acetyl L-carnitine, PQQ, huperzine A, carnosic acid, rosemary extract, or other sources may be used to produce Id-1 helix-loop-helix transcription factor, which inhibits P16INK4A expression. P16INK4A expression can also be inhibited by resveratrol, exercise, and retinol from carrots. Otherwise, only adult stem cells can save the day. Nitric Oxide was experimentally shown to activate telomerase in endothelial cells for rejuvenation as shown in separate papers by teams lead by Vasa and Hayashi in the first decade of the 21st century [Vasa, et. al, 2000; Hayashi, et.al, 2006]. Since then doubts have surfaced in papers by [Erusalimsky JD, 2009] and by [Hong Y, Quintero M, Frakich NM, Trivier E, Erusalimsky JD, 2007], which argue that SIRT1 activation occurs due to Nitric Oxide, but not telomerase activation. However, telomerase activation was actually measured as a consequence of stimulation with nitric oxide, in my opinion.
 Susan Wiggins (2015),
Natural Methods To Control Cholesterol,
Life Extension Magazine May 2015.
Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors [QC, LifeExtension, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia]. Also Statin Drugs.
Choline [QC, Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, LibCong; hTERT methylation]. Choline is a methyl donor for gene silencing, although SAM-e is the primary methyl donor for biological reactions. See also CDP-choline and Citicoline. Sources of choline [Links] include Krill Oil. CDP-choline [Links] can be generated from uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) [Links] found in the milk of nursing mothers. Nutraceutical sources of choline include soybeans, egg yolk, butter, peanuts, potatoes, cauliflower, lentils, oats, sesame seeds [Index] and flax seeds. See also alpha-glycerylphosophocholine (Alpha-GPC).
Chondroitin Sulfate [Wikipedia/Chondroitin_Sulfate, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Toxicity; Side Effects]. Chondroitin sulfate (400 mg x 3, often given with glucosamine sulfate 500 mg x 3) is a primary structural component of joint cartilage used to treat osteoarthritis and joint inflammation that helps in treating and avoiding joint problems. See Joint Injuries. Glucosamine (500 mg x 3) [Index] is a structural component of cartilage involved in joint flexibility and mobility. Glucosamine can treat elderly stiff back problems that have old men describing themselves as "stiffs". Glucosamine supplements slow cartilage degeneration, repair connective tissue, and boost the synovial fluid that lubricates joints. Other elements of a joint treatment program include collagen hydrolysate [Images] at 1.5 g x 3 to help regenerate cartilage and hyaluronic acid [Images] at 150 mg x 2 (a glycosaminoglycan like glucosamine) to enhance cartilage repair. Cartilage repair is also enhanced by boswellia fruit extract (Indian Frankincense), a component of Product B. Cartilage is derived from mesenchymal cells, and may be repaired with mesenchymal stem cell transplants. For treating a stiff back, medical specialists also sometimes prescribe ENBREL, a TNF-alpha inhibitor like luteolin from celery or the TNF-alpha inhibitor in pomegrante flower extracts.
Chromatin in gene silencing [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong] and sirtuins [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension], [27s], (0). Chromatin may be silenced by compacting it with histone deacetylases (HDACs) and enabled for transcription by decompacting it with HDAC inhibitors. SIRT1, which is activated by resveratrol, acts to compact chromatin for gene silencing.
Chromium Picolinate [Berkeley Wellness/Chromium picolinate, QC, Links, Video, Papers, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Ben Best]. Chromium picolinate may harm DNA but increases the life span of mice 15%, (6). Chromium picolinate enhances fat loss and reduces carbohydrate cravings, while also reducing cortisol levels. 200-400 micrograms of chromium picolinate or chromium nicotinate are taken daily with food. - (dosage after Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 2010).
Chromosomes [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong]. For the genes of the human genome, see Index/Gene. Also see Bioinformatics, Pathway Analysis Wikipedia/Category: Molecular Genetics, Telomeres (7), Telomerase, the Telosome (Shelterin) and Mammalian Telomere Protein Factors.
Chronic diseases of old age [lifexfoot2.html/Chronic Diseases of Old Age, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension], .
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) [Wikipedia, Links/Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Essay/Smoking]. A typical result of smoking with inhalation that is a substantial cause of death. See Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease in Causes of Death in New York State, below.
Quercetin...opens up COPD-inflicted airways. It restores normal elasticity of lung tissue and reduces inflammation. Just as important, it reduces production of the protein-melting enzymes that dissolve alveolar walls, helping to retain the lungs' normal architecture and function." - Anne Buckley (2012), Quercetin: Broad-Spectrum Protection, Life Extension Magazine, September 2012. COPD resembles black lung from breathing coal dust. Bharani A, Ahirwar LK, Jain J (2004), Terminalia arjuna reverses impaired endothelial function in chronic smokers, Indian Heart Journal, 2004 Mar-Apr;56(2):123-8. See Arjuna. Also see Lung Cancer.
C-Med-100 [Prothera/C-Med-100, Pero's Cat's Claw Extract: Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. C-Med-100 has been replaced by AC-11 [Links].
C-myc [Telomerase Activators/C-myc, hTERT Promoter/c-Myc, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong Amazon, LifeExtension]. C-myc is a gene producing the c-myc protein, a transcription factor that upregulates hTERT, which produces the catalytic component of the DNA repair enzyme telomerase, the reverse transcriptase that extends telomeres. C-myc also upregulates DKC1, the gene for the telomerase component dyskerin. According to Wikipedia/Myc, c-Myc universally upregulates all genes but early response genes such as c-Myc, c-fos and c-jun. Thus c-Myc should also upregulate hTR, the third component of telomerase. Note that ginger extract inhibits both c-Myc and hTERT expression, as does vitamin D [List]. Dr. Michael Fossel has pointed out in Cells, Aging, and Human Disease that c-myc, or c-myc activators, may be useful in life extension applications for re-extending telomeres in order to escape from replicative senescence. Ordinarily, we have no problems with c-myc, which is located towards the q-end of chromosome 8. C-myc is normally expressed as a transcription factor in response to growth factors such as EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor, found in colostrum), which excites the proliferation of many types of cells, and which is also a telomerase activator. C-myc is also upregulated by PDGF, also found in colostrum. However, c-Myc is an oncogene [Papers, Books, Amazon] in Burkitt's lymphoma. This happens when c-myc is translocated to an immunoglobin location toward the q-end of chromosome 14, in which case its expression becomes unregulated. There are also Burkitt's lymphomas associated with c-myc translocation to immunoglobin sites on chromosome 2 and chromosome 22, in which c-myc becomes similarly unregulated. The translocation leading to Burkitt's lymphoma usually occurs as a consequence of a Herpes virus infection, or from infection with Epstein-Barr virus, and sometimes as a consequence of infection with HIV. [Geoffrey M. Cooper, Ch.15, Cancer, The Cell, 1997, p.608, pp. 618-619.] As I recall from on-line research (check), Bcl-2 upregulation tends to promote lymphoma when C-myc levels are high, so that simultaneous upregulation of C-myc and Bcl-2 may be a cancer hazard. When upregulating Bcl-2, avoid Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). Note that astragalus extract upregulates IL-2 and consequently Bcl-2, so that Colostrum, which upregulates EGF, should probably not be taken when using astragalus extract for telomerase activation (7). This seems not to be a problem in a program of cyclic application, however. EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor, found in colostrum) and PDGF (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor) upregulate c-Myc. Note also that "...Tankyrase is quantitatively phosphorylated on certain serine residues by MAPK upon stimulation with insulin, PDGF, and EGF." (Chi and Lodish, 2000).
Cinnamon and blood sugar [Wikipedia/Cinnamon, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/controling blood sugar, Links/treating hyperglycemia]. Blood sugar can be lowered with cinnamon as part of a program to fight sugar damage glycation and the consequent synthesis of Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) from oxidized Amadori products derived from Schiff bases. Another method of keeping blood sugar within bounds is to keep cortisol levels due to stress low. See index entries for Glucoregulatory Agents and Caloric Restriction. Cinnamon is also a powerful antiviral drug effective against HIV-1 and HIV-2 types of HIV virus. Eugenol [Index], made from the leaves of the Cinnamon bush, is effective against both oral Herpes (HSV-1 virus) and genital Herpes (HSV-2 virus). Eugenol is also found in basil. Compounds in cinnamon reduce the aggregation of tau protein that occurs, along with amyloid-beta aggregation, in Alzheimer’s disease (Donald J. Graves, et al, Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 2013 Jun;36(1)21-40). Cinnamon extract can "inhibit tau aggregation and dissociate tangles in brain tissue derived from Alzheimer’s disease patients" (Life Extension Magazine News, Sept. 2013). Cinnamon extends the life span of C. Elegans up to 14.5 percent. [Will Block, 2010].
Citrulline [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. L-citrulline (200 mg to 3000 mg/day) and L-arginine (4000 mg to 6000 mg/day) may be used together with antioxidants to stimulate endothelial cells with Nitric Oxide. Using both together works better than using either separately. L-citrulline and L-arginine have also been used together in skin creams. Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Louis B. Ignarro recommends taking both just prior to bedtime in his book NO More Heart Disease, along with antioxidants including vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid (400 mcg to 800 mcg) and alpha lipoic acid. Watermelon rind [Images] is a good natural source of L-citrulline [Wikipedia/Citrulline]. "Citrulline is found in high concentrations in watermelon rind and flesh, and in much lower concentrations in cucubits like cucumbers and canteloupe. The highest concentrations of citrulline are found in walnut seedlings." See preparation of watermelon rind [Links]. L-citrulline is an amino acid related to arginine that maintains blood arginine levels better than arginine alone. Like arginine, it increases HGH expression, in addition to promoting NO production through the action of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Citrulline malate also helps prevent muscle fatique by removal of ammonia, absorbing lactate for ATP synthesis and increasing the rate of creatine synthesis. Bodybuilders may take 6-10 grams pre-workout. Research shows that at 3 grams, L-citrulline is superior to L-arginine for increasing plasma levels of arginine. Citrulline may be useful in treating conditions arising from carbonylated proteins [Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Patent] that may clog up proteasomes (14).
Clinical Trials [Site, Links, Video].
CMV (Cytomegalovirus) [Wikipedia/Cytomegalovirus, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF; Index/Virology]. "HCMV is found throughout all geographic locations and socioeconomic groups, and infects between 50% and 80% of adults in the United States (40% worldwide) as indicated by the presence of antibodies in much of the general population. Seroprevalence is age-dependent: 58.9% of individuals aged 6 and older are infected with CMV while 90.8% of individuals aged 80 and older are positive for HCMV". - Wikipedia.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes-family virus [virus table]. CMV (cytomegalovirus) viral infection [Links] devours resources of the immune system in elderly victims, although its visible effects may be minimal at first. This causes the CMV viral pathogen to be impacting in immunosenescence. CMV viral infection is widespread in many populations. "Chronic CMV infection is associated with frailty, cognitive decline, and arterial occlusion." - William Faloon . CMV also turns out to be a key element in glioma brain cancers. Consider the effect of cytomegalovirus on telomere length [Images, Papers].
See Virology/Virus Table, which displays some nutraceutical cures for CMV, and CMV vaccine development. Note that some herpes viruses are treatable with eugenol from cinnamon. Garlic and glycyrrhiza (the source of licorice) can be used to treat CMV. St. John's Wort is active against cytomegalovirus via hypericin, a constituent of St. John's wort. Natural Killer cell boosters are also valuable in fighting CMV. "We conclude that the (TA-65 Patton Protocol) protocol lengthens critically short telomeres and remodels the relative proportions of circulating leukocytes of CMV+ subjects toward the more “youthful” profile of CMV- subjects." .
 William Faloon (2015), A Common Virus, Life Extension Magazine, Jan 2015.
 Aubrey de Grey and Michael Rae, Ending Aging, pp.209-215, material on CMV.
 Lisa Antone (2014),
Common Virus Links to Deadly Brain Cancer with preamble by William Faloon,
Life Extension Magazine, February 2014.
 Shiraki K, Yukawa T, Kurokawa M, Kageyama S (1998),
Cytomegalovirus infection and its possible treatment with herbal medicines,
Nihon Rinsho 1998 Jan;56(1):156-60.
 Shiraki K, Yukawa T, Kurokawa M, Kageyama S (1998),
Cytomegalovirus infection and its possible treatment with herbal medicines,
Nihon Rinsho 1998 Jan;56(1):156-60.
 Tsoukas P. (2012),
Immune senescence and cardiovascular morbidity as a result of chronic cytomegalovirus infection,
 Calvin B. Harley, Weimin Liu, Maria Blasco, Elsa Vera, William H. Andrews, Laura A. Briggs, and Joseph M. Raffaele (2010), A Natural Product Telomerase Activator As Part of a Health Maintenance Program, Rejuvenation Research, September 7, 2010.  Savva GM, Pachnio A, Kaul B, et al. (2013),
Cytomegalovirus infection is associated with increased mortality in the older population,
Aging Cell 2013 Jun;12(3):381-7.
Cocoa Polyphenols [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Chocolate]. Jeanne Calment, the 122.45 year-old aging record holder, seems to have gotten some life extension milage from her consumption of 5 lb. of chocolate per week, although perhaps absorption of antioxidant hydroxytyrosol from olive oil rubbed into her skin was similarly impacting. See Life Extension's Endothelial Defense with "CocoaGold". Cocoa inhibits undesirable platelet aggregation leading to atherosclerosis associated with heart attack and stroke and promotes blood flow for 8 hours after ingestion. Since cocoa promotes nitric oxide generation, it may turn out to activate SIRT1 in endothelial cells via Nitric Oxide activation, as described by [Urusalem, 2009], and most probably telomerase as measured by [Vasa, et al., 2000], and [Hayashi, et. al, 2006]. "Epicatechin [Wiki/Catechins, Images] in cocoa improves blood flow and thus seems good for cardiac health. Arginine in cocoa (100 mg/tablespoon) or chocolate is processed by nitric oxide synthase into the vasodilator Nitric Oxide, which may also have telomerase-activating effect on vascular endothelial cells. See chocolate for more on arginine in cocoa. Cocoa also contains the cAMP-preserving phosphodiesterase inhibitor theobromine useful in recovery from senescence. Cocoa, the major ingredient of dark chocolate, contains relatively high amounts of epicatechin and has been found to have nearly twice the antioxidant content of red wine and up to three times that of green tea in in-vitro tests." - Wikipedia/Flavonoids. Cocoa polyphenols such as catechins are telomerase-inhibiting dietary polyphenols that should not be taken when using telomerase activators to activate hTERT.
Coffee [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension]. Coffee at 4-12 cups daily is antioxidant and works against a number of primary old age killers, including cardiovascular disease, liver disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Coffee also works against dangerous annoyances like obesity, chelates metals such as iron, lowers glucose storage, improves insulin sensitivity, mobilizes glycogen in muscles, reduces the activity of inflammatory enzymes, stimulates muscular oxidation of fat, and leads to higher levels of detoxifying enzymes. The caffeine [Index] in 5 cups of coffee decreases levels of beta-secretase and gamma-secretase, proteins used in amyloid-beta production. Thus caffeine is an amyloid-beta inhibitor. See Michael Downey (2012), Discovering Coffee's Unique Health Benefits, Life Extension Magazine Jan 2012. Coffee also contains chlorogenic acid [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] and many other coffee phytochemicals. Green coffee provides about twice as many polyphenols per cup as regular coffee. Coffee stains your teeth, so taking it in capsules may be best. Compare with Tea Polyphenols.
Cognitive Decline [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension; Index/Brain Deterioration, Index/Dementia, Index/Alzheimers, Index/Parkinsons, Leukoaraiosis, Hypoperfusion, Index/Myelin Sheath]. See also beating attention deficit disorder. Drugs useful in treating cognitive decline include nootropics (pron: new-tropics) [Index, Links, Video, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. See the index entry for Dementia. Recently Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cognitive decline (Arch Int Med 2010;170(13):1135-41) and Parkinson's Disease (Arch Neurol, 20;67(7):808-11). Note that Vitamin D has antiinflammatory properties. Cognitive decline may be opposed by improving mitochondrial biogenesis with PQQ, which also upregulates nerve growth factor. Supplements upregulating nerve growth factor counteract cognitive decline. PQQ is found in cocoa, but is now available in purified pill form. Acetyl L-Carnitine and Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate also elevate nerve growth factor, as does huperzine A and carnosic acid from rosemary, essential oil of rosemary, or rosemary extract. BCAAs support GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate formation in brain cells, improving traumatic brain injury by accelerating cognitive performance (Cole JT, et al, 2010).
Also see Ashwagandha and Bacopa, both of which upregulate endogenous antioxidants and promote improved neurological function. It is also useful to oppose sources of inflammation such glycation (by keeping blood sugar low and limiting sugar intake) and TNF-alpha (by taking TNF-alpha inhibitors such as luteolin from, say celery) to avoid developing Alzheimer's Disease and other disorders leading to neurological degenerative disorders beginning with cognitive decline. Cognitive decline is also treated with alpha GPC (Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine), an HGH secretagoge which also increases brain levels of acetylcholine. HGH and acetylcholine are both neuroprotective, as is DHA. The amyloid beta inhibitors are neuroprotective and prevent Alzheimer's Disease. Curcumin chelates aluminum, which causes neurofibrillary tangles, as well as other metal ions such as iron that can poison neurological functions. Exercise improves cerebral blood flow, as do vasodilators including arginine and vinpocetine. Benfotiamine [Images] from onions improves nerve conduction velocity. High blood pressure (hypertension), high homocysteine and lack of exercise can lead to brain damage from lack of oxygen leading to cognitive decline associated with leukoaraiosis and hypoperfusion.
Collagen [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Collagen amounts to 1/3 of total body protein in mammals and accounts for 90% of the content of bone matrix protein. Vitamin C is vital in its synthesis, and scurvy is characterized by poor collagen synthesis taking place as a result of Vitamin C deficiency. The formation of aging
collagen cross-links [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension] was first investigated by Verzar in the 1950s and 1960s. [Wikipedia/Collagen], . Telomolecular's Bimene uses nanotechnology to restore collagen in aging skin. Collagenase, which attacks collagen in the extracellular matrix, is emitted by senescent dermal fibroblasts as a consequence of replicative senescence. The best results should be obtained long-range by working on the skin with telomerase activators to reverse and oppose the replicative senescence of dermal fibroblasts. Collagen synthesis [Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/improving collagen synthesis, Papers, Patents] can be dramatically improved by Matrixyl 3000. Elastin, hyaluronic acid, and collagen can be restored by applying FGF-1 skin cream (FGF). FGF-1 has telomerase-activating characteristics. Collagen and elastin can both be restored to the extracellular matrix by the telomerase inhibitor TGF-beta. Telomerase-inhibiting TGF-beta skin creams [Images] are available. Telomerase-activating colostrum skin creams [Images], which contain TGF-beta and telomerase-activating growth factors, may also be used to restore both collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix, removing wrinkles. Collagen synthesis can be improved by gotu kola and by collagen hydrolysate. Note that the hydrating polysaccharide hyaluronic acid, which binds water in the extracellular matrix, is an effective wrinkle remover and assists in obtaining correct alignment of collagen fibers. Hyaluronic acid is present with water and sometimes retinol in instant face lift serums. "Collagen capsules contain the building blocks to bring about positive improvement in many ailments that are the result of aging, such as facial wrinkles, aging skin, cellulite etc or the result of injury such as torn cartilage. All of these can be improved by the use of collagen capsules". - Encapsulated Rejuvenation. Collagen is exocytosed as procollagen in precursor form that is cleaved by proteases for extracellular assembly, giving rise to several
types of collagen structure:
___(Types: I (most abundant form, present in scars, tendons, bone, endomysium of myofibrils),
_________II (basis for articular and hyaline cartilage),
_________III (found in the skin, lungs, intestinal walls, and the walls of blood vessels), V, XI),
___Basement membrane collagen (Types: IV (found primarily in the basal lamina)),
___Facit collagen (Types: IX (a component of hyaline cartilage), XII, XIV),
___Short chain collagen (Types: VIII (in basement membrane of the corneal endothelium), X),
___Other collagens (Types: VI (a major component of microfibrils), VII, XIII).
Collagenase [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/collagenase inhibitors, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. "Aging skin cells produce more collagenase, an enzyme that breaks down collagen. Also, cells become less responsive to signals to make fresh collagen, so the collagen layer underneath the skin begins to shrink and collapse...forming lines and wrinkles. ...Solar UV stimulates the production of collagenase. It also creates enormous numbers of free radicals in the skin." - from The Life Extension Revolution by Phillip Lee Miller, M.D. Green tea extract can inhibit collagenase activity. Collagenase is emitted by senescent dermal fibroblasts as a consequence of replicative senescence. Matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 is identified as collagenase, but it is just one of several collagenases: matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-18 (Xenopus) attack collagens. See also the Extracellular Matrix and Matrix Metalloproteinases.
Coleman, Ronnie (Bodybuilding) .
Colon Cancer [Summary; Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/monoclonal antibodies for colon cancer; Cancer; Carcinogens; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Watercress; Apoptosis; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors]. Colon cancer is usually caused by eating meats containing fats that eventually cause secondary bile products to be generated that are carcinogenic. "Immobile Cholic Acid is a precursor for Cancer: - If the body's transit time is slow, and bile is permitted to stagnate in the colon, Detrimental Bacteria convert Cholic Acid into the powerful carcinogen - Apcholic Acid. - Also if transit time is slow, detrimental Bacteria convert Deoxycholic Acid into the extremely carcinogenic 3-methyl-cholanthrene (3-MCA)." - AboveTopSecret/The Cancer Research Project. Colon cancer is more likely among consumers of red meat, and exercise reduces the incidence of colon cancer (9). Avoid daily consumption of beef stroganoff. Furthermore, "the combination of high alcohol intake and low antioxidant vitamin intake increases the risk of colon cancer more than 6-fold." - Michelle Flagg (2011), Link Between Alcohol and Cancer Death, Life Extension Magazine, December 2011. Pterostilbene found in blueberries (an angiogenesis inhibitor) reduces the multiplicity of colon cancer adenocarcinomas, lowers proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and downregulates the expression of beta-catenin and cyclin D1. (Jon Finkel, Pterostilbene Aids in Colon Cancer Prevention, Life Extension Magazine, April 2010. Also see Carcinogenesis, 2010, Jan.8.) High plasma concentrations of enterolignans (usually obtained from intestinal bacteria by ingestion of dietary lignans) reduce corectal adenoma risk. (LEF, April 2010). Flavonols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanins in fruits and vegetables also protect against colorectal cancer. Fennel seed protects against adenomas. NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine) induces apoptosis in many kinds of cancer cells, and has been useful in reducing corectal polyps [Images] at 600 mg/day to 1200 mg/day. Women deficient in vitamin D have a 253% increased risk of colon cancer. Vitamin D is anti-inflammatory and a telomerase inhibitor. Genistein combined with indole-3-carbinol from cruciferous vegetables strongly enhances apoptosis of colon cancer cells. (Life Extension Magazine, Oscar Rodriquez, Is Soy Safe? July 2010, ibed.) Note that colon cancer incidence increases 10-fold between the ages of 30 and 50, and another 10-fold between the ages of 50 and 70. A colon cancer tumor usually begins with increased proliferation of colon epithelial cells, followed by one cell giving rise to a polyp or adenoma subjected to further clonal selection as a consequence of mutation, finally producing a malignant carcinoma. These can metastasize through the colon wall and eventually to other parts of the body. The NF-kB inhibitor curcumin reduces inflammation in colon cancer cells.
See Myung Sun Lee, Eun Young Cha, Ji Young Sui, In Sang Song, Ji Yeon Kim (2010), Chrysophanic acid blocks proliferation of colon cancer cells by inhibiting EGFR/mTOR pathway, Phytotherapy Research November 2010. See Chrysophanic acid, a component of Fo-ti (cured in black bean sauce for safety) (He Shou Wu), used by Li Ching-Yuen. The anthraquinones chrysophanic acid, chrysophanol, and emodin all exhibit anticancer properties (S. Mohammad Abu-Darwish and A. Mazen Ateyyat, 2008). Vitamin K2, K3, and K5 are useful in treating colon cancer. See Ogawa M, Nakai S, Deguchi A, et al. (2007), Vitamins K2, K3 and K5 exert antitumor effects on established colorectal cancer in mice by inducing apoptotic death of tumor cells, International Journal of Oncology 2007 Aug;31(2):323-31. Note that silibinin, the primary constituent of silymarin in milk thistle, is a telomerase inhibitor that works well as an anticancer agent against human prostate adenocarcinoma cells, breast cancer carcinoma cells, ectocervical cancer cells, colon cancer cells, and both small and large lung carcinoma cells. See Agarwal C, Singh RP, Dhanalakshmi S, Tyagi AK, Tecklenburg M, Sclafani RA, Agarwal R. (2003), Silibinin upregulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells [PDF], Oncogene 2003 Nov 13;22(51):8271-82. Silibinin from milk thistle is effective against many malignancies, including those of the liver, colon, skin, and prostate, and inhibits cancer metastasis. "Curcumin induces a G2-M cell cycle arrest in corectal carcinoma by modulating genes implicated in cell cycle progression." (Teiten, Eifes, Dicato and Diederich, 2010). "When 0.2% curcumin is added to diet given to rats or mice previously given a carcinogen, it significantly reduces colon carcinogenesis." - Wikipedia/Curcumin. Curcumin is a telomerase inhibitor and a NF-kB inhibitor. See Yang Y, Xia Q, Lian F (1999), p53 mutations and protein overexpression in primary corectal cancer and its liver metastasis, Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 21:114-118. Note that acai inhibits the metatasis of colon cancer [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Apple polyphenols from apple skins inhibit colon cancer effectively. Colon cancer is also effectively opposed by luteolin (found in celery, parsley, sage, peppermint, basil, artichoke, and green pepper), which suppresses IGF-2 to halt colon cancer progression. (Lim YD, Cho JH, et al., 2012). "Diallyl disulfide (DADS), one of the major components of garlic (Allium sativum), is well known to have chemopreventative activity against human cancer such as colon, lung and skin", and also against bladder cancer. (H.F Lua, C.C Sueb, C.S Yuc, et al, 2004).
Adenocarcinoma [Wikipedia/Adenocarcinoma, Links/Adenocardinoma, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Cancer; Carcinogens; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors]. Adenocarcinoma can be prevented with fennel seed [Links/Fennel seed, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, WebMD, LifeExtension], which contains anethole [Links/Anethole, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Although the majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas, adenocarcinoma is a cancer of an epithelium that originates in glandular tissue, and may be found in a number of organs. Anethole increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), inhibits TNF-alpha activation of NF-kB, and suppresses the incidence and multiplicity of both invasive and non-invasive adenocarcinomas. See Bharat B. Aggarwal, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Kuzhuvelil B. Harikumar, Sheeja T. Tharakan, Bokyung Sung, Preetha Anand (2008), Potential of Spice-Derived Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention, Planta Medica 2008; 74: 1560–1569.
Colostrum [Telomerase Activators/Colostrum, Wikipedia/Colostrum, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Milk, Index/Milk Peptide Complex; Transdermal administration enhancers for colostrum]. Colostrum contains telomerase activators EGF and IGF-1, and studies show that colostrum can improve IGF-1 levels in the body. This supports increases in lean muscle mass. See vendor recommendations for dosage, as colostrum quality varies widely. Altogether, colostrum transcribes hTERT mRNA, Phosphorylates hTERT, uses the MAPK pathway, and contains the the telomerase activators IGF-1, IGF-2, EGF, TNF-alpha, FGF (FGF-2 and FGF-4), PDGF, VEGF, and TGF-alpha. It also contains the telomerase inhibitor TGF-beta, which restores the extracellular matrix, including both collagen and elastin. Note that FGF-2 and VEGF upregulate survivin, which can reverse replicative senescence. See William Rudolph (2010), Regrow your Thymus Gland with Colostrum [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], Natural News, Friday May 21, 2010. See colostrum skin creams [Images] and growth factor skin creams. Sequel Colostrum Rejuvenating Cream ($27.95) is "rich in transforming growth factors", and suitable for restoring both elastin and collagen in aging skin. Colostrum activates telomerase in dermal fibroblasts. I recommend using it 3 - 8 times a day for two weeks on the skin, then using a purely TGF-beta 1 skin cream for the next two weeks. TGF-beta 1 is a telomerase inhibitor and anticancer, although it restores both collagen and elastin.
(1) It protects the Colostrum from digestion.
(2) It makes the proteins in Colostrum slippery for full dispersion. (without the micro encapsulation most of the proteins all stick together and pass through the digestive tract intact). Colostrum must coat the intestinal wall to provide benefit.
(3) It is a transdermal delivery mechanism.
See milk lipids [Images]. It seems that whipping colostrum with cream using an eggbeater or a blender and subsequently by blending with an ultrasonic cleaner improves its bioavailability by creating milk lipid liposomes for the colostrum. See carriers for transdermal delivery of pharmaceuticals [Papers, Patents, Books]. Colostrum seems to work best for skin tightening as a fairly thick aqueous solution that tightens as it dries. Music: You're Sixteen by Ringo Starr.
Application: Apply colostrum and cream daily for 2 weeks over the entire body, then use telomerase inhibitors (anticancer nutraceuticals such as green tea and milk thistle) for 2 weeks to inhibit cancer. The 2nd two weeks is also a good time to take antibiotics, but then probiotic yogurt and/or cheeses must be used during the 1st 2 weeks to restore intestinal bacteria that produce vitamin K2, which defends against calcification and aortic stenosis.
Colostrum and Recovery from Cellular Senescence
There are two pathways by which treatment with colostrum may help rejuvenate senescent cells, reversing their cellular senescence. One works by reducing the expression of caveolin-1 in senescent cells by sequestering FOXO transcription factors away from the nucleus, where they interact with the caveolin-1 promoter (gene CAV1) to promote the expression of caveolin-1, modifying caveolae involved in cell membrane signaling. Reducing caveolin-1 expression can rejuvenate a senescent cell, allowing it to interact with human growth factor telomerase activators like EGF and PDGF, restarting the cell cycle and restoring its youthful phenotype. Insulin or IGF-1 (which influences every cell in the body) can be used to sequester FOXO factors away from the nucleus. The other pathway involves improving the expression of survivin, which can also rejuvenate senescent cells. Survivin is upregulated by VEGF and bFGF (FGF2), both of which are contained in colostrum [List], which coincidentally contains insulin and improves expression of IGF-1 when taken orally. See Therapy for recovering from cellular senescence and my notes on Restoring Senescent Cells. Treatment with colostrum should be applied on a cyclic basis with telomerase inhibitors to guard against cancer. It seems that 3 - 8 applications of colostrum solution per day to the skin may be used to restore youthful complexion. Colostrum may also be applied together with folic acid, which inhibits caveolin-1 (gene CAV1). In 2014 I use 3.2 mg of folic acid per 2.5-3.0 grams of powdered colostrum mixed in a 1.7 oz (48g) skin cream jar holding about 1/6 cup of brewed green tea or a mixture of isopropyl alchohol and brewed green tea. Additional additives, such as vitamin C, genistein to improve collagen expression, and hexapeptide-10 to restore hemidesmosomes, are being experimented with. The folic acid tabs are crushed with pliers and mixed in with a finger. See Skin Creams for Rejuvenating Dermal Fibroblasts.
Concord Grape [Wikipedia/Concord grape, Links, Video, Images] (Lambrusca grape)
Conferences on anti-aging medicine .
Cong, Yu-Sheng [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Co-discoverer with Silvia Bacchetti of Tricostatin A in the year 2000, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC inhibitor) and the first small molecule telomerase activator found. See Yu-Sheng Cong and Silvia Bacchetti (2000) Histone Deacetylation Is Involved in the Transcriptional Repression of hTERT in Normal Human Cells, J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 275, Issue 46, 35665-35668, November 17, 2000. See also Masahiro Takakura, et.al., Telomerase activation by histone deacetylase inhibitor in normal cells, Nucleic Acids Research, 2001, Vol. 29, No. 14 3006-3011. (CGK 1026, discovered in 2004, was also a telomerase activator [List] and an HDAC inhibitor, but showed better biovailability and low toxicity and was used to replace Tricostatin A in treatment.) Yu-Sheng Cong was co-author with Woodring E. Wright and Jerry W. Shay of Human Telomerase and Its Regulation, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, September 2002, p. 407-425, Vol. 66, No. 3. Telomerase is the 123 kilodalton enzyme composed of hTERT and hTR parts that adds [5'-GGTTAG-3'] repeats (7) to telomere tip-ends, foiling replicative senescence. "The template region of TERC is 3'-CAAUCCCAAUC-5'. This way, telomerase can bind the first few nucleotides of the template to the last telomere sequence on the chromosome, add a new telomere repeat (5'-GGTTAG-3') sequence, let go, realign the new 3'-end of telomere to the template, and repeat the process. " - Wikipedia/Telomerase. According to work at Stanford University, the nuclear telomerase complex contains 2 molecules of hTERT protein (the catalytic component of telomerase), 2 molecules of hTR RNA, and 2 molecules of dyskerin. This may mean two molecules of telomerase can bind to each other.
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. CLA, taken with breakfast, lunch and dinner at 1-3 grams per serving, seems to help remove bodyfat while simultaneously building mass and strength after about 12 weeks, and it is anticancer. - (after Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 2010).
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) [Index/COPD, Main Entry, Wikipedia, Links/Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Essay/Smoking].
CoQ10 [CoQ10 (Links/ubiquinone) & Links/ubiquinol, IndexU/Ubiquinol, Amazon, Links/CoQ10, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LifeExtension/ubiquinol, Ben Best; Natural Food Sources of CoQ10]. CoQ10 is a lipid-soluble antioxidant. Always use the ubiquinol form of CoQ10 for heart treatment. Sardines are a good source of CoQ10 from natural foods. CoQ10 has a synthetic analog idebenone [QSA-10]. CoQ10 bioavailability might be improved by taking it with a teaspoon of soybean oil: "CoQ10 must be ingested with high-fat food such as peanut butter or avocado. Soybean oil capsules increase CoQ10 bioavailability." Pharmacokinetics, , , . Most recently, Life Extension Magazine has announced enhanced-absorption ubiquinol or "enhanced delivery ubiquinol" [Links, LifeExtension]. Ubiquinol [Links] is a form of ubiquinone CoQ10 up to 8x as bioabsorbable as ordinary CoQ10, and this has (Dec 2007) now been improved on. See also CoQ10 and mitochondrial aging [Links, Books]. Shilajit has been shown to boost the level of CoQ10 in mitochondria x 2 and to increase available cellular energy in the brain (+56%) and in muscle tissue (+144%) in combination with ubiquinol CoQ10. See LEF's Super Ubiquinol CoQ10 with Enhanced Mitochondrial Support. CoQ10 is used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease and improves motor performance in experimental animals. CoQ10 is well-tolerated at doses of up to 2400 mg/day. See
CoQ10 and atherosclerosis.
CoQ10 and retinal protection.
CoQ10 Linus Pauling Institute/CoQ10, [QC], (4).
CoQ10 according to Ray Sahelian M.D., Links/CoQ10, (4).
CoQ10 anti-wrinkle cream, CoQ10 skin cream, as "miracle" anti-oxidant, (4).
CoQ10 & bodybuilding: CoQ10 in bodybuilding, (4).
CoQ10 levels degrade with age - extends mean lab rat life span 11.7%, max life span 24%, unpatentable, "A person 80 years old will typically have about half as much CoQ10 in the heart, lungs and spleen as a 20-year-old ", (4).
 Matthews RT, Yang L, Browne S, Baik M, Beal MF (1998),
Coenzyme Q administration increases brain mitochondrial concentrations and exerts neuroprotective effects, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 1998 July 21;95(15):8892-7.
 Rosenfeldt FL, Pepe S, Linnane A, et al. (2002),
Coenzyme Q10 protects the aging heart against stress: studies in rats, human tissues, and patients, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2002 April; 959:355-9; discussion 463-5.
 Sohal RS, Forster MJ (2007),
Coenzyme Q, oxidative stress and aging, Mitochondrion June; 7 Suppl:S103-11.
 Lina Buchanan, CoQ10: The Longevity Factor, Life Extension Magazine, Jan 2013.
 Bradley Tomkins (2014), CoQ10 Proven Benefits in Heart Failure Patients,
Life Extension Magazine April 2014.
 Martin Stein (2015),
CoQ10 Combats Congestive Heart Failure, Life Extension Magazine, April 2015.
Cord Blood transplants (Encyclopedia)
Corpora Amylacea [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; We'll have a highball]. Corpora amylacea (prostatic concretions) are found in the prostate gland, neuroglia, and pulmonary alveoli, being derived from degenerate cells or thickened secretions and found more frequently with advancing age. "Corpora amylacea are thought to be related to epithelial cell desquamation and degeneration. Ultrastructurally, they are composed of bundles of fibrils and occasional interspersed electron-dense areas. Biochemical analysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that the main constituent of corpora amylacea was sulfated glycosaminoglycans." [James D. Christian, et al, 2004].
Cortisol [QC, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Wikipedia, (2); Links/cortisol inhibitors, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Links/reducing cortisol expression]. Cortisol is a catabolic hormone produced by the adrenal gland from cholesterol. Cortisol expression is inhibited by a number of herbs and drugs described below. High cortisol levels due to stress degrade the immune response, increase blood sugar and insulin levels (leading to diabetes), impair neurological functioning, increase body weight, increase blood pressure, and are considered harmful, leading to premature aging. The cortisol-related increase in blood pressure comes from promotion of sodium retention and potassium loss. Cortisol raises blood sugar by stimulating the synthesis of glucose from amino acids, counteracting insulin, which lowers blood sugar by transporting it into cells. Cortisol depresses immune response, an effect which may be countered by taking glutamine. Cushing's Syndrome and Metabolic Syndrome are associated with high cortisol. It is thought that high cortisol destroys neurons in the hippocampus, attacking the brain memory control center and aging the brain.
Cortisol Inhibitors: Cortisol-lowering herbs and supplements include:
Cosmetics and Anti-Aging Medicine [Index/Skin; Wikipedia/Cosmetics, Links/Cosmetics for Anti-Aging Medicine, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Anti-Aging Cosmetics, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Cosmetic Ingredients, Making Cosmetics, Making Cosmetics, Inc, Truth in Aging; Oral phytoceramides]. Both skin-physiology modifiers and cosmetic masking creams are valuable and useful to aging men and women.
Physiology-Modifying Cosmetics: There are transdermally applied telomerase activators (including human growth factor skin creams), antioxidants, vitamin skin creams, hormone skin creams (such as progesterone skin cream), phytoestrogen skin creams (such as black cohosh skin cream) and other compounds that make skin physiologically younger by lenghening telomeres, restroring collagen in the extracellular matrix, restoring integrin in the extracellular matrix, and so forth. Oral phytoceramides replenish skin ceramides declining with age to inhibit elastase and improve skin characteristics for facial rejuvenation. In this case, an orally bioavailable phytoceramide supplement is more effective than a phytoceramide skin cream.
Masking, Softening, Hydrating Cosmetics Then we have cosmetics for make-up artists that produce an anti-aging effect (that may not have lasting physiological impact on tissue) by masking aging problems with, say, pearlescent pigments based on natural mica flakes of varying radius coated with titanium dioxide:
Cosmetology [Index/Skin; Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, Wikipedia/Cosmetics, LibCong, Amazon].
Cottage Cheese [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Telomerase Activators/Cottage Cheese]. Cottage cheese is composed of casein protein curds obtained from milk by adding an acid like vinegar or lemon juice. The whey separates out as a fluid component. A Chinese study recently found that casein protein is a tumor promoter and eventually is associated with neuropathy in rats. Cottage Cheese is also listed as a telomerase activator that works by promoting IGF-1.
COX-1 and COX-2 Enzymes (cyclooxygenases) [Wikipedia/Cyclooxygenase, Links/Cyclooxygenases, Video; Links/Cyclooxygenase inhibitors; Links/COX-1 enzymes; Links/COX-1 inhibitors, Video; Links/COX-1 inhibitor side effects; Links/COX-2 enzymes; Links/COX-2 inhibitors, Video; Links/COX-2 inhibitor side effects]. The main COX inhibitors are the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). COX-1 inhibitors include aspirin. However, inhibiting COX-1 can lead to stomach ulcers if aspirin use is continued at high levels. COX-2 inhibitors include ibupofen and ginger and prescription drugs like Vioxx and the recently discontinued Bextra. However, inhibiting COX-2 enzymes can elevate levels of thromboxane A2 and leukotriene B4, so that continued use of COX-2 inhibitors may be dangerous. Elevated levels of thromboxane A2 make blood clots leading to heart attack and stroke more likely. Elevated levels of leukotriene B4 may lead to damage of the arterial wall. Adverse effects of COX-2 inhibitors are reduced by avoiding foods rich in arachidonic acid, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, and omega-6 fats, and by taking low-dose aspirin with fish oil and curcumin. (LEF, March 2010, As We See It).
Cranberry [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Cranberry supplements may be used to prevent e.coli adhesion to the urinary tract resulting in a urinary tract infection. See Alex Johnson (2014), The Dangers Of Using Antibiotics To Prevent Urinary Tract Infections, Life Extension Magazine, June 2014. Cranberries contain ursolic acid, which is useful in synthesizing ceramides for the skin. However, an overdose of cranberries can cause hives to appear on the skin of the arms. In this condition histamine levels are elevated, and antihistamines such as vitamin C may be used to treat it, along with topical anagesics. Quercetin exhibits anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory effect by preventing histamine release from mast cells and basophils. Rosmarinic acid, luteolin, astaxanthin, and perilla leaf extract also exhibit antihistamine effect.
Creatine [Wiki/Creatine, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong/creatine; Links/creatine phosphate; Six Star Pro Nutrition's CREATINEX3]. Creatine phosphate is used in the body for extra ATP obtained from sources other than glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation, and is synthesized in the body from arginine, methionine, and glycine. Creatine may be taken from dietary meat sources. In addition, creatine improves the expression of IGF-1 (List), an anabolic protein that activates telomerase by phosphorylation of cytoplasmic hTERT, which is subsequently imported into the cellular nucleus. (Creatine phosphate was discovered as a muscle energy source in 1927.) Creatine monohydrate [Links/creatine monohydrate] used by bodybuilders [Links/creatine in bodybuilding, Images] is converted to creatine phosphate in the body. According to Jim Stoppani PhD of Muscle and Fitness magazine (Fall 2009) in Elements of a Stack, creatine can stimulate greater muscle synthesis by drawing water into cells to stretch their cell membranes to admit more materials for muscle synthesis, and is "the most effective supplement you can take for boosting both muscle size and strength". Taurine (the 2nd most prevalent amino acid in skeletal muscle after glutamine) also helps muscle cells swell with water, and may be taken with creatine monohydrate at 3-5 grams before and after workouts. Creatine monohydrate may be taken both before and after bodybuilding exercise (9) sessions at about 2-5 grams. The production of creatine phosphate by the body may be enhanced by trimethylglycine (Betaine) at about 1,250 to 1500 mg both before and after workouts. When taken with carbs, 300-1000 mg of alpha lipoic acid increases creatine uptake in muscles by stimulating insulin release. See Links/bodybuilding creatine precursor complex. Mice that took creatine monohydrate lived 10% longer than mice that did not take creatine monohydrate. - recently quoted in Muscle & Fitness with a reference to Bender, A, et al. Creatine Improves Health and Survival of Mice. Neurobiology of Aging, 2008; 29(9): 1404-1411, quoted in Simply Shredded: "In brains of Cr-treated mice, there was a trend towards a reduction of reactive oxygen species and significantly lower accumulation of the "aging pigment" lipofuscin. Expression profiling showed an upregulation of genes implicated in neuronal growth, neuroprotection, and learning. These data show that Cr improves health and longevity in mice. Cr may be a promising food supplement to promote healthy human aging. " - from Bender A, et al., 2008. Creatine is effective at preventing nerve damage and Parkinson's Disease due to its effects on mitochondria. It helps maintain cellular energy homeostasis in variety of cells, including both muscle and nerve cells. Creatine at 10 grams/day may be used to treat Parkinson's Disease, slowing its progression. (See Julius Goepp, MD, Halt the Stealth Threat of Parkinson's Disease, LEF, July 2010.)
According to Muscle & Fitness Magazine, creatine monohydrate increases levels of IGF-1 in muscle, makes muscles stronger by keeping muscles saturated with fast energy sources, and increases muscle size by drawing water into muscle cells. When I was using it years ago, I noticed that it quite noticably helped get me through sticking points to higher poundages. Creatine monohydrate can be taken with water as a replacement for pure water in a starvation diet for definition. Creatine supplies ATP to allow exercise with sustained heartbeat, reducing risks involved in exercising while starving.
Six Star Pro Nutrition's CREATINEX3 (#1 Best Seller) is a great creatine stack including creatine monohydrate, creatine phosphate, creatine pyruvate, alpha lipoic acid, and L-carnosine. After a few days of 6 x 3031 mg/day, with exercise, one feels seriously enhanced.
Creatine with Exercise for Senescence Recovery
This senescence recovery procedure based on recent research is new. Optionally, use forskolin, an adenyl cyclase stimulator [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], for a few days to reduce caveolin-1, restoring caveolae in the cell membrane used by growth factors to trigger telomere growth in the cell. Exercise with creatine monohydrate produces more ATP for forskolin-activated adenyl cyclase to convert to cyclic AMP, which lowers caveolin-1 to restore the youthful cellular phenotype. ATP from creatine monohydrate is turned into cyclic AMP during exercise (9) that tends to reverse cellular senescence by lowering caveolin-1 (gene CAV1). Magnesium is a cofactor for reactions producing cyclic AMP from ATP. Thus for life extension, take creatine monohydrate with magnesium during exercise to elevate cAMP, rather than only after exercise to merely boost muscle size. I recommend using plenty of 6-Star Creatine in capsules, which includes L-Carnosine.
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors that may be taken to preserve high cyclic AMP levels include diazapam, vinpocetine, theobromine (100 to 560 mg, or from cocoa or dark chocolate), luteolin (from celery, parsley, sage, rosemary, or thyme), glycyrrhiza or licorice, and epinephrine boosters such as caffeine (from coffee) and dopamine (from Mucuna Pruriens or DHA).
Note that exercise also lowers p16INK4A levels to make senescence reversible, and supplies growth factors to trigger telomere growth through caveolae in cell membranes restored by lowering caveolin-1. Getting pumped up also supplies lactates functioning as HDAC inhibitors to promote transcription by expanding chromatin, producing more hTERT for telomerase along with other valuable proteins and enzymes. With this approach, senescent cells can bounce back to their youthful condition with telomeres 30% larger, making it a fast telomere extension method for senescent cell recovery. Keep atherosclerotic plaque and arteriosclerosis from sugar glycation low to safely exercise, maintaining normal blood pressure and heart beat, while getting your vitamin K2 from Swiss cheese or natto to prevent systemic calcification and aortic stenosis.
Music: Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme (1966) by Simon and Garfunkel.
Cross-link breakers and inhibitors [IAAS/Cross-link breakers and inhibitors, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], (4), (5). See the index entries for Antiglycating Drugs and Glycation.
C-reactive protein and aging, [Wikipedia/C-reactive protein, Links/C-reactive protein and aging, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/C-reactive protein, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/C-reactive protein, Amazon, LifeExtension]. C-reactive protein is a marker of inflammation, [QC] [67s]. C-reactive protein usually rises in obese people, who suffer from chronic systemic inflammation. "Compared with control patients, 572% more heart attack patients had C-reactive protein levels above 3.00 mg/Liter." - William Falloon, As We See It, Life Extension Magazine, September 2010. Supplementing with both fish oil (2400 mg/day) and pain-relieving krill oil (300 mg/day) is recommended in arthritic cases. Krill oil (300 mg/day) typically lowers levels of inflammatory C-reactive protein 50% in arthritis cases. See Jason Ramirez (2011), Krill Oil Optimizes Multi-modal Arthritis Control, Life Extension Magazine, November 2011.
Cross-reference list of anti-aging medicines [Links, Images, Papers, Books, Biogenesis/Cross-reference list of anti-aging medicines, IAAS cross-reference list; Links/List of Anti-Aging Drugs and Nutraceuticals, Links/Drug and Nutraceutical Cross-Reference Lists], .
Cruciferous Vegetable Extracts [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/preparation of, Images/preparation of] Cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, and brussels sprouts help maintain healthy hormone levels. Extracts include indole-3-carbinol and di-indolyl-methane that modulate estrogen metabolism and induce liver detoxification enzymes neutralizing harmful estrogen metabolites and xenoestrogens. Extracts of broccoli [Images], watercress [Images], and rosemary [Images], provide glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, carnosic acid, and carnosol, which have favorable impact on estrogen metabolism and cell division.
Cryopreservation [Wikipedia/Cryopreservation, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension, LibCong]. Cryopreservation of tissue for cloning by nuclear transfer (8), of testicles following castration, , (8), or as a head, or whole, according to Ben Best, for possible revival and resurrection in the distant future.
Curcumin (pron: Curr-Q-min) [Wikipedia, QC/curcumin, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension, Ray; Product B/Turmeric Root Extract]. Curcumin is found in the common spice turmeric. See uses of curcumin. Curcumin in turmeric has a positive antioxidant effect on the peroxidation of lipids, and piperine in black pepper helps make the curcumin more bioavailable, as does nanoencapsulation. (1), [40s]. See Piperine [Links, Images]. Curcumin does not become cytotoxic [Links] until the dosage reaches about 8 grams/day in humans. Curcumin is a telomerase expression inhibitor in cancer cells, but Turmeric Root Extract (curcumin) can function like a telomerase activator in normal cells such as dermal fibroblasts and is a component of Product B. (Curcumin inhibits nuclear localization of telomerase by dissociating the Hsp90 co-chaperone p23 from hTERT.) Recently, Life Extension has announced super bioabsorbable curcumin [Links, Links/bioavailability of curcumin, Papers, LifeExtension/curcumin]. Note that curcumin inhibits COX-2 and synovial cell growth in arthritis, induces glutathione synthesis, and inhibits NF-kB activation and interleukin-8 release in endothelial cells. About 95% of cancers feature elevated levels of the inflammation-associated transcription factor NF-kB, a telomerase-activating tumor promoter which also drives cancer cell proliferation, invasion, tumor blood vessel formation, and metastasis pathways. Curcumin is one of the most potent NF-kB inhibitors available, making it widely useful in the treatment of cancer. Also see curcumin as a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor [Papers, Patents, Books] in anticancer therapy. Curcumin also inhibits thrombosis, chelates metals such as iron and copper, and may increase HDL cholesterol by 50% while lowering LDL cholesterol by 40%. Curcumin has been described as useful for the chelation of aluminum, which prevents neurofibrillary tangles due to aluminum poisoning (Jerry Brainum, Iron Man, 2009, and Sharma, D., et al., 2009, Curcumin counteracts the aluminum-induced aging-related alterations in oxidative stress, Na+, K+, ATPase and Protein Kinase C in adult and old rat brain regions, Biogerontology, 10(4), pp. 489-502). Curcumin attenuates amyloid deposits before or after amyloid deposit formation. It also has anti-microbial properties, attenuating HSV-2 in a mouse model. - Caleb E. Finch, p.171. See also Mayank Singh and Neeta Singh, (2009), Molecular mechanism of curcumin induced cytotoxicity in human cervical carcinoma cells, Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Volume 325, Numbers 1-2 / May, 2009, Pages 107-119. Curcumin inhibits the growth of neuroblastoma cells. (Teiten, Eifes, Dicato and Diederich, 2010). See also J. Everett Borger, How Curcumin Protects Against Cancer, Life Extension Magazine, March 2011. Curcumin acts in this case by inhibiting the hTERT gene as a telomerase inhibitor. The bioavailability of curcumin is improved many times by the addition of piperine (found in black pepper), and is still better when curcumin is nanoencapsulated. Curcumin chelates both copper and iron, helping it both oppose the spread of cancer via copper and helping it to protect hippocampal mitrochondria against copper and iron, opposing cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease. Iron can catalyze destructive lipid peroxidation chain reactions particularly destructive of mitochondria. See metal ions. Curcumin chelates aluminum, preventing neurofibrullary tangles. Note that curcumin is a potent galectin-3 inhibitor, helping it to oppose cancer metastasis and cardiac problems related to galectin-3. Note that curcumin is given as anti-venom for King Cobra snake bites. Furthermore, curcumin is known to rev up metabolism and to promote thermogenesis by bodybuilders. Curcumin increases AMPK activity to inhibit fat storage, reduce cholesterol-triglyceride synthesis, and increase glucose uptake into muscle. Activation of AMPK by a host of AMPK-activating nutraceuticals including curcumin promotes catabolic conversions producing ATP for many life-extending processes, including improvements in autophagy of cellular junk in senescent cells, the elimination of pro-inflammatory senescent cells by apoptosis, and mitochondrial biogenesis.
Furthermore, expression of different Heat Shock Protein family members is induced by curcumin. (Teiten, Eifes, Dicato and Diederich, 2010). Also see Gukovsky I, Reyes CN, Vaquero EC, Gukovskaya AS, Pandol SJ (2003), Curcumin ameliorates ethanol and nonethanol experimental pancreatitis, Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2003 Jan; 284(1):G85-95. Kunnumakkara AB, Anand P, Aggarwal BB (2008), Curcumin inhibits proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of different cancers through interaction with multiple cell signaling proteins, Cancer Letters 2008 October 8, 269(2):199-225. Note that curcumin inhibits HIV-1 integrase, inhibits HIV-1 protease and HIV-2 protease, restrains gene expression of chronically infected HIV-1 cells, and inhibits the release of factors promoting HIV-1 replication. See Cohly HHP, Asad S, Das SK, Angel MF, Rao M. (2003), Effect of antioxidant (turmeric, turmerin, and curcumin) on human immunodeficiency virus, Int J. Mol. Sci, 2003 Jan; 4(2): 22-33. Also see HIV.
Curcuminoid compounds [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Curcuminoid compounds are derivatives of ferulic acid, including curcumin (diferuloylmethane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisemethoxycurcumin, all of which are yellow.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) [Index/cAMP, Refs9/cyclic AMP, Links/Cyclic AMP, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Cyclic AMP can be elevated to lower caveolin-1 levels and recover cells from the senescent state. High cyclic AMP levels may be sustained by phosphodiesterase inhibitors.
Cycloastragenol [C30H50O5, PatentLens, Index/TAT2, CAS Registry Number of Cycloastragenol 84605-18-5, 81s, 81s/6b, Toxicogenomics, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Sources: Counter Aging Wise/Cycloastragenol, Iron-Dragon, Biologix Peptide, Medicass, CrackAging, in TA-65, King Tiger, as Astral Fruit-C and in Astral Fruit NF from RevGenetics, Glossary; Refs3; Refs3/Cycloastragenol and Enhancement of Antiviral Activity]. By March 2014, we also have Vitaspin CT95: Pure Cycloastragenol 5 mg - 30 Caps for $55.99. Compare to April 15, 2011 when we had Terraternal Cycloastragenol at 60 caps x 25 mg/cap for $400.00, and by June 24, 2011, friends write to my mailbox to point out 60 caps x 10 mg/cap for $160.00. Twenty-five milligrams is about the same dose as the most recent papers recommend for TA-65 (20-30 mg). See also Anti-Aging Systeme Cycloastragenol.eu, Anti-Aging Systeme/Cycloastragenol and Anti-Aging Systeme/Cycloastragenol-Pro. Cycloastragenol is the common alglycone of the astragalosides, is found in ethanolic astragalus extracts, and is known to be a telomerase activator from the Geron patent on Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity. It is the smallest molecule in the astragaloside family of small molecule telomerase activators. This is possibly TA-65 from TA Sciences. A 1/08/2011 email source quotes a chemical analysis showing that TA Sciences TA-65 is:
5.47 mg cycloastragenol + 0.27 mg astragaloside IV + < 0.01 mg astragenol per serving.) RevGenetics Astral Fruit NF is also primarily cycloastragenol, at least 2.5 mg/capsule, or > 150 mg/bottle, according to company literature, although it also contains astragalus extract, aqueous extract of Purslane, and Haritaki. The most recent results (Calvin B. Harley, et. al., 2011) suggest that superior results are obtained when TA-65 or cycloastragenol is applied at 20-30 mg/dose, rather than at 5-10 mg/dose. See also Unity Peptide Cycloastragenol, 10 mg/serving. Iron Dragon and Biologix Peptide also source cycloastragenol at 10 mg/ml in a 30 ml bottle. For cycloastragenol preparation from astragalosides and properties, see Geron's Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity (search), or the A' alternate-source version Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity, or A''. It is also associated with the names "astramembrangenin" [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon], "cyclogalegigenin" [Books, Links, Papers, Patents, Amazon, molecule], "cyclosiversigenin" [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon], and Astral Fruit-C (RevGenetics). See Links/Synthesis of Cycloastragenol, Links/Molecular Spectra of Cycloastragenol, Links/Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Cycloastragenol Content. See Hector F. Valenzuela, Thomas Fuller, Jim Edwards, Danielle Finger, and Brenda Molgora (2009), Cycloastragenol Extends T-Cell Proliferation by Increasing Telomerase Activity, The Journal of Immunology, 2009, 182, 90.30 and Steven Russell Fauce, et al. (2008), Telomerase-Based Pharmcologic Enhancement of Anti-viral Function of Human CD8+ T Lymphocytes, Journal of Immunology, Nov 15, 2008, 181(10): 7400-7406. "Telomerase activation by TAT2 (cycloastragenol) was observed in the 0.01-10 μM range. In some experiments, activity declined above 1 μM, so in most cases TAT2 was not used above 1 μM."
After analysis by Calvin B. Harley, et al, 2011 on TA-65, studies by Terraternal on astragaloside IV, and research by the VIDA Institute on various astragalus formulations, I have decided to rely more on astragalus root at < 33 grams/day, taken in water suspension like a tea with sweeter and frequently stirred. I think that this produces more telomere growth per year when applied in a monthly cycle .
Bioavailability of Cycloastragenol
Cycloastragenol may be nearly 100% absorbed when taken orally. It may be useful to take the histone deaceylase inhibitor (HDAC inhibitor) sodium butyrate [Links, Wikipedia] along with cycloastragenol to facilitate transcription of hTERT and hTR. Hepatic factors may limit cyclogenol absorption into the blood stream. See Zhu J, Lee S, Ho MK, Hu Y, Pang H, Ip FC, Chin AC, Harley CB, Ip NY, Wong YH (2010), In vitro intestinal absorption and first-pass intestinal and hepatic metabolism of cycloastragenol, a potent small molecule telomerase activator, Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, 2010; 25(5):477-86. On the other hand, 98% pure astragaloside IV is absorbed about 13.9% in humans, 7.4% in beagle dogs, and 2.2% in rats, according to Terraternal.
The Synthesis of Cycloastragenol
[Links/Synthesis of Cycloastragenol, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Cycloastragenol may be prepared from the astragalosides by hydrolysis using an acid, by treating of astragaloside IV with methanolic HC1, or by oxidative degradation of a butanol extract of astragalus membranaceus using oxygen and elemental sodium, or by refluxing a solution of astragaloside IV and sulfuric acid in methanol, followed by standard workup and silica gel chromatography, as described in the Geron patent below. It may be convenient to treat astragalus extract astragalosides to produce cycloastragenol, then separate components from treated astragalus extract. The synthesis of cycloastragenol was first described in the 2005 Geron Patent Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity: "Cycloastragenol (2) can be prepared by treatment of astragaloside IV (1) with methanolic HC1, followed by neutralization, standard workup, and purification by chromatography, as described in the Experimental section below (Example 1). Cycloastragenol can also be obtained by oxidative degradation (treatment with oxygen and elemental sodium) of a butanol extract of Astragalus membranaceus, as described by P-H Wang et al., J. Chinese Chem. Soc 49 : 103-6 (2002) (J.Chinese Chem Soc). Astragenol (3) and cycloastragenol (2) can also be obtained according to the procedure of Kitagawa et al., Chez. Pharm. Bull. 31 (2): 689-697 (1983a). The compounds designated herein as 6 (cycloastragenol 6-p-D-glucopyranoside) and 7 (cycloastragenol 3-ß-D-xylopyranoside) were obtained by refluxing a solution of astragaloside IV (1) and sulfuric acid in methanol, followed by standard workup and silica gel chromatography, as described in the Experimental section below (Example 2). Also obtained were the rearrangement product 5 and the aglycone, i. e. cycloastragenol (2)."
Movie: Young Frankenstein (Wiki), directed by Mel Brooks, starring Gene Wilder.
Cyclooxygenases [Wikipedia/Cyclooxygenase, Links/Cyclooxygenases, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Cyclooxygenase inhibitors, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. See the index entries for COX1 and COX 2 Enzymes, pain, and anti-inflammatory drugs and nutraceuticals.
Cytogerontology [NIH/Cytogerontology, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Aging Cell, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Journals]. Cytogerontology, the science of cellular aging [Links/experimental technique for studies of cellular aging, Books, Images, Papers; LifeExtension/cellular aging, Amazon], originated in 1881 with the prediction by August Weismann that the somatic cells of higher animals have limited division potential. A cell division limit of 49 was found for human fibroblasts in H. Earle Swim and Robert F. Parker (1957), Culture Characteristics of Human Fibroblasts Propagated Serially, American Journal of Epidemiology, 1957, Volume 66, Number 2 Pp. 235-243, including 24 references with titles [Ref/Swim & Parker, Papers/Swim and Parker]. This paper, which includes some good microphotos of non-senescent and senescent fibroblasts, seems to be one of the first to have detected limits to the division of human foreskin fibroblasts in culture at the 49th passage, a topic also studied by Hayflick and Moorhead in 1961. In 1961 Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorehead [Images, Ref/Hayflick & Moorehead] were also able to conclusively demonstrate the existence of the cell division limit of about 50 for dermal fibroblasts on the basis of observations. Their paper with no titles for the references and no photos was anticipated by Swim and Parker's 1957 results with photos and titles, although this is not widely broadcast or acknowledged for reasons unknown. The applause of heaven seems to have been reserved for a "Hayflick and Moorehead" scene reminiscent of the nebula around S. Monocerotis shown by David Malin and Paul Murdin. See the histology of senescent cells [Books, Wikipedia, Links/microphotographs of senescent cells, Papers/microphotographs of senescent cells, Images/senescent cells, Papers].
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) [Index/CMV].
Cytokines and Cytokine Signaling [Links/Cytokines, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Cytokine Signaling, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Cytoplast [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. A cytoplast is an enucleated cell or "anucleate fragment". Working in Leonard Hayflick's Lab, Woodring E. Wright [Images] and Audry Muggleton-Harris [Images] transplanted nuclei from cells that had divided few or many times into cytoplasts to determine that the location of the cell division lifetime clock resides in the nucleus [Woodring E. Wright & Leonard Hayflick, 1975]. That is, nuclei from young cells could be transplanted into old cytoplasts and nuclei from old cells could be transplanted into young cytoplasts for cells with a cell division limit of about 50 from the embryonic stage of cell development. This could be used to show that the cell division limit of the cell is determined by the cell nucleus. (See How and Why We Age by Leonard Hayflick, p.134.) [Links/cellular nuclear transfer, Links/cellular nuclear transplant technique, Links/cytoplasts, Hayflick, His Limit, and Cellular Aging by Shay & Wright].
Cytosolic Proteases [Links/Cytosolic Proteases, Video/Cytosolic Proteases, Links/cytosolic proteases and lipofuscin removal, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Cytosolic proteases and lipofuscin removal [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension], [4s]. Lipofuscin removal may be done conveniently with DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol), in doses from 100 mg - 900 mg/day, and is also done with CoQ10 (super bioavailable ubiquinol or ubiquinone) and Piracetam [Links]. Alpha lipoic acid is also recommended in connection with lipofuscin removal. CoQ10 has been used to lighten up hearts darkened [Images] by lipofuscin prior to heart surgery. Old age spots [Images] on the hands or elsewhere are often due to lipufuscin and may be removed similarly. Skin discoloration may also be treated with hesperidin or oral phytoceramides. L-glutathione may be formulated as a skin lightening pill.
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