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K
Kaempferol [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. According to LEF, kaempferol is found in strawberries, which are also rich in vitamin C, cancer- and heart-disease fighting flavonoids, quercetin, and catechin. In addition, strawberries include phenols functioning as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, so that they provide enhanced protection against arthritic disorders. Strawberries also protect against breast cancer and colon cancer.
Music[2]: Strawberry Fields.
Kalawalla Extract (Calaguala Extract) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Kalawalla Extract has appeared as a component in Immortality Diet stemming from Chinese medicine blended with the modern molecular biological approach of today's life extension medicine. Kalawalla Extract is obtained from Polypodium leucotomos [Images] and Polypodium decumanum [Images]. and contains the active chemicals calaguline [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] and anapsos [Images, Papers, Patents, Books], which are sulphoquinovo-syldiacylglycerols [Images, Papers, Patents, Books], according to some on-line notes.
See Li Ching-Yuen.
Karyotype [Wikipedia/Karyotype, Links/Karyotype, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Karyology, Images, Papers, Books; Links/Sex Karyotypes, Images, Papers, Books;
The Erotic Hots Study Guide 1, hots2; The Pregnant Male Body; Images/Male Pregnancy].
This treatment is approximate and simplified, but has a good deal of merit. Human sex karyotype is XX (Female) or XY (Male). Applying Mendelian analysis for crossing XX with XY,
SexXX
XXXXX
YXYXY
Thus one obtains 50% males XY and 50% females XX. On the other hand, consider crossing XY with XY. See Crossing Sex Karyotypes.
SexXY
XXXXY
YXYYY
Now 75% of the offspring are males, 50% of the offspring XY and 25% YY, with just 25% XX women. The YY types are always obtained as genetically viable XYY types, however. The skeleton normally replaces itself gradually every 10 years as a feaure of normal maintenance, indicating the time scale of hip restructuring via estrogenic transformations involving the estrogen beta receptor in combination with strong estrogen bioactivity nutraceuticals. Crossing XY with YY is also instructive:
SexXY
YXYYY
YXYYY
Now only males are obtained, 50% of them YY karyotype. Again, these "YY-karyotype" males are always obtained as genetically viable XYY syndrome karyotype males. The X-chromosome is required to generate dyskerin for telomerase stability. Now all the children are males and half of them are XYY-karyotype, so that the numbers of males relative to females can increase dramatically in a population, generating pressure leading to a surge in she male sexuality characteristic of certain human tribes or nations populated by ladies and gentlemen. Also consider crossing a YY-type with a conventional woman with karyotype XX:
SexXX
YXYXY
YXYXY
Theoretically, XYY syndrome karyotype boys than can produce nothing but boys can be generated, so that some terrestrial population subgroups, nations, or tribes are entirely males or nearly entirely males manifesting themselves as males and she males, that is, as gentlemen and ladies who may manifest male pregnancy. There are also cases of all-male tribes that have largely rejected she males. Everyone can seem to be a conventional male soldier, although these can get pregnant. Tribes of bearded Spartan-style men have emerged in which most or all publicly visible members of the all-male tribe seem to be bearded hunters. Chain reactions to populations of primarily karytype-modified XYY syndrome boys have taken place in populations derived from lost armies of men coplating with their buddies. In these cases children may be delivered surgically by C-section methods or otherwise by pubiotomy or symphysiotomy, now obsolete operations. Children can also be extracted from the anus with pre-greasing, compression, and forceps in these cases up to about the third month, then raised as preemies, sometimes fed from IVs or coatings of blood obtained from other children of the same blood type, from their mother's blood (which may become unsuitable), or perhaps via some exotic preemie topping. (Perhaps platelet-free serum can be used.) A number of Indian tribes and modern nations have successfully raised preemie papooses with methods of this sort. In the presence of strong estrogen bioactivity nutraceuticals such as licorice or hops, the hip part of the male skeleton can eventually be restructured to female dimensions. Ever-larger dildoes may be used to simply well-lubricated anal delivery about the third month, or to enlarge the hips for alternative full-term delivery options usually regarded as less favorable than C-section, but more technically feasible at home. The penis can fold upwards until after childbirth or permanently, so that birth can take place from an apparently normal synthetic female with hip structure suitable for normal delivery, although an C-section may still be required for infant extraction, depending on prenatal sonogram or flash X-ray prenatal measurements of the dimensions of the fetal head. Before the development of C-section delivery, pubiotomy or symphysiotomy operations were performed that split the pubis of the hips lateral to the pubic symphysis with a saw to save the dick or right at the pubic symphysis with destruction of the dick to permit the child to slip through the opened pelvic structure. C-section, however, delivers the child through the belly without passage through the hips and its complications. Furthermore, childbirth from a more completely transformed specimen, a busty synthetic female with the dick packed up toward the rear of the vaginal formation (or otherwise), may avoid destruction of dick tissue that way (Video). In addition, she may have expanded, restructured hips from taking stong estrogen bioactivity nutraceuticals such as licorice, hops, or clover. Breast development may be improved with hand massage using fenugreek extract or by using nutraceutical ligands of the progesterone receptor including oregano, verbena, tumeric, thyme, red clover, damiana, or IGF-2 from colostrum. Restructuring a pregnant male for childbirth [Images, Papers, Books] may include early castration [Images, Papers, Books] if full term delivery is desired. One or both testicles can pull in upwards to become ovaries above a uterus over the bladder, with the uterus connected by a cloacal channel to the anus before pregnancy. The skeleton normally replaces itself gradually every 10 years as a feaure of normal maintenance, perhaps indicating the time scale of hip restructuring via estrogenic transformations involving the estrogen beta receptor in combination with strong estrogen bioactivity nutraceuticals.
Erotic Hots Study Guide Transformational mysteries of the she male body enabling childbirth have been more completely photographed recently, although they are still incompletely understood by many students of medicine. I suspect progesterone or ligands of the progesterone receptor can lead to the penis fold-up effect. (Check.) It is possible for the penis to seem to be folded up into the crotch in a way that allows it to harden and be extracted as a member from the inside during sex, so that it can be stroked or sucked, but be apparently mounted inside rather than outside, so that it can seem to protrude backwards as a "lay-d" from inside the vaginal construct during sexual intercourse. Then it can seem to retreat backwards up inside after sex. After childbirth it seems that the base of it can seem to migrate back to the front, thus appearing as an apparently enlarged member eager for the "Revenge of the Sith". On the other hand, birth from males may require surgical slices with delivery expertise and subsequent suturing and may be more hazardous and painful than conventional birth from women, sometimes requiring appropriate anesthetics to deliver through broken hips that must be reset or wired together at the symphysis. This is how true love sexuality might break a lady's heart. Sometimes broken hips must be carefully fit back together and properly secured for healing when birth is carried out with a hip passage delivery technology. C-section delivery can avoid this, but requires more facilities and expertise, no doubt including practice with suturing, access to anesthetics, and a familiarity with control of bleeding and surgical instrumentation and surgical procedures. Sepsis from the operation may be stopped with garlic taken orally or by other antibiotics. Preemie delivery after the 3rd month through an anus enlarged by fisting or with ever larger dildoes, achieved though a belly clamping method (corsets?) or by somehow beating or kicking the belly, can save the lady's male genitals and reduce the danger to her life by producing a delicate little baby born through her well-greased and pre-expanded anus. Sometimes it tears, producing a scar visible in certain she male sex movies or gallery photos, now a valuable source of clues and medical information on various she male structural transformations and birth-associated effects. Careful preemie handling and afterbirth handling technique can then preserve the tribe. Both XY and YY karyotype males can manifest themselves as she males. My father, for instance, seems to have been a man from Missouri of XYY karyotype who sired 4 XY males from my XX-karyotype mother. See mosaic sex karytypes [Papers, Books] On the other hand, my aunts and uncles seemed to have designed themselves sterile with prophylactics or vasectomies. American indian tribes were sometimes down to nothing but males, and in one case were happy to join another tribe consisting of both males and females in order to simplify childbirth for males. The human karyotype is characterized by the whole set of 23 chromosome pairs, which includes both alleles of 22 genes plus the XX, XY or XYY sex determining genes. Mind you, there are sources that seem to describe results differing from the Mendelian prediction for the XYY sex karyotype in connection with dyskeratosis congenita [Index] and the X-linked molecule dyskerin. Dyskeratosis congentia is due to a mutation in the X-chromosome. Such mutations may creep into a population of ladies and gentlemen centuries after the XYY-karyotype has established itself as popular, in some places leading to a higher local incidence of premature aging and bone cancer. (Note that most offspring with the XYY-trait of having all boys in the next generation are apparently healthy, as if essential functions of the normal X-chromosome are somehow retained. The segregation of X and Y chromosomal material seems to differ from the naive Mendelian prediction, which would tend to produce more defects than we observe in apparently YY offspring.) Manifestations of dyskeratosis congenita are more severe with early onset of the disease, when it sometimes resembles progeria [Images]. In some cases dyskeratosis congenita is associated with premature aging. Telomerase may still function rather well in XYY-karyotype males, but with less hTR stability if dyskerin is mutated (1 in 1000000 total births). XYY males [Links] are observed in about 1 in 1000 births, and have the characteristic that they are markedly taller that XY boys. Of these, about 1 in 1000 has a mutation in the X-chromosome for dyskerin leading to Dyskeratosis Congenita, seen in about 1 in 1 million births. Note that greater height is most reliably obtained by varying child diet, rather than sex karyotype. Three fish for breakfast produces taller children, for instance, and vitamin and iron supplements may also contribute to greater height increases during growth and development. Fish fat high in DHA taken on crackers improves dopamine expression, elevating HGH levels to produce greater average height in St. Petersburg, Russia. Other seafood exists that amplifies height, even after the conventional growth and development phase. Human children are raised to fit into a local peer group population by varying diet, usually. Thus we find sometimes English parents 5'5" tall raising children 6'3" tall in a tall peer group environment. Deserts always shrink us, and garden patch man was small compared to seafaring man around northern seas. Cells with abnormal karyotype may contain fewer or more genes or genes obtained by fragmenting genes. This was a simplied presentation of human karyotype abnormalities. In reality, other sex karyotype variants [Papers, Books] besides XX, XY, and XYY are observed and have been accounted for.
Another variant, the XXY karyotype having she male characteristics from birth, including a uterus and ovaries with a penis above an empty ballsac, has been reported, although it is not obtained by crossing XY or XYY males with XX women, it seems. These inseminate XX karyotype women or XY or XYY males to produce nothing, but can be inseminated to reproduce with the various infant extract technologies available for pregnant males, including early anal delivery and surgical infant extraction techniques including C-section, pubiotomy, and symphysiotomy.
Hostile Environments Favoring Male Infant Survivors
It seems likely that female babies are more likely to die in infancy than male ones in hostile environments, such as dry environments in which insufficient water is available for cleaning the infant. This makes females more susceptible to infections than males in infancy, and tends to produce more male survivors than female ones. India has described homosexual conditions as arising from infanticide of female babies, which are more likely to die of infections from being on the cross of dirty diapers in that region. Then the genome adapts to conditions by creating more boys in the first place, via breeding between boys, introducing the XYY sex karyotype or "mosaic" sex karyotype and producing fewer female babies.
Keratinocytes, Human [Links/human keratinocytes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong; Links/senescent keratinocytes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; SenescenceInfo/Cells, Shay/Hayflick, His Limit, and Cellular Aging]. Consider KGFR (Keratinocyte Growth Factor Receptor), which rejuvenates epidermal cells and FGF-7 (Keratinocyte Growth Factor), which rejuvenates hair follicles to produce new hair. See Telomerase Activators: FGF.
Id-1 helix-loop-helix protein [List] activates telomerase [Links] in human keratinocytes [Images]. See Rhoda M. Alani,Jens Hasskarl, Miranda Grace, Maria-Clementia Hernandez, Mark A. Israel, and Karl Münger, (1999), Immortalization of primary human keratinocytes by the helix–loop–helix protein, Id-1, PNAS, August 17, 1999 vol. 96 no. 17 9637-9641. See also The Helix-Loop-Helix Family of Transcription Factors and Activating expression of Id1 helix-loop-helix protein. Id-1 is promoted, for instance, by Nerve Growth Factor, which can be promoted with carnosic acid from Rosemary Extract, from Rosemary [Links] or from Essential Oil of Rosemary [Images] or from acetyl L-carnitine or huperzine A.
Keratosis [Links/Keratosis, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong; Wikipedia/actinic keratosis, Links/actinic keratosis, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia/Seborrheic keratosis, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Wikipedia/Keratosis pilaris, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Laser skin treatment is sometimes applied to treat a keratosis. See Friendly Light Erbium Laser Skin Resurfacing. A keratosis, like a wart, is usually conveniently removed by cryosurgical technique [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], with liquid nitrogen [Links/liquid nitrogen in cryosurgery, Images] or Compound W Freeze-Off [Images]. The keratosis may be peeled off with a finger nail several days after freezing, usually.
Kidney Beans [Links/Kidney Beans, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/White Kidney Beans, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Red Kidney Beans, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Index/White Kidney Bean Extract, Links/Phaseolus Vulgaris].
Kidney bean extracts inhibit alpha-amylase used to block the digestion of starches for application to caloric restriction.
Kidney Cancer [Links/Renal cell carcinoma, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Wikipedia/Kidney_cancer, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF; Cancer; Carcinogens; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis, Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors]. Amato RJ, Hernandez-McClain J, Saxena S, Khan M (2008), Lenalidomide therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2008 Jun;31(3):244-9. Causes of renal cell carcinoma include:
(1) Smoking, which doubles the risk of renal cell cancer, contributing to as many as one third of all cases. The more one smokes, the greater the risk of renal cell cancer [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
(2) Obesity is a risk factor increasing with body weight, especially in women.
(3) Occupational exposure to carcinogens including petroleum products, heavy metals, solvents, coke-oven emissions, or asbestos.
(4) Cystic kidney disease [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] associated with chronic renal insufficiency.
(5) Cystic changes in the kidney and renal dialysis.
(6) Tuberous sclerosis increases increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma.
(7) Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, an inherited disease associated with several cancers, increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma.
(8) Hereditary renal cancer.
(9) A malignancy such as lymphoma; metastasis of cancer.
Kidney Disease [Wikipedia/Renal_function (Links); Wikipedia/Glomerulus (Links); Links/Kidney Disease, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Wikipedia/Kidney disease, LifeExtension; Links/Nephrology, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Renal Performance, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/glomerular filtration rate (GFR), Images, Papers; Links/Kidney disease and telomere length attrition, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Telomeasures Example; Links/Glomerular filtration rate and telomere length attrition, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Ibuprofen and Kidney Disease, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Kidney Dialysis, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Kidney Transplant, Papers, Patents, Books].
Twenty-six million Americans suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD), to which aging specimens are especially vulnerable [1]. The risk of cardiovascular mortality in CKD is 30 times that of the general population. Blood tests for chronic kidney disease include creatinine, albumin, BUN/creatinine ratio, and cystatin-C. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) include a toxin-rich environment, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis in the nephron glomeruli associated with glomular endothelial cells, elevated blood sugar leading to the formation of AGEs increasing oxidative stress and inflammation, NSAIDS (aspirin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen), nephrotoxic drugs including immunosuppressive cyclosporin A, antibiotics like gentamicin, certain chemotherapy drugs (cisplaten, Adriamycin) and mycotoxins from poisonous mushrooms, medications endangering the kidneys, excess fatty tissue adipokines producing infammatory cytokines, and high protein diets. Medications for preventing chronic kidney disease include pyridoxamine, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (P5P) to oppose AGEs and ALEs (Advanced Lipoxidation End products), CoQ10 [7], the ubiquinol [8], L-Carnitine, Silymarin, resveratrol, alpha lipoic acid, and omega-3 fatty acids to oppose inflammation. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and folic acid are also useful. Plantain Leaf Extract, which improves wound healing, is useful in treating kidney problems. Note that the kidney contains between 800,000 to 1 million nephrons, each equipped with a frontal glomerulus capillary coil lined with endothelial cells. The volume of fluid the kidney is able to process is measured by the glomular filtration rate (GFR), which declines as kidney function declines in chronic kidney disease. Our kidneys must filter 200 quarts of blood every day. When plasma concentrations of waste substances such as creatinine or BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) are high, chronic kidney disease is indictated. Also, no protein will be present in the urine if kidneys are functioning normally. Cystatin-C (a protein produced by nearly all cells in the body) is the basis for a more accurate test for early kidney failure. "BUN and creatinine do not increase above the normal range until 60% of the total kidney function is lost." Flavonols from fruit and vegetables protect against renal cancer. Deficiency in L-Carnitine is a causitive factor in kidney disease, and kidney disease furthermore leads to low L-Carnitine levels. Green tea extract is used to protect kidneys against kidney disease [2]. The "Glomerulus" is surrounded by "Bowman's Capsule". Note that resveratrol is renoprotective, preserving kidney structure and function by preventing ishcemia/reperfusion injury, observed perhaps as a consequence of sepsis (massive bacterial infection) following surgical operations.
Stem Cell Therapy for Kidney Disease
[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Organ Regeneration].
"For the first time in the world, doctors in Western India have used stem cells to repair the kidneys of patients suffering from chronic and acute nephritis, an advanced form of kidney disorder. Acute nephritis is nasty. Besides lower back pain, the patient suffers blood and protein in the urine, swelling in the face and limbs, high blood pressure (hypertension), and the increased risk of kidney failure with each passing day. At the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Center (IKDRC), two patients received the direct stem cell treatments. Because of the experimental nature of stem cell therapies, they are only given to individuals with a high risk of kidney failure. Both patients’ conditions were highly resistant to drug therapy, and showed high protein counts in their urine. But after the stem cell treatment, these protein counts were reduced by over 90%, a sure sign that the kidney is repairing the damage. The patients were injected with both marrow-based and embryonic stem cells, delivered to a nearby artery. Once they hit the kidney, they are integrated into the existing tissue to repair damage. Because of the plastic nature of stem cells, they can potentially be used to repair a wide variety of organs..." - from Singularity Hub, 2009/06/05.
Pathfinder Cell Therapy for Kidney Disease
See McGlynn, L.M., Eller, K., MacDonald, A.I., MacIntyre, A., Russell, D., Koppelstaetter, C., Davies, R., and Shiels, P.G. (2013), Pathfinder cells provide a novel therapeutic intervention for acute kidney injury [PDF], Rejuvenation Research, 16 (1). pp. 11-20. See also
Pathfinder Cells [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] and
Pathfinder Cells for Organ Repair [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].

Kidney Disease due to Radioactive Tracers [Links/Radiation Nephritis, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Radiation nephropathy, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Kidney Disease due to radioactive tracers, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Treatment, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Radioactive tracers used to analyze heart conditions are sometimes believed to induce kidney damage resulting in kidney disease symptoms. Correspondent A from the telomere length measurement examples at the top of lifexlabs believed that his kidney disease was induced by radioactive tracers used to analyze his condition after suffering heart problems. His glomerular filtration rate is now back up to about 30.
0) Normal kidney function – GFR above 90mL/min/1.73m2 and no proteinuria.
1) CKD1 – GFR above 90mL/min/1.73m2 with evidence of kidney damage.
2) CKD2 (Mild) – GFR of 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73m2 with evidence of kidney damage.
3) CKD3 (Moderate) – GFR of 30 to 59 mL/min/1.73m2.
4) CKD4 (Severe) – GFR of 15 to 29 mL/min/1.73m2.
5) CKD5 Kidney failure - GFR less than 15 mL/min/1.73m2.
Some people add CKD5D for those stage 5 patients requiring dialysis; many patients in CKD5 are not yet on dialysis.
- Wikipedia/Renal Function
Also see
Regenerative Nephrology [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].

References
[1] Julius Goepp, MD (2010),
Innovative Strategies to Combat Kidney Disease,
Life Extension Magazine, May 2010.
[2] See Nathaniel S.W. Luce (2011),
Proprietary Green Tea Extract Protects the Kidneys, Life Extension Magazine, June 2011.
[3] Imberti B, Morigi M, Tomasoni S, Rota C, Corna D, Longaretti L, Rottoli D, Valsecchi F, Benigni A, Wang J, Abbate M, Zoja C, Remuzzi G (2007), Insulin-like growth factor-1 sustains stem cell mediated renal repair [PDF],
J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;18:2921–2928.
[4] Asanuma H, Meldrum DR, Meldrum KK (2010),
Therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stem cells to repair kidney injury [Full Text],
J Urol 2010;184:26–33.
[5] Sagrinati C, Ronconi E, Lazzeri E, Lasagni L, Romagnani P (2008),
Stem-cell approaches for kidney repair: choosing the right cells,
Trends Mol Med 2008;14:277–285.
"We suggest that resident stem cells recently identified in the Bowman's capsule of adult human kidneys [PDF study] might prospectively be the ideal cell type for treatment of both acute and chronic renal injury because they display the potential to differentiate into multiple types of renal cells. However, bone marrow stem cells also represent an attractive alternative, especially for the treatment of patients affected by acute renal failure."
[6] Little MH (2006),
Regrow or repair: Potential regenerative therapies for the kidney, J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:2390–2401.
[7] Gazdíková K, Gvozdjáková A, Kucharská J, Spustová V, Braunová Z, Dzúrik R (2001),
Effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with kidney diseases, Cas Lek Cesk 2001 May 24;140(10):307-10.
[8] Ishikawa A, Kawarazaki H, Ando K, Fujita M, Fujita T, Homma Y (2011),
Renal preservation effect of ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10, Clin Exp Nephrol 2011 Feb;15(1):30-3.
Kidney Stones
[Links/Kidney Stones, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
Links/Dissolving Kidney Stones, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
Links/Oral Drugs for Dissolving Kidney Stones, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
Links/Staghorn Kidney Stones, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
Kinetin [CosmeticsCop/Kinetin, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. Kinetin, possibly Hayflick limit extender, (7). Hayflick limit extenders reduce the loss of telomere hex repeats per cell division, and include vitamin C, carnosine, homocysteine shields, and telomerase activators [List].
Klotho (Encyclopedia).
Krill Oil [IAAS, Links/Krill, Images, Video; Links/Krill Oil, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Images/Krill Oil supplements]. Krill oil contains omega-3 fatty acids [Images] like fish oil [Index, Images], and also phospholipids [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], especially choline [Index, Images], for membrane therapy. Krill oil is superior to fish oil for arthritis relief. Krill oil plus astaxanthin and hyaluronic acid (inhibits MMP-13 to block cartilage destruction) is still more effective. Supplementing with both fish oil (2400 mg/day) and pain-relieving krill oil (300 mg/day) is recommended in arthritic cases. Krill oil (300 mg/day) typically lowers levels of inflammatory C-reactive protein 50% in arthritis cases. See Jason Ramirez (2011), Krill Oil Optimizes Multi-modal Arthritis Control, Life Extension Magazine, November 2011.
"Phospholipids...enhance cell signaling, which is especially important for the healthy functioning of the nervous system and the brain." Furthermore, "studies show that when omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA are bound to phospholipids as they are with krill, it increases their uptake to the brain." See S.R. Knowlton (2014), Maximizing Omega-3 Health Benefits, Life Extension Magazine, June 2014. However, DHA is absorbed into plasma triglycerides about 3x faster than DHA bound to krill oil phospholipids, and krill oil has important cardiovascular benefits. "Krill oil, with its unique phospholipid structure", has the "benefit of increasing fat-burning in mitochondria while reducing new glucose production in the liver."

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