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Facial Anatomy [Links/Facial Anatomy, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Anatomy of the Face and Neck, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Lymph Nodes of the Face and Neck, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Facial Swelling from Infected Teeth, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Odontogenic Facial Swelling, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Oral and Maxillofacial Infections, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Anatomy of Maxillofacial Infections, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Pharmacology for Maxillofacial Infections, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Lymphomas of the Face and Neck, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Index/Lymphoma, Antibiotics; Index/Neck Rejuvenation].
Facial Rejuvenation [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Oral Phytoceramides]. Elastase-inhibiting ceramides are components of sphingolipids that occur in the extracellular matrix of all four layers of skin, including the uppermost stratum corneum, where they comprise 50% of the material binding cornified cells together that have arisen from deeper layers of skin. Ceramide production decreases with aging, causing skin damage effects including wrinkling, lack of hydration, and degradation of skin defense. Oral phytoceramide supplements such as oral wheat phytoceramides take 5-6 weeks at 350 mg/day to visibly rejuvenate the aging face. See Downey, Michael (2014), Phytoceramides Skin Rejuvenation From The Inside Out [OnLine], Life Extension Magazine, November 2014. However, oral phytoceramides are not believed to lengthen skin cell telomeres or reverse cellular senescence, although young extracellular matrix can rejuvenate aging fibroblasts. (See Choi HR, Cho KA, Kang HT, Lee JB, Kaeberlein M, Suh Y, Chung IK, Park SC. (2011), Restoration of senescent human diploid fibroblasts by modulation of the extracellular matrix, Aging Cell 2011 Feb;10(1):148-57.)
Astragalus extract helps rejuvenate hair follicles and skin, and in combination with a colostrum skin cream or colostrum solution for skin, it helps to rejuvenate the face. In June 2014 I use colostrum mixed with folic acid and green tea. Other growth factor skin creams may be similarly useful. Then rejuvenation is based on telomere extension (7), which is a slow process, although it establishes a better foundation for youthful cellular gene expression. Green tea bags reduce inflammation in bags under the eyes with EGCG, and many antioxidant skin creams are beneficial. Extra virgin olive oil and olive leaf extract contain oleuropein that rejuvenates proteasome function in delicate, aging skin around the eyes. See Robert Goldfaden and Gary Goldfaden MD (2013), Protect and Rejuvenate Delicate Skin Around the Eyes, Life Extension Magazine, August 2013.
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
See pics2013march5/Age Progression Studies. See also Hydroderm - Facial rejuvenation skin cream. Check out Life Extension Foundations's New Face Solution. Also inspect Shape Your Face, Instant Face Lift Serum, Index/Skin, Index/Growth Factor Skin Creams, Index/Neck Rejuvenation, and List/Telomerase Activators.
Fasting [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Fasting retards tumor growth. The allocation of energy resources by cancer cells to cancer cell reproduction causes them to fail from fasting before normal cells fail. That is, cancer cells die from fasting relatively quickly because they allocate too much energy to reproduction. Anticancer therapy plus fasting produces superior results for tumor control. Dayna Dye (May 2012), Fasting Retards Tumor Growth, Life Extension Magazine, LEF News, May 2012. See also American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012 Jan 25. Furthermore, fasting promotes the expression of SIRT6 (a histone deacetylase that modulates telomeric chromatin), which promotes DNA repair and is life-extending and effective in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.
Fast Telomere Extension [Longevity Change Log/Fast Telomere Extension: modRNA Delivery Vehicles; Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Nucleoside-modified hTERT mRNA evading the innate immune system [Patents, Books] may be transfected in liposomes or otherwise with altered mRNA structure to produce large amounts of hTERT protein in target cells. Up to 15 years of deaging by telomere lengthening is possible in six weeks of treatment [PCBC Announcement] to implement Fast Telomere Extension. A completely different method for producing rapid telomere extension may be to deliver telomerase to the cell via biodegradable nanoparticles .
References [Longevity Change Log, Refs1b/Fast Telomere Extension]
 Krista Conger (2015), Telomere extension turns back aging clock in cultured human cells, study finds, Stanford Medicine News Center, Jan 22, 2015. (Tip: Ron Sahni).
__See Helen M. Blau, Stanford Baxter Laboratory.
__Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine,
__Stanford Bio-X, Microbiology & Immunology.
 John Ramunas, Eduard Yakubov, Jennifer J. Brady, Stéphane Y. Corbel, Colin Holbrook, Moritz Brandt, Jonathan Stein, Juan G. Santiago, John P. Cooke and Helen M. Blau (2015), Transient delivery of modified mRNA encoding TERT rapidly extends telomeres in human cells [PDF, Big Screen PDF], The FASEB Journal, Jan 22, 2015.
 Safe, rapid telomere extension in diverse progenitor cell types, NHLBI Progenitor Cell Biology Consortinum (PCBC) Announcement.
 John Ramunas, Eduard YAKUBOV, Helen M. Blau, John Cooke (2014),
Compounds, Compositions, Methods, and Kits Relating to Telomere Extension,
US 20140242154 A1. The Haunted Patent. Quoth the patent: "Get out of my patent!"
 Further Fast Telomere Extension References
 Xin Lin, Guotang Zhai, Matthew Sarad, Pete N. Lohstroh (2009),
Telomerase delivery by biodegradable Nanoparticle [OnLine],
US 20090142408 A1. Unfortunately, hTERT protein is very expensive. See OriGene/Human Telomerase.
Fats & Fatty Acids [Wikipedia/Fat; Links/Fats, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Fatty acids, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Ben Best/Fats and Fatty Acids, LifeExtension; LifeExtension/fatty acids; Links/Fats and aging, Books, LifeExtension].
Meat, poultry, and fish can be chopped and boiled to eliminate fat content leading to Lipid Peroxidation.
Fatty Acids, Essential [Wikipedia/Essential fatty acids, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Note that two fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid), are EFAs: Essential Fatty Acids. Linoleic acid is a precursor of the elastase-inhibiting ceramides found in skin epidermal layers and in the stratum corneum forming a protective barrier preventing skin dryness and producing youthful skin elasticity. Alpha-linolenic acid (found in walnuts) is a contributor to heart health by thinning the blood; reducing risks of clots or heart attacks. Walnuts reduce LDL cholesterol, increase the elasticity of the arteries, and reduce levels of vascular cell adhesion, a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. These fatty acids must be obtained from the diet, rather like Vitamin C must taken, since they are not synthesized internally. "Seed oils are the richest sources of alpha-linolenic acid, notably those of rapeseed (canola), soybeans, walnuts, flaxseed (linseed oil), perilla, chia, and hemp. Alpha-Linolenic acid is also obtained from the thylakoid membranes of the green leaves of broadleaf plants (the membranes responsible for photosynthesis)." - Wikipedia/Alpha-linolenic acid. Linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and gamma tocopherol are all three found in walnuts. Linoleic acid is found in "Safflower oil 78%, Grape seed oil 73%, Poppyseed oil 70%, Sunflower oil 68%, Hemp oil 60%, Corn oil 59%, Wheat germ oil 55%, Cottonseed oil 54%, Soybean oil 51%, Walnut oil 51%, Sesame oil 45%, Rice bran oil 39%, Pistachio oil 32.7%, Peanut oil 32%, Canola oil 21%, Chicken fat 18-23%, Egg yolk 16%, Linseed oil 15%, Lard 10%, Olive oil 10%, Palm oil 10%, Cocoa butter 3%, Macadamia oil 2%, Butter 2%, Coconut oil 2%. - Wikipedia/Linoleic Acid. More than about 10 walnuts/8 hours may lead to diarrhea. Note that grape seed oil may contain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a consequence of drying involving direct contact with combustion gases.
Fatty Liver, Alcholic Fatty Liver, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver [Wikipedia/Fatty_liver, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF; Links/Alcoholic fatty liver disease, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF; Links/Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]. Fatty liver can come from alcoholism or metabolic syndrome associated with obesity and lack of caloric restriction. Elevated carbohydrates can lead to problems with insulin resistance leading to increased fat storage in the liver. "High plasma levels of insulin and glucose due to insulin resistance are a major component of the metabolic syndrome". If unchecked, fatty liver disease can lead to hepatitis and/or hepatocarcinomas (liver cancer) and finally give men a pregnant appearance associated with "cirrhosis" of the liver, a painful and often fatal condition associated with yellow jaundice in the whites of the eyes caused by elevated bilirubin. Perhaps "Hari Kari" was invented to see if an apparently pregnant male was carrying liver disease, or prostate cancer, which can block urine flow and lead to swelling based on a distended bladder. On the other hand, men may feel suicidal if they really do get pregnant, which can happen. Avoiding male pregnancy is sometimes attempted by testicle removal, since they are a source of haploid gametes. I get the impression that the male body can take a testicle for an ovary for a uterus positioned above the bladder and connected to the anus via a cloacal channel through a cloacal orfice, perhaps after chemical reactions induced by semen after many applications. Regular periods can then ensue with bleeding through the anus. After pregnancy subsequent transformations may be induced using strong estrogen bioactivity nutraceuticals such as licorice to restructure bones and broaden the hips, and may involve application of nutraceuticals for ligands of the progesterone receptor to promote other associated feminine transformations. Transsexual transformation science can produce a variety of states blooming from love and sexuality with or without nutraceutical assistance featuring varying methods of reproduction and child delivery. Castration usually prevents the lady from making her mate pregnant. (Prophylactics or vasectomy may also ensure this objective, and of course prophylactics protect against warts and other infections.) DHEA may be used as a substitute for missing testosterone in some cases, to maintain muscular vitality and a high libido. Male pregnancy, cirrhosis of the liver, or swollen bladder from prostate cancer can make a hillbilly feel ruefully suicidal about his distended belly. Jaundice can seem to come from playing dice with what passes through one's jaws, especially alcohol.
Taurine, prevalent in fish, is useful in treating and preventing fatty liver disease, and helps to control insulin sensitivity. See Ian Macleavy (2013), The Forgotten Longevity Benefits of Taurine, Life Extension Magazine, June 2013.
Fennel Seed [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]. Fennel seed (like Anise) contains anethole, an anticancer nutraceutical useful for preventing adenocarcinomas. So, if your bottom is a "funnel" of enthusiasm for eager seed, you might consider it. At about a teaspoonful per day, fennel seed is also rumored to preserve youth and beauty, by providing flavonoids tending to boost telomerase-activating estrogen levels.
Music: To Sir with Love by Lulu and Time After Time by Cyndi Lauper.
Fenton Reaction [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
The Fenton reaction is the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction
Fenugreek Extract [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Fenugreek Extract for bodybuilding, Images; Telomerase Activators/Fenugreek]. Fenugreek seeds [Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension] are obtained from the plant Trigonella foenum-graecum [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Fenugreek is antidiabetic via its ability to elevate insulin expression, but its saponins such as diosgenin may induce uterine contractions and childbirth, so that it is not to be taken by pregnant women, except for that purpose. Fenugreek extract contains diosgenin, a telomerase activator which has been used for breast enlargement, and to obtain post-menopausal relief and/or she male special effects, including she males that are more libido-enhanced than obained with black cohosh. The improved sexual arrousal of fenugreek comes from its ability to elevate the expression of testosterone in either sex. This has some aphrodisiac effect. See Livestrong/Effects of fenugreek extract on the breasts [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. For the most effective fenugreek breast enlargement, an ethanolic extract of Fenugreek seeds containing diosgenin and diosgenin glycosides is made that is applied to the breasts. New breast cells are created by the hormonal action of diosgenin. Applied externally, fenugreek behaves as an emollient.
Breast enlargement progress (3 grams of Fenugreek seed/day or extract breast rubs):
Week 1-2: Breasts begin to feel fuller and tingly.
Week 4-8: Breast enhancement, heavier breasts - more curvaceous.
Week 9-12: Breast enlargement has taken place.
Fenugreek Saponins [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Fenugreek seeds contain 4% to 6% saponins (furostanol saponins and spirostanol saponins including up to 2% diosgenin) and 0.55% to 0.6% 4-hydroxyisoleucine [Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension]. The 7 saponins it contains include the graecunins (all glycosides of diosgenin), with lesser amounts of gitongenin, trigogenin, and fenugrin B. Fenugreek extract may be up to 20% 4-hydroxyisoleucine, which improves the expression of insulin, so that Fenugreek is antidiabetic. The fenugreek steroid saponins may be given as trigofoenosides A, B, C, D, E, F, and G; with fenugreek alglycones including diosgenin, yamogenin, gitogenin, smilagenin, tigogenin, yuccagenin, and its ester foenugraccin (pron: foe new grace in). Experimenters will notice that elevated insulin quickly removes sugar from the blood, using it to replenish muscle cell stores of glycogen. However, low blood sugar makes one feel tired and hungry, which is typical of hypoglycemia.
Fenugreek for Telomerase Activation [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Diosgenin, HIF-1, Tankyrase, TRF1, Insulin, Niacinamide, Nicotinamide]. Thus one takes fenugreek extract or seeds at the end of workout together with telomerase activators during the telomerase activation (7) part of a treatment cycle, to transport activators (such as the astragalosides and diosgenin from fenugreek, which elevates transcription factor HIF-1) into the cell with insulin and into the cellular nucleus with heat shock proteins (such as HSP90) to subsequently open the telomere t-loops at the ends of chromosomes for telomere-reconstructing telomerase access via insulin, which phosphorylates tankyrase 1, which can then best remove the telomere t-loop closure protein TRF1 with poly(ADP-ribosylation), using a NAD substrate from (say) < 3 grams of niacinamide (nicotinamide), which also elevates the expression of tankyrase 1. The niacinamide to build up the evening supply of NAD+ should probably be taken only early in the morning, so that niacinamide itself is lower in the evening. If NAD+ is taken as a supplement instead, it is taken at a low dose of about 2.5 mg every other day to provide the poly(ADP-ribo)sylation substrate. Fenugreek should be taken after an evening workout along with telomerase activators [List] before bedtime, perhaps with an appetite suppressant or fiber, as hypoglycemia from high insulin makes us hungry. On the other hand, forskolin may be taken before a workout to elevate testosterone, a telomerase-activating androgen in certain tissues. Taking fenugreek before exercise quickly makes one feel tired from low blood sugar before working out from sweeping sugar out of the blood and into cells, although it restores glycogen in the muscle tissues then. Thus fenugreek should only be taken after a workout to avoid the tired feeling, before bedtime, so that it can restore glycogen in muscles while one is asleep. Fenugreek extract promotes muscle growth via elevated testosterone and elevated insulin to transport nutrients (such as whey protein and branched-chain amino acids) into muscles. FLEX magazine recommends 500 to 1000 mg 30-60 minutes before a workout and 500-1000 mg before breakfast on rest days. According to FLEX, Fenugreek extract improves muscle contraction quality, and Fenugreek elevates testosterone via the action of:
Fenugreek seeds can help elevate telomerase activity levels by increasing insulin secretions
and phosphorylating Tankrase 1, which inhibits telomere closure protein TRF1, opening
telomere t-loops to allow telomerase holoenzyme access to the telomere. Fenugreek's Diosgenin
activates hTERT mRNA production by improving production of the HIF-1 transcription
factor, which interacts with the hTERT promoter directly to produce more hTERT catalytic component telomerase. Thus Fenugreek [List] works two different ways to improve telomerase activity. As a safety precaution, only take Fenugreek Extract continuously for up to 12 weeks if breast enlargement is desired. Used orally (without application as an extract to the chest) on a cyclic basis for two weeks on and two weeks off, it seems not to produce breast development. However, it may be useful then to promote telomere growth and accelerate results from applying other telomerase activators [Index, List, (7)]. I gather that 3 grams of the Fenugreek seeds may be consumed per day to get breast enlargement in less than 12 weeks for under $9.00 per pound. I note that 1.5 to 3 grams of Fenugreek seed every day for two weeks of telomerase activation from elevated testosterone (an androgen), diosgenin (a HIF-1 activator), and insulin does not produce breast enlargement in an exercising male. Consecutive cycles of two weeks on and two weeks off Fenugreek seed at 1.5 grams/day to 3 grams/day does not produce breast enlargement, either. Note that Fenugreek seeds reduce cataract incidence in diabetic rats.
Contraindications [Links/Fenugreek contraindications, Links/Fenugreek side-effects]. However, Fenugreek increases blood coagulant properties when taken with warfarin. It also induces uterine contractions, so that it should not be given to pregnant women except to induce them. Taken prior to a workout, fenugreek makes one tired from sweeping sugar into cells with insulin, so that one may become temporarily hypoglycemic. Thus it is to be taken after a workout to restore glycogen in the muscles, but not prior to a workout. Overuse by males may precipitate breasted males. Fenugreek is sometimes contrasted with boldo.
Bodybuilding sources claim fenugreek contains furostanolic saponins, most importantly protodioscin, which increases the release of DHEA from the adrenal gland and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) from the pituitary gland. DHEA is a precursor of testosterone, and LH stimulates testosterone production in the testes from the gland of Leydig, so that Fenugreek provides 2 pathways for testosterone enhancement.
Fertilized Eggs [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Fertilized eggs contain follistatin which can inhibit myostatin, the protein that normally puts brakes on muscle growth, so that the fertilized eggs of hens may be used as a bodybuilding supplement. See [Links/Myostatin Inhibitors, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Index/Myostatin, Links/Myostatin].
Ferulic Acid [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Ferulic acid supplements, Images].
According to Truth in Aging (Marta, February 19, 2009), "Ferulic acid ... is found in the cell walls of plants such as wheat, rice, peanuts, oranges and apples. It is an antioxidant that can seek and destroy several different types of free radical – ‘superoxide’, ‘hydroxyl radical’, and ‘nitric oxide’ – according to a 2002 Japanese study. A 2004 Italian study concluded that ferulic acid is a more powerful antioxidant than alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid (vitamic C). Meanwhile, Duke University researchers blended it with vitamin C and vitamin E and proclaimed it a “potent ubiquitous plant antioxidant”. Mixing ferulic acid with a vitamin C cream is a great DIY solution and seems to be very helpful for fading sun damage."
Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, a class which includes ferulic acid, caffeic acid, para-coumaric acid (p-coumaric), chlorogenic acid, and sinapic acid. The curcuminoid compounds are derivatives of ferulic acid, including curcumin (diferuloylmethane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisemethoxycurcumin, all of which are yellow.
Fibroblasts [Wikipedia, LibCong, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Image/Young vs Senescent Fibroblasts; Mythic Imaging in Senescent Fibroblasts]. Fibroblasts supply elastin and collagen fibers and maintain the extracellular matrix, can specialize into other kinds of cells rather like stem cells, including muscle cells, fat, bone, cartilage, and smooth muscle cells. They are rejuvenated by carnosine, and may be conditionally immortalized with telomerase activators such as Product B, astragalosides, astragaloside IV, cycloastragenol, astragalus root, astragalus root extract, and IGF-1. Fibroblasts proliferate upon wounding or to replace dead cells. Senescent dermal fibroblasts [Amazon], which have a Hayflick limit of about 50, express matrix metalloproteinases collagenase (MMP-1) and stromelysin (MMP-3) which degrade collagen and extracellular matrix proteins. [LifeExtension, Books, Links, Wikipedia, Books/human fibroblasts, images/human fibroblasts, images/senescent human fibroblasts, Books/senescent human fibroblasts, SenescenceInfo/Cells, Shay/Hayflick, His Limit, and Cellular Aging, Books/senescent human fibroblasts and collagenase, Books/senescent human fibroblasts and stromelysin]. Senescent fibroblasts also show reduced expression of TIMP1 and TIMP3, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases [Links/TIMP1 and TIMP3, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia]. Senescent dermal fibroblasts also secrete inflammatory cytokines [Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Books/inflammatory cytokines secreted by senescent fibroblasts, Papers] and growth factors [Wikipedia, Papers, Books]. Cancers of fibroblasts are the fibrosarcomas. See A.G. Bodnar, M. Oullette, M. Frolkis, S.E. Holt, C.P. Chiu, G.B. Morin, C.B. Harley, J.W. Shay, S. Lichtsteiner, W.E. Wright, Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells, Science 279 (1998) 349-352 and also C.P. Morales, S.E. Holt, M. Ouellette, K.J. Kaur, Y.Yan, K.S. Wilson, M.A. White, W.E. Wright, J.W. Shay, Absence of cancer-associated changes in human fibroblasts immortalized with telomerase, Nature Genetics 21 (1999) 115-118 and X. R. Jiang, G. Jimenez, E. Chang, M. Frolkis, B. Kusler, M. Sage, M. Beeche, A.G. Bodnar, G.M. Wahl, T.D. Tisty, C.P.Chiu, Telomerase expression in human somatic cells does not induce changes associated with a transformed phenotype, Nature Genetics 21 (1999) 111-114.
Senescent Human Diploid Fibroblasts [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Most senescent human diploid fibroblasts (senescent HDFs) exhibit growth arrest at the G1/S phase of the cell cycle, but up to 20% may have 4N DNA content characteristic of G1 tetraploid cells and arrested G2 cells. See Genes and Senescence. See also Allsopp RC, Vaziri H, Patterson C, Goldstein S, Younglai EV, Futcher AB, Greider CW, Harley CB (1992), Telomere length predicts replicative capacity of human fibroblasts, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 10114-18. The number of senescent dermal fibroblasts increases exponentially with age in baboons. (Herbig U, et al, 2006, Cellular senescence in aging primates, Science 311: 1257.) Product B telomerase inducers were all determined to promote hTERT transcription in human fibroblasts.
Recovering from the growth arrest associated with replicative senescence or premature stress-induced senescence may require lowering the expression of p16INK4a (with carrots, supplements, and exercise) and of caveolin-1 with cyclic AMP (from exercise and supplements) or by applying other caveolin-1 inhibitors such as folic acid in the presence of endogenous telomerase activators or exercise-induced telomerase activators such as EGF and PDGF to restart the cell cycle. This restores membrane communications by reconstructing caveolae in the cell membrane and revives youthful cellular morphology.
Fibromyalgia [Fmaware.org/Fibromyalgia, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension]. "There is a high aggregation of fibromyalgia in families. The mode of inheritance is currently unknown, but it is most probably polygenic. Research has demonstrated that fibromyalgia is associated with polymorphisms of genes in the serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and catecholaminergic systems." - Wikipedia/Fibromyalgia. Perhaps the most promising cure for fibromyalgia lies in gene therapy based on targeted genome editing with zinc finger nucleases, to replace defective genes with healthy ones. The disorder is comorbid with stress-related disorders and may be pictured as due to dopamine deficiencies that might feasibly be treated with dopamine-correcting drugs such as L-DOPA or Mucuna Pruriens, which contains L-DOPA. DHA also improves the expression of dopamine. Since fibromyalgia is associated with stress-related disorders that elevate cortisol levels, it may be useful to treat it with cortisol-lowering ashwagandha. DHEA and exercise also lower cortisol levels. I have seen a morbidly obese patient complaining of fibromyalgia symptoms including nerve pain in a convincing and vividly descriptive manner.
Finasteride [LifeExtension, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. The drug is used to treat enlarged prostate glands from BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) and male pattern baldness.
Fisetin [LifeExtension, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Images/Fisetin supplements, Dietary sources of fisetin; Longecity_Blog/Fisetin; Dosage, Toxicity; Pathway Analysis]. Fisetin is an orally active, neuroprotective and cognition-enhancing flavonoid that is anti-inflammatory against microglial cells and a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor that reduces the production of lipid peroxides and increases production of of the master antioxidant glutathione. In addition, fisetin also produces an increase in proteasome activity [Ref], and powerfully activates AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) to inhibit fat storage, reduce cholesterol-triglyceride synthesis, and increase glucose uptake into muscle. Activation of AMPK by a host of AMPK-activating nutraceuticals prominently including fisetin promotes catabolic conversions producing ATP for many life-extending processes, including improvements in autophagy of cellular junk in senescent cells, the elimination of pro-inflammatory senescent cells by apoptosis, and mitochondrial biogenesis, while reducing triglycerides and glucose in the blood.
Fisetin was originally identified (K. Ishige, et al, 2001: PDF) in a screen for medicines that could prevent oxidative-stress induced nerve cell death. It is taken for best effect at about 10-25 mg/kg (750-1875 mg/dose) and is found in abundance in strawberries (160 mg/kg) and to a lesser degree in apples (27 mg/kg). Fisetin, a SIRT1 activator, augments the effects of resveratrol, a CR-mimetic. See Sirtuin Activators. Vendors often recommend a smaller 100 mg/dose. Fisetin stabilizes resveratrol by shielding it from metabolic breakdown [Ref]. Popular CR-mimetics used in supplements include trans-resveratrol, trans-pterostilbene, quercetin, grape seed polyphenols, black tea extract, and fisetin. Fisetin protects and promotes survival of cultured neurons and boosts memory in healthy mice, and opposes memory loss due to neurodegenerative disorders. See Pamela Maher (2009), Modulation of multiple pathways involved in the maintenance of neuronal function during aging by fisetin [PDF], Genes and Nutrition 2009 Sep 10.
Music: Strawberry Fields Forever by the Beatles.
Fish Oil [Wikipedia/Fish oil, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Heart Attack (Optimal Cardiac Defense)]. Fish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids [Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], and is composed of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [Index/EPA, Links, Books, LifeExtension] and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [Index/DHA, Links, Books, LifeExtension], [25g]. Fish oil is anti-inflammatory (having application to inflammatory disorders such as arthritis) and helps prevent cancer (especially prostate, breast, ovarian, and testicular cancers), and heart disease by reducing inflammation, reducing triglycerides, and by making blood platelets less sticky. DHA is widely used for brain food, since the brain is 60% fat, half of which is DHA. DHA upregulates dopamine and is neuroprotective, promoting apoptosis in cancerous neuroblastoma cells and inhibiting apoptosis in normal neurons. According to Muscle & Fitness Magazine, fish oil EPA and DHA help prevent muscle breakdown, enhance muscle growth, joint healing, and fat loss, partly through their role as precursors of the prostaglandins. High levels of EPA and DHA are associated with lower levels of triglycerides and C-reactive protein in studies of Eskimos, leading to a reduced rate of chronic diseases. (LEF, June 2010). Fish oil users have a lower risk of cognitive impairment. - Dayna Dye, Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Associated with Decreased Cognitive Decline in Older Men and Women, Life Extension Magazine, November 2011, LEF News and J. Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15(1):32-5. According to Chinese research, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids such as fish oil can reduce homocysteine levels. (LEF News, Nov. 2011 & Nutrition 2011, Sep; 27(9):863-7).
"People with total omega-3 levels above 6.1% in their blood had a compelling 90% reduction in risk of sudden cardiac death [Images] compared to those whose omega-3s were 4.3% or less of their fatty acids." A 70% reduction in risk of death from heart attack [Images] was observed for people with EPA and DHA values of 4.6% or greater, when compared with those whose total values were less than 3.5%. 2000 mg to 4000 mg of fish oil per day may be required to obtain optimal cardiac defense [Papers, Patents, Books].
Flax Seed Oil [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. ALA (alpha lineolic acid) in Flax seed oil may be partially converted in the body to DHA, but fish oil is a far richer source of DHA. Flax seed oil is anti-inflammatory and supports membrane integrity. - After Susan Machado (2012), Nutrient Cocktail Delays Aging and Extends Life Span, Life Extension Magazine May 2012. See Barcelo-Coblijn G, Murphy EJ, Othman R, Moghadasian MH, Kashour T, Friel JK (2008), Flaxseed oil and fish-oil capsule consumption alters human red blood cell n-3 fatty acid composition: a multiple-dosing trial comparing 2 sources of n-3 fatty acid, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Sep; 88(3):801-9. Also see Mourvaki E, Cardinali R, Dal Bosco A, Corazzi L, Castellini C (2010), Effects of flaxseed dietary supplementation on sperm quality and on lipid composition of sperm subfractions and prostatic grandules in rabbit, Theriogenology 2010 March 15; 73(5):629-37.
FLEX Magazine FLEX (bodybuilding) .
Fluorescence Microscopy [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong; Links/Fluorescence Microscopy in Telomere Measurements, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], .
Folic Acid [Index/Vitamin B9, Wikipedia/Folic acid, Links/Folic Acid, Images/Folic Acid supplements, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Folic Acid Toxicity; Index/Telomeric Chromatin, Index/hTERT methylation, Telomerase activators/(106) Folic Acid]. The active form of folic acid is termed L-methylfolate [Wikipedia/L-methylfolate, Links/L-methylfolate, Images/L-methylfolate supplements, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Folic acid is often used as a component in homocysteine screens, which also contain Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, and frequently TMG (Trimethylglycine), a methylating agent that may substitute for methionine. "Folic acid intake is necessary for the remethylation of homocysteine, a key chemical reaction for SAM production" (ref). Eating strawberries elevates folate levels in the blood, improving measures of cardiovascular wellness. See dietary sources of folic acid and folate. Cancer feeds on folic acid because it is heavily used in DNA synthesis, so that folic acid may be traced in connection with cancer studies. Check out folic acid in telomeric DNA synthesis [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. See Paul L, Cattaneo M, D'Angelo A, Sampietro F, Fermo I, Razzari C, Fontana G, Eugene N, Jacques PF, Selhub J. (2009), Telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is associated with folate status in men, J Nutr. 2009 Jul;139(7):1273-8. Note that Nutrition and the Epigenome describes folic acid as methyl-donating and supportive of DNA methylation. "Familiar nutrients like folic acid, B vitamins and SAM-e (S-Adenosyl methionine, a popular over-the-counter supplement) are key components of this methyl-making pathway. Diets high in these methyl-donating nutrients can rapidly alter gene expression." Folic acid methylates DNA, opposing DNA hypomethylation. "Folic acid is an important donor of methyl groups for the DNA methylation of CpG dinucleotides." - Epigenie/Epigenetic News and Headlines. "Folate plays an essential role in one-carbon transfer involving remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, thereby insuring the provision of S-adenosylmethionine, the primary methyl group donor for most biological methylation reactions." - (Young-In Kim, 2005). However, note that all known DNA methyltranferases use SAMe as the methyl donor.
1 mg/day is the recommended upper limit for folic acid consumption in adults recommended by Wikipedia. "Folic acid toxicity is rare. High doses (above 15 mg) can cause stomach problems, sleep problems, skin reactions, and seizures..." - Vibrant Life. Note that vitamin C tends to demethylate DNA at CpG boundaries (in embryonic stem cells), which may promote telomere lengthening. See the demethylation of DNA at CpG sites by Vitamin C [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. See supplements for controlling DNA methylation, nutrition for DNA methylation, and the index entries hTERT methylation and telomeric chromatin.
Folic acid supplements stimulate the PI3k/Akt signaling cascade, which is thought to activate telomerase by phosphorylating cytoplasmic hTERT and importing it into the cellular nucleus, where it becomes part of the telomerase holoenzyme and lengthens telomeres. In this it resembles resveratrol, which phosphorylates cytoplasmic hTERT using Akt kinase. However, this does not brake existing cancers, so that folic acid at 5 mg/day may tend to fuel existing cancers somewhat, rather than repressing them. Telomerase activators are sometimes called tumor promoters because they defeat the telomerase-inhibition cancer-defense mechanism while they are being used, allowing existing cancers to grow until telomerase inhibitors are applied or anticancer drugs taken. Two weeks of telomerase inhibitors and anticancer screening after two weeks of folic acid at 5 mg/day is probably safe and anticancer enough to be used in lengthening telomeres. Folic acid levels should probably return to about 0.4 mg/day to 1.6 mg/day during 2 weeks of telomerase inhibition. See C.E. Butterworth Jr. and T. Tamura (1989), Folic acid safety and toxicity: a brief review, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1989:50:353-8.
Folic acid is used in DNA synthesis, so that it is heavily consumed by cancer cells, as is sugar. Probably telomere DNA synthesis proceeds generally better in the presence of folic acid [List], so that it should be taken when attempting to lengthen telomeres to facilitate telomere DNA synthesis. "Damage in telomeric DNA is repaired less efficiently compared with coding regions and can result in short telomeres (22,23). Folate provides precursors for nucleotide synthesis and low folate availability causes nucleotide imbalances and subsequently DNA damage (24,25). Thus, it is possible that folate can influence telomere length by its effect on integrity of telomeric DNA....Folate provides precursors for nucleotide synthesis and low folate availability induces uracil misincorporation and strand breaks in DNA. ...Low folate status is associated with altered telomere length in a nonlinear manner. There is a shortening of telomeres with decreased plasma folate concentration to the median, but telomere length increases with decreased plasma folate concentration below the median (11.6 nmol/L)."
- [(Paul L, Cattaneo M, et al), PDF].
Folic Acid with EGF and PDGF Elevation for Rapid Rejuvenation
Note that folic acid (List, vitamin B9) stimulates the PI3K/AKT pathway to down-regulate caveolin-1 by sequestering FOXO factors away from the nucleus. Thus a large dose of folic acid (1 to 5 mg, avoid cramps) along with a bodybuilding workout set up to elevate EGF and PDGF with exercise and supplements such as colostrum might return a man's senescent cells rapidly to a rejuvenated state. Lowered levels of caveolin-1 (gene CAV1) can lead to rapid cellular recovery from senescence including subtantial telomere enlongation of up to 30%. This is an experiment for patients without atherosclerotic plaque, arteriosclerosis, or aortic stenosis, however. Repeated application may be required. This may be combined with treatment to simultaneously elevate cyclic AMP and preserve it with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, also to reduce levels of caveolin-1 to enable recovery from cellular senescence. Levels of and P16INK4A might simultaneously be reduced to disable P16INK4A's blockade of recovery from senescence.
Foods for Longevity [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], The World's Healthiest Foods, , , [44s]. Hard cheeses such as Swiss cheese contain more vitamin K2, which prevents aortic stenosis or hardening of the heart from calcification, than vegetable sources or adult multivitamin preparations. Thus, although cheeses contain fats, they are useful in avoiding calcification of the aortic valve. MK-7 supplements [Images] elevate vitamin K2 for days and are most valuable for avoiding aortic stenosis. By stopping exercise [List], aortic stenosis stops production of telomerase activators from exercise that tend to support the immune system. Thus Jack LaLanne, who exercised religiously but relied on vegetable sources of vitamin K2, died at 96 of pneumonia after suffering from aortic stenosis. Note that antibiotics can stop bacteria in the stomach that generates vitamin K2, so that probiotics such as probiotic yogurt must be used to refresh intestinal bacteria after extensive use of antibiotics such as garlic.
Food Poisoning [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Botulism, Images, Video], The World's Healthiest Foods.
Forskolin [Telomerase Activators/Androgens, Telomerase Activators/Forskolin, Wikipedia/Forskolin, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Toxicity; WebMD/Forskolin]. Forskolin is the active ingredient in coleus forskohlii [Images, Video, Papers, Books], which activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase, which converts ATP to cyclic adenosine monoposphate (cAMP), which activates hormone-sensitive lipase to breakdown fats and transport cellular fatty acids into the blood. Cyclic AMP (a second messenger) acts by activating protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase), which can phosphorylate specific proteins that bind to promoter regions of DNA, causing increased expression of specific genes, or phosphorylate proteins that may act directly on a cell's ion channels, or phosphorylate proteins that may become activated or inhibited enzymes. Forskolin elevates free testosterone production by the testes, which has been observed to decrease bodyfat, enhance bone mass, and increase lean body mass. "Vitamin D metabolites, retinoids, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, forskolin, cholera toxin, isobutylmethylxanthine, diacylglycerol analogues, and UV irradiation all trigger melanogenesis (the production of melanin from melanocytes) and in turn, pigmentation." - Wikipedia/Melanocyte. Perhaps hair greying [Index, 74s, 74s/Greying of Hair] can be alleviated by tyrosine (required for melanin production), Vitamin D, and forskolin, along with astragalosides or astragaloside IV skin cream (Terraternal) to stimulate a hair follicle anagen cycle by repairing telomeric DNA in hair follicle stem cells so that their open telomere loops can close, enabling more cell division and passages through the cell cycle as the senescent cell open loop DNA damage signal vanishes. It is also useful to upregulate endogenous antioxidants such as catalase with bacopa or ashwagandha to oppose the greying of hair, which seems to be due to hydrogen peroxide formation in the hair follicle that is not neutralized by catalase. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone from tribulus is also useful in reversing greying.
Forskolin helps cells recover from cellular senescence
Note that Forskolin down-regulates levels of caveolin-1, which makes it useful in recovering from cellular senescence. Down-regulation of caveolin-1 (gene CAV1) restarts the cell cycle, reduces the senescent-state hyporeactivity of the cell, restores the youthful cellular phenotype, and causes the senescent cell to regain sensitivity to stimulation by human growth factor telomerase activators such as EGF and PDGF. In some cell types cAMP is known to induce a cell cycle arrest [Papers, Patents, Books], which may make forskolin treatment for senescent cells less attractive. Forskolin inhibits colon cancer cell growth and survival. (Wikipedia/Forskolin). Forskolin may suppress leukemia progression (LEF, Nov 15, 2005). See Therapy for recovering from cellular senescence.
Forskolin Dosage [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension; toxicity]. Forskolin, which stimulates the Leydig cells in the testes [Wiki] that secrete testosterone, may be taken at 250 mg per serving twice a day in a 10% forskolin extract [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. I note that Solaray "FORSKOLII" [Images] recommends 1 or 2 x 385 mg/cap per day of a 1% Forskolin extract guaranteed 3.85 mg of Forskolin per cap. Forskolin may behave as a telomerase activator in connection with androgens (testosterone) in androgen-sensive cells [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension]. These probably include muscle cells, muscle stem cells, cardiomyocytes, cardiomyocyte stem cells, and melanocytes (check).
Fossel, Michael [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Cellular Senescence].
"Summarizing recent research, Fossel noted that when scientists insert a gene for the protein component of telomerase into senescent human cells - which reextends their telomeres to lengths typically seen in young cells - these cells show other characteristics of young cells." - [Mary Jean Pramic, 1998]. For the article, see Michael Fossel MD PhD (1998), Telomerase and the Aging Cell: Implications for Human Health, JAMA, 1998;279(21):1732-1735. See rejuvenating senescent cells with telomerase [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. I note that conditions may forbid recovery of the senescent cell to its youthful phenotype if p16INK4A is at too high a level, or if caveolin-1 is at too high a level. Indeed, the senescent state of the cell was often regarded as irreversible. However, lowering caveolin-1 (gene CAV1) substantially restores senescent cell membrane communications by resurrecting membrane caveolae so that EGF stimulation functions and can excite Elk activation and hyperactivation of the ERK kinase cascade to produce up to 30% longer cellular telomeres in youthful, rejuvenated cells. Michael Fossel's remarks indicate that conditions do exist under which senescent cells may be rejuvenated by application of telomerase alone. Sierra Sciences points to rejuvenated skin experiments: Walter D. Funk, C.Kathy Wang, Dawne N. Shelton, Calvin B. Harley, Garrett D. Pagon, Warren K. Hoeffler (2000), Telomerase Expression Restores Dermal Integrity to in Vitro-Aged Fibroblasts in a Reconstituted Skin Model, Experimental Cell Research, 2000. "Telomerase activity not only confers replicative immortality to skin fibroblasts, but can also prevent or reverse the loss of biological function seen in senescent cell populations." Also see Yukari Kanzakia, Fumikazu Onouea, Fuyuki Ishikawab, Toshinori Idea (2002), Telomerase Rescues the Expression Levels of Keratinocyte Growth Factor and Insulin-like Growth Factor-II in Senescent Human Fibroblasts, Experimental Cell Research Vol 279 (2), 1 Oct 2002, 321-329. For perspective, see Judith Campisi and Fabrizio d'Adda di Fagagna (2007), Cellular Senescence: when bad things happen to good cells [PDF], Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 8, 729-740 (September 2007) and Senescence.info.
Fo-Ti (He Shou Wu) [Telomerase Activators/Fo-Ti, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Wikipedia; from Polygonum multiflorum roots]. See also Li Ching Yuen and Hair Greying. A correspondent draws my attention to Li Ching-Yuen, who may have taken fo-ti (HE SHOU WU) from Polygonum multiflorum root with goji berry sauce and black bean sauce as part of his longevity program. Li Ching-Yuen may have lived for 256 years ( or 197 years ). Li Ching-Yuen "...worked as an herbalist, promoting the use of wild reishi, goji berry, wild ginseng, he shou wu and gotu kola along with other Chinese herbs." - Wikipedia. Present analysts warn somewhat of he shou wu (fo ti) having an unfavorable impact on the liver, perhaps the factor promoting enlargement of Li Ching-Yuen's nose. However, fo-ti is still available. Li Ching-Yuen was 7 feet tall.
Anthraquinone constituents of Fo-ti include Chrysophanic acid, chrysophanol, emodin. These exhibit anticancer properties (S. Mohammad Abu-Darwish and A. Mazen Ateyyat, 2008). See also chrysophanic acid in treating Colon Cancer. Note that some "derivatives of the Anthraquinone" are telomerase activators [List], according to recent Chinese research. Fo-Ti strongly promotes estrogen bioactivity, and estrogen is a telomerase activator. See Karen Oerter Klein, Mona Janfaza, Jeffrey A. Wong and R. Jeffrey Chang (2003), Estrogen Bioactivity in Fo-Ti and Other Herbs Used for Their Estrogen-Like Effects as Determined by a Recombinant Cell Bioassay, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Vol. 88, No. 9 4077-4079. There are some indications that as fo-ti turns your hair black, it may darken the other end, inflicting Melanosis Coli observed due to chronic use of herbal laxatives containing anthraquinones. See Jiaogulan.
There is a patent for Fo-Ti enhancement of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and bone marrow stem cell proliferation. Fo-Ti is also an ingredient of Stem Cell 100 and similar preparations for stem cell proliferation enhancers. See Stem Cell Technology.
Free Radical Theory of Aging [Ben Best/Free Radical Theory of Aging, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Wikipedia], (1), , James South/Free Radical Theory of Aging, "Free Radicals are capable of damaging virtually any biomolecule, including proteins, sugars, fatty acids and nucleic acids", Reactive Oxygen Species [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books/Reactive Oxygen Species, Wikipedia, LifeExtension], (1). See ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), Index/Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants.
French paradox [Smart Drugs/The French paradox, LifeExtension/The French Paradox, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong] and Resveratrol. The paradox is that French life expectancy is improved by drinking if one consumes red wine rich in resveratrol and antioxidant polyphenols. Heavy drinking is bad for longevity. Overeating plus smoking typically reduces life expectancy by 13 years, and introducing heavy drinking reduces this still further, (up to 11 more years in hepatitis C victims) unless one takes a special wine or French Port. Light to moderate drinking improves life span.
Fucoidan (Foo-coy-dan) [Wikipedia/Fucoidan, Links/Fucoidan, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; LifeExtension]. Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide found primarily in various species of brown algae and brown seaweed, causes apoptosis of breast cancer cells [Index] and of lymphoma cells [Index].
Fucoxanthin [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Fucoxanthin increases thermogenesis for superior muscle definition by effectively turning white fat into more combustible brown fat.
Functional Foods [Links/functional foods, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LibCong], healthiest foods, herbs [Links/herbs, Images, Video, Papers, Books] and nutraceuticals [Links/Nutraceuticals, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension], [16s], [41s], [44s], .
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