Index to Anti-Aging Medicine
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L-Carnitine [Index/Carnitine, Index/Acetyl L-Carnitine, Wikipedia, Linus Pauling Institute/L-Carnitine, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension], (5).
L-Carnitine L-Tartrate [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. L-Carnitine L-Tartrate increases the density of androgen receptors in the cytosol. Testosterone and other steroid hormones penetrate the cell membrane and subsequently bind to cytosolic androgen receptors [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia]. Testosterone or DHT (dihydrotestosterone from the action of 5-alpha-reductase on testosterone in some cell types, such as the hair follicle) binds to the androgen receptor along with nuclear transport factors HSP90 and HSP70, forming a complex which is imported to the nucleus, where it dimerizes with itself and is equipped with cofactors to enable transcription of protein from DNA. It may be used to increase muscularity and promote anabolism. Since testosterone is a telomerase activator [Index], L-Carnitine L-Tartrate improves the bioavailability of testosterone as a telomerase activator in tissues responding to testosterone, including hair follicles, skeletal muscles, and the heart muscle.
L-Dopa [Wikipedia, Links/L-Dopa, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. L-Dopa increases dopamine, then HGH levels. Used in treating Parkinsonian symptoms due to low dopamine levels. See Parkinson's Disease. Mucuna Pruriens [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] extracted from velvet bean [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] contains typically 15% L-dopa, so 2000 mg of Mucuna Pruriens yields 300 mg of L-Dopa, a dose typically taken at bedtime to improve dopamine and HGH levels. This happens because dopamine limits hypothalamic somatostatin secretion, resulting in better expression of HGH.
L-Lysine [Index/Lysine, Wikipedia/L-Lysine, Links/L-Lysine, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong; Links/L-Lysine as a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. L-Lysine treats various types of hair loss by inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase, although its application to hair loss is covered by a US Patent [1]. L-Arginine and L-Lysine are both found in histones supporting DNA coiling. 1500 mg of L-arginine may be taken with 1500 mg L-Lysine as an HGH secretagogue. L-arginine is required to produce nitric oxide, which is used by hair follicles [Images] to maintain and promote new hair growth, so that it is sometimes applied in hair regrowth formulas [74s]. Note that elastin is cross-linked into a network by covalent bonds formed between side chains of lysine residues similar to lysine residues found in collagen. Perhaps supplementing lysine can improve elastin and collagen cross-linking into an elastic network.
[1] David Hugh Rushton (2000), Use of L-lysine in the treatment of hair loss, US 6136860 A.
Laboratory Safety [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon].
Lamin A [Wikipedia, Links/nuclear protein Lamin A, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], [86]. Lamin A is a nuclear membrane protein involved in progeria [Index, Wikipedia/Progeria, Links/Progeria, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] and its associated premature aging [Links/Diseases of premature aging, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Wikipedia/Werner syndrome, LifeExtension].
Laetrile [IAAS/Laetrile, James South on Laetrile, "vitamin B17" Links/Vitamin B17, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] (or amygdalin), this apricot kernel extract was used for decades for cancer." Not FDA approved. (Lay a trill?).
Labrusca grape [Wikipedia/Labrusca grape, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Images/Concord grape], (0).
Laser Comb [Links/Laser Comb, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Laser Hair Restoration, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Laser hair restoration works by improving scalp circulation. See Index/Hair Loss Treatment.
LC-Mass (Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectometry) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong/Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, LibCong/Liquid Chromatography, LibCong/Mass Spectroscopy]. See Instrumental Analysis, Analytical Chemistry, Phytochemical Separations, Separations, and Pharmaceutical Engineering.
LDL peroxidation [Links/LDL peroxidation, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension, Wikipedia; Cholesterol; Atherosclerosis], (1). This refers to the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, which accelerates the development of atherosclerotic plaque. See the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Note that quercetin inhibits LDL oxidation [1]. See also Lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Wikipedia]. High levels indicate that the patient has inflamed atherosclerotic plaques in which LDL oxidation is taking place.
Lutein from artichoke leaf extract at 1800 mg/day helps prevent LDL peroxidation and elevates HDL levels "enough to confer meaningful removal of excess cholesterol buildup on the arterial wall via reverse cholesterol transport" [2], which statin drugs do not do. Arichoke leaf extract elevates levels of HDL carrier protein apoA. Peroxidized LDL damages arterial walls to promote atherosclerotic plaque formation, somewhat as homocysteine does. Higher HDL levels remove cholesterol deposits from arterial walls, preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Higher LDL levels tend to transport damaging peroxidized LDL to the arterial wall, while higher HDL levels transport damaging cholesterol away from the arterial wall [2]. Pantethine lowers LDL cholesterol and expression of the LDL carrier protein apoB, without lowering protective CoQ10 levels, as statins do.
[1] Anne Buckley (2012),
Quercetin: Broad-spectrum protection, Life Extension Magazine, Sept 2012.
[2] Susan Wiggins (2015),
Natural Methods To Control Cholesterol, Life Extension Magazine May 2015.
Lecithin (Phosphatidylcholine) [Links/Lecithin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension, Wikipedia; Images/Lecithin molecule, Images/Phosphatidylcholine molecule; Links/Maintaining phosphatidylcholine in the cell membrane, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]. Lecithin (see also soy lecithin and phosphatidylcholine) enhances the bioavailability of polyphenols, including resveratrol and quercetin. Theodore Nicolas Gobley, a French chemist and pharmacist of the mid 19th century, identified egg yolk lecithin as phosphatidylcholine in 1847, completely describing it chemically in 1874. "Phosphatidylcholine is a major constituent of cell membranes, and plays a role in membrane-mediated cell signaling... At birth and throughout infancy, phosphatidlycholine concentrations are high (as high as 90% of the cell membrane), but it is slowly depleted throughout the course of life, and may drop to as low as 10% of the cellular membrane in the elderly." - Wikipedia/Phosphatidylcholine. See also CDP-choline, a source of phosphatidylcholine to aging cell membranes, and UMP, from which CDP-choline may be prepared in the body. Note that alpha-GPC is obtained from lecithin.
Lee Priest (bodybuilding) [20].
Lemon Balm [Links/Lemon Balm, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Lemon Balm Tea, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Lemon balm was promoted for rejuvenating properties centuries ago by Paracelsus [Images, Papers, Books]. Lemon balm promotes expression of SOD [Index] and glutathione [Index]. (Tip: Koen Langeveld). See lemon balm and SOD, also lemon balm and glutathione. "Use of Lemon balm infusion in radiology unit workers resulted in a significant improvement in plasma levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase and a marked reduction in plasma DNA damage, myeloperoxidase, and lipid peroxidation." (Akbar Zeraatpishe, et al. 2011) According to the Life Extension Foundation, lemon balm is "clinically validated to help promote sleep and relaxation" and "produces these calming effects while also enhancing memory and attention". Note that amyloid beta, which is associated with Alzheimer's Disease, is mostly removed from the brain during sleep. In addition, Lemon balm shows antiviral and antiretroviral effects in vitro against herpes simplex virus and also against HIV-1. (Pizzorno and Murray, Textbook of Natural Medicine, Elsevier, 4th edition, 2013).
Lenalidomide [Links/Lenalidomide, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Lenalidomide (a relative of the infamous teratogen and angiogenesis inhibitor thalidomide), reverses the decline of aging NK cells and aging T-cells to restore immune function. (Note that astragalus extract restores immune function by lenthening telomeres in aging NK cells quite effectively, according to the Vida Institute, while improving levels of IL-2 and interferon-gamma.) "Lenalidomide helps to normalize output of critical immune signaling molecules like the cytokines interferon-gamma and IL-2, known to be reduced in white blood cells taken from individuals 65 and older." - Delia Wilder, University of California Researchers Restore Immune Function in Aging Human Cells, Life Extension Magazine, April 2011. Lenalidomide kills cancer cells and limits tumor size, and also inhibits T-suppressor cells [Images] that shut down immune function.
"Aging is associated with reduced levels of both IL-2 [Images] and the IL-2 receptor [Images] on cell surfaces." (See the effect of aging on cytokine expression [Images, Papers, Books] and the effect of aging on cell surface receptors [Images, Papers, Books]). The immunomodulatory effects of lenalidomide on inflammation include inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-12 and elevation of the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 from human white blood cells. See T-cell function measurement protocols [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Huang MC, Greig NH, Luo W, et al. (2010), Preferential enhancement of older human T cell cytokine generation, chemotaxis, proliferation and survival by lenalidomide, Clinical Immunology, 2010 Dec 1. See also Morgan G. (2010), Future drug developments in multiple myeloma: an overview of novel lenalidomide-based combination therapies, Blood Rev, 2010 Nov;24 Suppl 1:S27-32, and Amato RJ, Hernandez-McClain J, Saxena S, Khan M (2008), Lenalidomide therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2008 Jun;31(3):244-9. Caruso C, Buffa S, Candore G, et al. (2009), Mechanisms of immunosenescence, Immun Ageing, 2009 Jul 22;6:10.
Leptin [Wikipedia/Leptin, Links/Leptin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; LEF_Abstracts/Irvingia, LEF_Abstracts/Adipostat; Vitamin Research/Leptin and Weight Loss; Links/Leptin and cold]. Leptin is the dietary satiety hormone and ghrelin is the corresponding hunger homone. Receptors for both hormones are found in the hypothalamus. Loss of leptin sensitivity is one of the primary factors in treating obesity. It may treated with irvingia or adipostat, for instance. Furthermore, caffeine (say from coffee) or garcinia cambogia extract may be used to treat leptin resistance. See treating loss of leptin sensitivity [Papers, Books, LifeExtension] and nutraceuticals for treating loss of leptin sensitivity [Images Papers, Books, LifeExtension]. Note that leptin resistance is associated with loss of leptin sensitivity. See also nutraceuticals for treating leptin resistance [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Melatonin, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid [3], and omega-3 fatty acids lower high leptin levels associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. See also cold-induced suppression of leptin expression [Papers, Patents, Books], not usually recommended for leptin therapy.
[1] Van Swieten MM,Pandit R,Adan RA, van der Plasse G. (2014),
The neuroanatomical function of leptin in the hypothalamus, J Chem Neuroanat 2014 Jul 4.
[2] O’Rahilly S (2014),
20 years of leptin: What we know and what the future holds, J Endocrinol 2014 Aug 20.
[3] Prieto-Hontoria PL, Pérez-Matute P, Fernández-Galilea M, Martínez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ (2011),
Lipoic acid inhibits leptin secretion and Sp1 activity in adipocytes, Mol Nutr Food Res 2011 Feb 23.
Lesions, Skin [Index/Skin Aging and Geriatric Dermatology, Links/Skin Lesions, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/skin lesions; Links/Dermatology, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. Common lesions include:
Acrochordon [Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
Actinic Keratosis [Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
Melanoma [Images, Med.Utah/melanoma, Links, Papers, Patents, Books].
Milia [Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
Nevus [Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia],
SCC in Situ [Images, images/Bowen's disease, Bowen's disease,
____Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
Sebaceous Hyperplasia [Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
Seborrheic Keratosis [Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia],
Solar Lentigo [Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia],
Syringoma [Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
Verruca Vulgaris [common wart, Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
Xanthelasma [Images, Links, Papers, Patents, Books],
Many skin lesions, such as a keratosis or a wart, are conveniently removed by cryosurgical technique [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon], with liquid nitrogen or Compound W Freeze-Off. See Index/Dermatology, Index/Purpura, Index/Senile Purpura, Index/Skin, Index/Skin Aging and Geriatric Dermatology, Index/Wrinkles.
Leucine [Links/Leucine, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Leucine is one of the three BCAAs (Branched Chain Amino Acids), and the one that turns on the anabolic (hypertrophic) pathway mTOR (Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin) for muscle synthesis. 1 or 2 grams is taken before or after a workout to avoid sarcopenia and promote muscle growth. Note that muscle atrophy can result from glucocorticoid (cortisol) action or may be due to denervation, both of which may be suppressed by expression of the AKT kinase, for example via the IGF-1/PI3K/AKT pathway, which also activates hTERT by phosphorylating hTERT protein in the cytoplasm for import into the nucleus.
The bodybuiding supplement HMB (Beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid) is a metabolite of leucine.
Leukemia (Pronunciation: "Lew-key-me-uh") [Work in Progress, WebMD/Leukemia Topic Overview;
Wikipedia/Leukemia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Life Extension;
Wikipedia/B-cell_chronic_lymphocytic_leukemia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
Wikipedia/Acute_promyelocitic_leukemia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
Wikipedia/T-cell_leukemia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
Vitamin K2, All-Trans Retinoic Acid (in Leukemia Treatment); Retinoic Acid; Carcinogens; Cancer; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Leukemia Genes; Lymphoma, Chemotherapy: LRF - CLL/SLL].
Lymphocytic leukemia (lymphoblastic leukemia) affects lymphocyte white blood cells.
Myelogenous leukemia (NCI Overview) affects the myeloblast cells that become granulocytes, red blood cells, or platelets. There are 3 types of granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
Leukemic cells are produced from hemopoietic stem cells giving rise to the myeloid linage (monocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, megakaryocytes/platelets, dendretic cells, and granulocytes including neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) and the lymphoid linage (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells) that finally cease to differentiate, so that the non-terminally differentiated leukemic cells continue to divide and multiply. The cancer cells are blocked at an early stage of differentiation, but they continue to proliferate.
Acai berry halts the spread of leukemia. (Check effect on myelocytic, lymphocytic types.)
In acute promyelocytic leukemia [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] the PML/RAR-alpha fusion protein blocks differentiation of promyelocytes into granulocytes. High doses of retinoic acid [List] can overcome this and induce differentiation of promyelocytes, temporarily curing the condition. High doses of interferon-alpha inhibit telomerase in leukemic cells [Images]. See also Cat's Claw Extract alkaloids may be used for inducing telomerase inhibition and apoptosis in leukemic cells. Curcumin has a pro-apoptotic effect on lymphocytic leukemia B cells that is inhibited by stromal cells, so that curcumin is best administrated with EGCG to overcome the protective effect of stromal cells. (Teiten, Eifes, Dicato and Diederich, 2010). Vitamin K2 has been observed to promote the cellular differentiation of leukemia cells into normal white blood cells. See Felix DiFara (2010), The Remarkable Anticancer Properties of Vitamin K, Life Extension Magazine, November 2010. Fujita H, Tomiyama J, Tanaka T (1998), Vitamin K2 combined with all-trans retinoic acid induced complete remission of relapsing acute promyelocytic leukaemia, British Journal of Haematology 1998 Nov;103(2):584-5. See acute promyelocytic leukemia. Sakai I, Hashimoto S, Yoda M, et al. (1994), Novel role of vitamin K2: a potent inducer of differentiation of various human myeloid leukemia cell lines, Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communications 1994 Dec 15;205(2):1305-10. Also see Yokoyama T, Miyazawa K, Naito M, et al. (2008), Vitamin K2 induces autophagy and apoptosis simultaneously in leukemia cells, Autophagy 2008 Jul 1;4(5):629-40. Estrov Z, Shishodia S, Faderi S, Harris D, Van Q, Kantarjian HM, Talpaz M, Aggarwal BB (2003), Resveratrol blocks interleukin-1beta-induced activation of the nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB, inhibits proliferation, causes S-phase arrest, and induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells, Blood 102:987-995. See Index/NF-kB and Index/NF-kB Inhibitors.
I suspect that leukemia may sometimes originate from fecal impaction during unprotected sexual intercouse, explaining its name. It is dangerous to the male member, the "key" in "lew-key-mia". Pre-douching may defend against leukemia, so that douche bottles should be readily available. Some other spermicidal packing should be subsituted for feces. Prophylactics may be used to ensure against inducing lymphoma or leukemia from anal sex. Perhaps carrots (high in retinol converted into retinoic acid in the cell) and swiss cheese (high in vitamin K2) would be effective treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia, since all-trans retinoic acid and vitamin K2 work well for this disease. I think of "Bugs Bunny" munching a carrot with "What's Up, Doc?" on his lips.
Pet Scan and CT-scan Radioactive Contrast Injection Leukemia
Gene Barry reaches for the pulse of a dying Martian in the War of the Worlds (1953).However, there is also B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] (a B-cell lymphoma ?). B-cell Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most likely form of leukemia in patients over 60 years of age in the Western world, and accounts for 30 percent of all leukemias at any one time. Survival time [Books] is about 8 years if the CLL is positive for ZAP-70, and more than 25 years for patients that test negative for ZAP-70 (Wikipedia), which suggests misinformation and counterintelligence alluding to measures against old people at 70 proposed by strangers from space. ZAP! B-cell Chronic lymphocytic leukemia can be induced by a radioactive contrast injection for CT scan, typically radioactive glucose, which is also used to highlight metabolically active tissues in PET scans. See leukemia induced by radioactive glucose [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. The War of the Worlds might be responsible for some of these cases. ("Gene Barry" takes the pulse of a dying Martian in The War of the Worlds (1953), after the novel by H. G. Wells.). My advice is to scamper from odd injections if you seem to be a stranger in a strange land. I thought paclitaxel was another fine example of a poisonous injection.

Nutraceuticals for Leukemia Therapy [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
It may be true that apparently difficult cancers such as B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (a B-cell lymphoma ?) can be beaten back with anticancer nutraceuticals. Green tea is often mentioned in connection with treatment for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Life Extension Magazine articles. For instance, see Green tea compound shows promise in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, June 11, 2010. Leukemia may be treated with apigenin, rosemary, and cat's claw extract [Steve Frankel, LEF, April 2013]. It should help to lengthen telomeres in the healthy subpopulation of hemopoietic stem cells with stem cell technology including anticancer telomerase activators such as retinoic acid (22) to promote proliferation of healthy cells. Nutraceuticals for acute promyelocytic leukemia [Patents, Books, LEF] include acai berries with swiss cheese (for vitamin K2) and carrots (to generate retinoic acid in cells), or all-trans retinoic acid, vitamin D3, and combinations of COX inibitors with vitamin D3. See Jamshidi F, Zhang J, et al. (2008), Induction of differentiation of human leukemia cells by combinations of COX inhibitors and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 involves Raf1 but not Erk 1/2 signaling, Cell Cycle 2008;7(7): 917-924. Nutraceuticals for B-cell Chronic Lyphocytic Leukemia therapy [Patents, Books, LEF] that may be combined include curcumin, ECGC (or green tea), black tea theaflavins, genistein, garlic, ajoene, apigenin, astragalus, resveratrol, vitamin C, NAC, fucoidan, and cat's claw supplements. Theaflavins inhibit the production of IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF, allowing theaflavins to inhibit B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ((Lung HL et al 2004), in LEF June 11, 2010). Anticancer wormwood's active ingredient artemisinin (quinghaosu) has been useful in reducing lymph node B-cell lymphomas related to CLL [Chistina L White, 2002]. See also Narendra P. Singh and Henry C. Lai (2005), Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Artemisinin and Sodium Butyrate on Human Cancer Cells [OnLine], Anticancer Research November 1, 2005 vol. 25 no. 6B 4325-4331. Sodium butyrate plus artemisinin (quinghaosu) from Chinese sweet wormwood is extremely effective and can probably be used to provide complete remission of CLL [Singh and Lai, 2005]. Dihydroartemisinin (an active metabolite of all artemisinin compounds) with butyric acid works well at low doses. See Huang LH, Yan QJ, Kopparapu NK, Jiang ZQ, Sun Y. (2012), Astragalus membranaceus lectin (AML) induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia cells, Cell Prolif 2012 Feb;45(1):15-21. Note that astragalus root is ancient Chinese remedy for lymphoma night sweats at about 33 grams/day. See also Kang HK, Suh JH. et al. (2003), Induction of the differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells by L-ascorbic acid, Free Radic Res 2003 Jul;37(7):773-9.
There is such a thing as T-cell leukemia [Images, Papers, Patents, Books], so arginine (5-10 gr/day) to refresh the thymus gland should help with supplying fresh T-cells. "Green tea blocks the proliferation of lymphocytes from adult T cell leukemia patients (LEF article, Li HC et al 2000). Other anticancer nutraceuticals should help.
See Nutraceuticals for T-cell Leukemia [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Life Extension].
See also LEF's Leukemia References.

Also check chronic non-lymphocytic leukemia [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. See J. Whang-Peng MD, T. Knutsen MT(ASCP), H. D. Brereton MD, J. F. O'Donnell MD (1979), Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia and acute myeloproliferative syndrome following radiation therapy for non-hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Cancer Volume 44, Issue 5, pages 1592–1600, November 1979. See also leukemia induced by radiation therapy [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. "Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have been linked to past radiation exposure. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a bone marrow disorder that can turn into acute leukemia, has also been linked to past radiation exposure." - ACS/Second Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment. Low-dose chronic irradiation generates leukemia in experimental animals. A nuclear accident or war might generate cases of leukemia or cancer treatable with our antileukemia or anticancer nutraceuticals.

Chronic myeloid leukemia [Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] may respond well to treatment with curcumin, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor and NFKB inhibitor. (CHECK).
[1] Wu SC, Lee BH (2011),
Buckwheat polysaccharide exerts antiproliferative effects in THP-1 human leukemia cells by inducing differentiation,
J Med Food 2011 Jan-Feb;14(1-2):26-33.
Leukoaraiosis (Encyclopedia Entry).
Levan [Links/Levan, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Wikipedia/Levan polysaccharide, Images, Links/Levan polysaccharide synthesis, Fermentation machine]. Levan is used as a moisturizer for skin around the eyes that also tightens the skin. See Robert Goldfaden and Gary Goldfaden, MD (2013), Protect and Rejuvenate Delicate Skin Around the Eyes, Life Extension Magazine, August 2013.
Lewis bodies [Links/Lewis bodies in the aging brain, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Lewy bodies in the aging brain, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; LifeExtension/Lewy bodies; Index/Parkinsons Disease, Index/NF-kB], See Lewis bodies & the Proteasome, [2s]. Lewis body formation (characteristic of Parkinson's Disease) is promoted by insoluble fibrils of alpha synuclein [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. The expression of alpha synuclein can be blocked with NF-kB inhibitors such as black tea extract, grape seed extract, quercetin, and resveratrol, preventing Parkinson's Disease.
Li Ching-Yuen [Wikipedia/Li Ching Yuen, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. A correspondent draws my attention to Li Ching-Yuen, who may have taken fo-ti (he shou wu, Polygonum multiflorum root) with goji berry sauce and black bean sauce as part of his longevity program. Li Ching-Yuen may have lived for 256 years ( or 197 years ). Li Ching-Yuen (a "Tai Chi Chuan" master ) "...worked as an herbalist, promoting the use of Wild Reishi (Medicinal Mushrooms, Chaga for SOD), Goji Berry (Wolf Berry), Wild Ginseng (Ginseng, Ginsenosides), He Shou Wu (Fo-Ti, from Polygonum multiflorum root) and Gotu Kola (TA/Gotu Kola, Index/Gotu Kola) along with other Chinese herbs." - Wikipedia. Present analysts warn somewhat of he shou wu (fo ti) having an unfavorable impact on the liver, perhaps the factor promoting enlargement of Li Ching-Yuen's nose. However, fo-ti is still available. Li Ching-Yuen was 7 feet tall. Today, a program to define an Immortality Diet based on Chinese medicine and the modern molecular biology of life extension medicine continues, pursued by Tristan Trefoil, one of my correspondents, commercial artist, coauthor of our new literary products, and a fellow member of The Immortality Institute.
Anthraquinone constituents of Fo-ti include Chrysophanic acid, chrysophanol, emodin. These exhibit anticancer properties (S. Mohammad Abu-Darwish and A. Mazen Ateyyat, 2008). See also chrysophanic acid in treating Colon Cancer. Note that some "derivatives of the Anthraquinone" are telomerase activators [List], according to recent Chinese research. There are some indications that as fo-ti turns your hair black, it may somewhat darken the other end, inflicting Melanosis Coli observed due to chronic use of herbal laxatives containing anthraquinones.
See also Fo-Ti (He Shou Wu), Jiaogulan, Goji Berry (Wolf Berry), Immortality Diet, and read:
Immortality Edge
Fantastic Voyage
Healing Secrets of the Taoist Immortals
The Path of the Phoenix
Licorice [Glycyrrhiza; Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Virology, Strong Estrogen Bioactivity Nutraceuticals]. Licorice contains antiviral glycyrrhiza. Furthermore, licorice is a strong estrogen bioactivity nutraceutical that can activate estrogen-beta receptors in hip bones, widening hips. Licorice is a telomerase activator thereby.
Life Expectancy Calculator [Links, Expectancy Calculator, Mortality Charts, Age Transformation], [17].
Life Extension Manual [46].
Life Extension Mix Links/Life Extension Mix components, a closer look, [36s].
Life Extension, Life Extension Magazine online (Video/Life Extension Foundation), [LibCong, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia] [38].
Life Extension Foundation,, products from iHerb, [42].
Life Extension Magazine, [57].
Life Span [Links/Human Life Span, Images; LifeExtension/Life Span; Links/Animal Life Spans, Images, Papers, Books; Wikipedia/Maximum Life Span, Images, Papers, Books; Mean and Maximum Life Span, Links, Images, Papers, Books; Mortality Charts, Links, Images; Links/Actuarial Tables, Images; Links/Disease Mortality Charts, Images; Links/Cause of Death Charts, Images; Links/Actual Cause of Death Charts, Images; Links/Heart Disease Death Charts, Images; Links/Cancer Death Charts, Images; Links/Stroke Death Charts, Images; Life Span Development: Age Transformation]. See also Linus Pauling Institute, Linus Pauling and Vitamin C, [27].
Life Support Systems and Emergency Medicine Instrumentation [Links/Life Support Systems, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Links/Hospital Life Support Systems, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Links/Emergency Medicine Instrumentation, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Lignans [Wikipedia/Lignans, Links/Lignans, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/Lignans; Links/Lignans as Phytoestrogens; Images/Flaxseed Supplements; Links/Sesame Lignans, LifeExtension/Sesame Lignans]. Lignans and isoflavones are two classes of phytoestrogens [Index] related to human estradiol and estrogen useful in treating estrogenic cancers, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Sources of dietary lignans include flaxseed, whole grains such as rye, wheat, barley, and oats. Lignans are also found in olive oil, berries, fruits, and legumes. Lignans are used to prevent heart disease and cancer (flaxseed is anticarcinogenic, pure lignans are anticarcinogenic) and to maintain bone strength. Lignan components do this by:
(1) reducing chronic inflammation.
(2) impeding viral infections.
(3) improving diabetic glycemic control.
(4) decreasing insulin resistance.
Some lignan phytoestrogens such as soy isoflavones are anticancer and reduce the incidence of heart disease and osteoporosis, and soy phytoestrogens have been shown to reduce cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Just two bioactive mammalian lignans (enterolignans) of primary importance are formed in the gut through interaction of the many dietary lignans with bacteria:
(1) Enterodiol [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
(2) Enterolactone [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Enterolactone from lignans such as flax seed or Norway spruce assist in prostate cancer defense. Semi-synthetic derivatives of the lignan podophyllotoxin (effective at targeting cancer cells for destruction), including etoposide, teniposide, and etoposide phosphate, are routinely used in lung cancer chemotherapy [Books, Papers]. Sesame lignans preserve vitamin E, accelerate alcohol decomposition in the liver, lower blood pressure, upregulate the immune system, and promote cancer defense. More than 500 plant lignans are known to exist. In humans, just 2, enterodiol and enterolactone, are formed from dietary lignans. (See Dale Kiefer, LIGNANS Important Phytonutrients for Robust Health, Life Extension Magazine, April 2010.)
Lipase & Lipase Inhibitors [Links/Lipase, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/Lipase; Links/Lipase inhibitors, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/Lipase Inhibitors]. Lipase is a digestive enzyme helping to break down fat in the gastrointestinal tract.
Lipase inhibitors include:
Black tea [Images/Supplements, Index],
Black tea theaflavins [Images/Supplements, Index],
Carnosic acid (which elevates Nerve Growth Factor) [Images/Supplements],
Green tea [Images/Supplements, Index],
Orlistat [Images/Supplements] (requires supplemental Vitamin E),
Rosemary extract (which contains carnosic acid) [Images/Supplements, Index].
Inhibiting lipase assists with antiaging caloric restriction, and green tea is commonly used to improve definition in bodybuilding. In addition to inhibiting lipase, green tea extracts burn off fat by elevating the basal metabolic rate.
Lipid Peroxidation [Index/Peroxidation of Lipids, Video; Links/Lipid Peroxidation, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia, LibCong, LifeExtension]. Lipid peroxidation is inhibited by resveratrol and antioxidants, Zs.-Nagy on Lipid Peroxidation, Peroxidation of Fatty Acids, (0). Gamma Tocopherol [Index, Links, LifeExtension] is useful in preventing lipid peroxidation from peroxynitrites [Index, Links, LifeExtension] generated by high Nitric Oxide levels that may physiologically useful in antiaging applications. Sesame seed oil is rich in gamma tocopherol and sesame lignans such as sesamin and sesamol that improve gamma tocopherol's antioxidant performance. Peanuts and walnuts are other good sources of gamma tocopherol. See also Reinald Pamplona and Gustavo Barja, Aging Rate, ROS Production, and Fatty Acid Unsaturation in Aging at the Molecular Level edited by Thomas von Zglinicki, 2003. Also see Aubrey de Grey, The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging, which describes Fenton reaction chain reactions in lipid peroxidation that can be treated by chelating metal ions, in particular iron. EGCG crosses the blood-brain barrier to chelate iron. Other supplements that chelate iron include carnosine, cranberry extracts, curcumin, lipoic acid, pomegranate extracts, quercetin, and milk thistle extract. Peroxidation of lipid membranes is prevented when Vitamin E reacts with lipid peroxyl radicals and with lipid alkoxyl radicals. Both tocopherol and selenium-dependent glutathione decrease the production of lipid peroxidation products. Note that lipid peroxidation is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a response to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of premature death by cardiac failure and leads to cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease leads to liver fat deposits associated with lipid peroxidation that may become rancid. This can be combated by combining Cucumis melo extracts [Images] rich in SOD (to convert free radicals producing rancid fat into hydrogen peroxide) with Schisandra Chinensis extract that converts hydrogen peroxide into water by boosting glutathione levels. See Kirk Stokel (2012), Novel Method to Effectively Combat Oxidative Liver Damage (from Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), Life Extension Magazine January 2012. Note that high levels of lipoprotein phospholipase A2 indicate that the patient has inflamed atherosclerotic plaques in which LDL oxidation is taking place.
Lipofuscin (pronounced "lip-o-few-sin" according to Aubrey de Grey, and "lip-o-fuss-kin" according some others) [Wikipedia, Links/Lipofuscin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong; Ben Best/Accumulation of Toxins and Cellular Garbage].
Lipofuscin removal [Links/Lipofuscin removal, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/Lysosomes and Lipofuscin removal, LifeExtension/Lipofuscin removal, Amazon/lipofuscin removal], in aging neurons, Zs.-Nagy on Lipofuscin, (4), (13) [4s]. Lipofuscin granules [Images] result from lysosomal digestion and are primarily a problem in post-mitotic cells including nerve cells, brain cells, muscle cells, and cardiac myocytes. Lipofuscin accumulation is a major risk factor in macular degeneration, Alzheimer's Disease, Batten's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, melanosis coli, denervation atrophy, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. - After Vince Giuliano in Anti-Aging Firewalls. See also ceroid-type lipofuscin from alcohol [Images/ceroid lipofuscin, Images/Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis]. Drugs effective in lipofuscin removal include:
Acetyl L-Carnitine [Index, Images],
Alpha Lipoic Acid [Index, Images],
CoQ10 [Index, Images] (ubiquinol [Index, Images]),
Creatine Monohydrate [Index, Images] (see below), and
Curcumin [Index, Images].
Piracetam [Index, Images].

Meclofenoxate [Images] (Centrophenoxine [Index, Images], Lucidril [Index, Images]) inhibits lipofuscin formation without reducing lipofuscin deposits. According to Wikipedia, however, a cellular disposal mechanism exists that reduces high levels of the variety of lipofuscin induced by protease inhibitors (leupeptin) after a few months.
See Index/Lysosomes and Lipofuscin Removal. Regarding Creatine monohydrate: "In brains of Creatine-treated mice, there was a trend towards a reduction of reactive oxygen species and significantly lower accumulation of the "aging pigment" lipofuscin. Expression profiling showed an upregulation of genes implicated in neuronal growth, neuroprotection, and learning. These data show that Creatine improves health and longevity in mice. Creatine may be a promising food supplement to promote healthy human aging." Bender, A, et al. Creatine Improves Health and Survival of Mice, Neurobiology of Aging, 2008; 29(9): 1404-1411.
"An enhancement of lipofuscin formation by oxidative stress and its decrease by administration of antioxidants or iron chelators have been repeatedly demonstrated." - from Alexi Terman and Ulf T. Brunk, Aging and Degradation of Cellular Constituents, from Aging at the Molecular Level, ed. thomas van Zglinicki, Kluwer, 2003, p. 237. - "Macromolecular cross-linking is one of the most typical consequences of ROS attack, and one of the most probable factors responsible for the undegradability of autophagocytosed material." - op.cit., p.237. Oxidative stress in combination with protease inhibition dramatically increases liposfucin formation, since protease inhibition supplies more time for oxidative stress to act before autophagocytosed material can be degraded. (See lysosomal proteases and lysosomal protease inhibitors.) Mitochondrial components, being more attacked by ROS than other cellular compartments, are a major source of lipofuscin material containing peroxidized molecules and iron-rich heme proteins.
Lipoic Acid [pronunciation, Wikipedia/Lipoic_acid, Links/Lipoic acid, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Ben Best/Lipoic Acid], [70]. See alpha lipoic acid [Links], the most commonly available form. See also the more bioavailable forms of lipoic acid, R-lipoic acid and sodium-R-lipoic acid (Life Extension's Super R-lipoic acid). Lipoic acid supplementation reduces free iron levels. In skin creams "lipoic acid helps remove glycated collagen." - (LEF). [see Ultra Rejuvenex.] (1).
Lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Wikipedia; Atherosclerotic Plaque, Atherosclerosis]. High levels of lipoprotein phospholipase A2 indicate that the patient has inflamed atherosclerotic plaques in which LDL oxidation is taking place. Omega-3 fatty acids and niacin may help in lowering levels of lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), and curcumin may inhibit its formation. See Life Extension's Endothelial Defense [Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], with cocoa, pomegranate, and GliSODin. See also LDL peroxidation and curcumin.
Liposomes [pronunciation, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension], [68]. See also Transfection, Plasmids, Colostrum, and Gene Therapy. I note that colostrum growth factors are most effectively delivered in milk lipid liposomes. Lipofectamine (Invitrogen) and other standard transfection reagents are often used to prepare liposomes designed to transfect cells with DNA plasmids in experiments. Lipofectin (Invitrogen) may be used to prepare liposomes for the transfection of DNA or RNA. See Fast Telomere Extension with nucleoside-modified mRNAs.
Liposomal Vitamin C can be prepared by mixing vitamin C solution with lechithin solution in a blender, then by processing in an ultrasonic cleaner (Video). See Liposomal Encapsulation Technology [Links], and Making a Liposomal Compound [Links]. See Lopez- Berestein & Fidler (eds.), Liposomes in the Therapy of Infectious Disease and Cancer [Paper], Liss, New York, 1989.
Liposome Creams [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Lipsome cream kits, Images, Video]. See Encapsula Nano Sciences, FormuMax Scientific, NOF Corporation/Phospholipids for Liposomes, Microfluidics.
Liposome Delivery Systems [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong; Links/Liposome Delivery Kits, Video, Images]. See also Transfection, Plasmids, Colostrum, and Gene Therapy. A spray bottle may be effective in producing liposomes in many cases. For instance, a spray bottle containing colostrum and cream may effectively produce liposomes made of milk lipids from cream mixed with colostrum, especially after processing the mix with a blender and an ultrasonic cleaner.
Liposome Sprays [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Liposome sprays for IGF1 [Images] are widely available for the hTERT phosphorylating telomerase activator IGF-1, which is sometimes applied with the telomerase inhibitor Vitamin D and pomegranate supplements to safeguard against cancer and undesirable cellular proliferation. Note that hTERT transcription activator HGH (which improves the expression of hTERT mRNA) is metabolized to IGF-1 in the liver, so that HGH secretagogues may be used to get telomerase activation via IGF-1's propensity to phosphorylate hTERT for import from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Note that colostrum is most effectively delivered transdermally and internally in milk lipid liposomes [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] so that the most effective apparatus for their formation should be investigated. Typically, one processes a liposome-forming mixture sequentially with a blender and an ultrasonic cleaner.
Liposome Technology [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong]. See also Liposomes, Liposome Creams, Liposome Delivery Systems, Liposome Sprays, Transfection, Plasmids, Colostrum, and Gene Therapy.
Livagen (Lys-Glu-Asp-Ala) [Paper, Links, St. Petersburg Institute of Biogregulation and Gerontology]. A peptide bioregulator. "Livagen induces activation of ribosomal genes, decondensation of pericentromeric structural heterochromatin, and release of genes repressed due to age-related condensation of euchromatic regions in chromosomes. Results indicate that Livagen causes de-heterochromatinization (activation) of chromatin, which is realized via modification of heterochromatin and heterochromatinized regions in chromosomes from old people." Perhaps Livagen is an HDAC inhibitor. See tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors.
Liver Cancer [Wikipedia/Liver_cancer, Links/Liver Cancer, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; p53 pathway, Carcinogens; Cancer; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis, Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors]. See Cancer and Carcinogens. Hepatitis B virus (Virology) can cause liver cancer. Chronic inflammation induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV) may also be crucial in hepatocellular carcinogenesis [Ref]. Benzopyrene, which is present in charcoal-broiled foods, is converted by liver enzymes into carcinogenic epoxide derivatives. The same is true of Aflatoxin B1, which is found in moldy peanuts and pistachio nuts. "Ingestion of significant amounts of benzopyrene ... invariably leads to the emergence of hepatomas [Images] (liver tumors)." pg.646, James D. Watson, 3rd edition, Molecular Biology of the Gene. "Several extrinsic factors, such as aflatoxin, HBV, nutrition, alcohol, and trace elements, are thought to initiate or promote the hepatocarcinogenesis." Overconsumption of alcohol can lead to liver cancer, colorectal cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, and breast cancer. For liver detoxification [Links, Papers, Books], see Milk Thistle (Silymarin), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), and Ornithine. Schizandra berry is known to increase cyclic AMP in the liver.
(1) "More than 50% of human cancers contain inactivating mutations of the p53 gene."
(2) "In the regions with dietary exposure to the fungal aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) a specific mutation at codon-249 of the p53 gene is detected from the cell-free plasma of 30-47% of patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).
(3) "Several extrinsic factors, such as aflatoxin, HBV, nutrition, alcohol, and trace elements, are thought to initiate or promote the hepatocarcinogenesis."
- Yong-Song Guan, Qing He, and Zi La (2006), Roles of p53 in Carcinogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Journal of Cancer Molecules 2(5): 191-197, 2006. See also Links/p53 and resveratrol and RevGenetics on resveratrol and p53. "p53 transcriptionally represses hTERT." (Cong, Wright, and Shay, 2002).
Liver cancer may be curable via transfection of the adeno-associated virus AAV2, which attacks cancer cells without harming healthy ones. AAV2 may be used to transfect hepatocytes, neurons, and muscle cells. Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) suppresses growth and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. Silibinin from milk thistle is effective against many malignancies, including those of the liver, colon, skin, and prostate, and inhibits cancer metastasis. Coptis chinensis (Berberine, Berberine Rhizome Extract) is useful in treating liver cancer [16], as is saffron [17, 18]. Sulforaphane [13] and vitamin D3 [14] are also useful in treating hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta inhibitors are useful in controlling inflammation and the metastasis of liver cancer throughout the body [15].
[1] Block, T.M., A.S.Mehta, C.J.Fimmel and R.Jordan, (2003),
Molecular viral oncology of hepatocellular carcinoma, Oncogene 22: 5093-5107.
[2] Lin CP, et al. (2007),
Small molecule c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4, inhibits proliferation, downregulates human telomerase reverse transcriptase and enhances chemosensitivity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells,
Anticancer Drugs 18: 161-70.
[3] Felix DiFara (2010),
The Remarkable Anticancer Properties of Vitamin K, Life Extension Magazine, November 2010.
[4] Mizuta T, Ozaki I (2007),
Clinical application of vitamin K for hepatocellular carcinoma, Clinical Calcium 2007 Nov;17(11):1193-9.
[5] Otsuka M, Kato N, Shao RX, et al. (2004),
Vitamin K2 inhibits the growth and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via protein kinase A activation, Hepatology, 2004 July;40(1):243-51.
[6] Matsumoto K, Okano J, Nagahara T, Murawaki Y (2006),
Apoptosis of liver cancer cells by vitamin K2 and enhancement by MEK inhibition,
International Journal of Oncology 2006 Dec;29(6):1501-8.
[7] Kuriyama S, Hitomi M, Yoshiji H, et al. (2005),
Vitamins K2, K3, and K5 exert in vivo antitumor effects on hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating the expression of G1 phase-related cell cycle molecules, International Journal of Oncology 2005 Aug;27(2):505-11.
[8] Nouso K, Uematsu S, Shiraga K, et al. (2005),
Regression of hepatocellular carcinoma during vitamin K administration,
World Journal of Gastroenterology 2005 Nov 1;11(42):6722-4.
[9] Hotta N, Ayada M, Sato K, et al. (2007),
Effect of vitamin K2 on the recurrence in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma,
Hepatogastroenterology 2007 Oct-Nov;54(79):2073-7.
[10] Kakizaki S, Sohara N, Sato K, et al. (2007),
Preventive effects of vitamin K on recurrent disease in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C viral infection, Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2007 Apr;22(4):518-22.
[11] Yoshiji H, Noguchi R, Toyohara M, et al. (2009),
Combination of vitamin K2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ameliorates cumulative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, Journal of Hepatology 2009 Aug;51(2):315-21.
[12] Oh, B.-K., Kim, Y.-J., Part, C. and Park, Y.N. (2005),
Up-regulation of telomere-binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 is related to telomere shortening during human multistep hepatocarcinogenesis, American Journal of Pathology 166, 73-80.
[13] Dong-Oh Moona, Sang-Hyuck Kanga, Ki-Cheon Kima, Mun-Ock Kimb, Yung Hyun Choic and Gi-Young Kim (2010), Sulforaphane decreases viability and telomerase activity in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells through the reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway,
Cancer Letters, Volume 295, Issue 2, 28 September 2010, Pages 260-266.
[14] Kwon HJ, Won YS, Suh HW, et al. (2010),
Vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1 suppresses TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation in hepatocarcinogenesis, Journal of Immunology, 2010 October 1; 185(7):3980-9.
[15] Tai DI, Tsai SL, Chang YH, Huang SN, Chen TC, Chang KS, Liaw YF (2000),
Constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappaB in hepatocellular carcinoma, Cancer 89:2274-2281.
[16] Auyeung KK, Ko JK (2009),
Coptis chinensis inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth through nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene activation, Int J Mol Med., 2009 Oct;24(4):571-7. [Coptis chinensis, Berberine, Berberine Rhizome Extract].
[17] Amin A, Hamza AA, Bajbouj K, Ashraf SS, Daoud S. (2011),
Saffron: a potential candidate for a novel anticancer drug against hepatocellular carcinoma,
Hepatology 2011 Sep 2;54(3):857-67. See Saffron.
[18] Jennifer Provos (2015), Anticancer Properties Of Saffron, Life Extension Magazine, March 2015.
Longevinex - Longevinex resveratrol links. See Resveratrol, SIRT1, and Caloric Restriction.
Longevity [Main Essay, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon; Wikipedia/senescence, Index/Senescence, Index/Replicative Senescence], [37]. Also see Aging [Innovita/Aging - The Molecular Concepts, Innovita Research Corporation, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Books/The Molecular Basis of Aging, Amazon/Aging at the Molecular Level, LibCong/Aging at the Molecular Level, Ben Best/Mechanisms of Aging]. See also (7) Telomere Theory and Hayflick, His Limit, and Cellular Aging by Shay & Wright, and the Nobel Prize Winner's essay Telomeres and Telomerase: the path from maize, Tetrahymena, and yeast to human cancer and aging by Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Grieder, and Jack W. Szostak. See also Arantes-Oliveira N, Berman JR, Kenyon C. (2003), Healthy animals with extreme longevity, Science 2003 Oct 24;302(5645):611 and Christensen K, Vaupel JW. (1996), Determinants of longevity: genetic, environmental and medical factors, Internal Medicine 1996 Dec;240, and Heijmansa BT, Westendorpb RG, Slagboom PE. (2000) Common gene variants, mortality and extreme longevity in humans, Experimental Gerontology. 2000 Sep;35(6-7):865-77.
Longevity, the Journal of - The Journal of Longevity, [57].
Longevity genes [GeneFamiliesHUGO5b.html, Wikipedia/Longevity genes, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Ben Best/Longevity Genes; Inovita/Gerontogenes], [83], (0). Longevity genes SIR2 and SIRT1, [Index, Wikipedia/SIRT1, Links, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], Longevity gene search at Centagenetics, Longevity genes found on Chromosome 4. (CNN), Longevity Gene Search Project, Longevity genes numbering about 200 found by UCSF scientists., Longevity genes sought at Albert Einstein School of Medicine, (0). See Maris Kuningas, et al, (2008) Genes encoding longevity: from Model Organisms to Humans, Aging Cell, Vol 7, issue 2, 270-280 and Xi Zhao-Wilson and Paul C. Watkins (2006), Longevity Genes and Caloric restriction, Life Extension Magazine July 2006.
Here are 31 genes in 10 groups that may be most impacting to human life extension:
(1) Five telomerase complex genes:
___1.1. hTERT (telomerase protein component gene).
______[OMIM/TERT, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___1.2. hTR (telomerase RNA component gene).
______[OMIM/TERC, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___1.3. dyskerin (telomerase complex component gene).
______[OMIM/DKC1, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___1.4. hEST1A (telomerase hitching protein gene),
______Overexpression of hEST1A promotes chromosome fusion (2012).
______[OMIM/SMG6, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___1.5. Replication Protein A (also involved in telomerase hitching).
______[OMIM/RPA1, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
______[OMIM/RPA2, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
______[OMIM/RPA3, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
______[OMIM/RPA4, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(2) Two SIRT genes for gene silencing and for mimicing caloric restriction,
____and one for double-stranded DNA repair and cancer cell apoptosis.
___2.1. SIRT1 [Links/SIRT1],
______[OMIM/SIRT1, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___2.2. SIRT3 (the SIRT3 G477T polymorphism and a variable number of
______tandem repeats are associated with increased life span in humans
______See Links/the SIRT3 G477T polymorphism),
______[OMIM/SIRT3, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___2.3 SIRT6 [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; OMIM/SIRT6].
______SIRT6 prevents progeria and extends maximum lifespan in mice.
______SIRT6 depletion leads to telomere dysfunction with end-to-end
______chromosomal fusions and premature cellular senescence.
______SIRT6 improves double-stranded DNA repair, promotes massive
______apoptosis in cancer cells, and prevents metabolic syndrome.
______SIRT6 is upregulated by fasting, SIRT1, or Rosiglitazone (Avandia).
(3) Twelve endogenous antioxidant genes in sub-groups of 8, 1, and 3:
___3.1.-3.8. glutathione peroxidases GPX1-GPX8 [Index/Glutathione].
______[OMIM/GPX1, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___3.9. catalase (catalase overexpression leads to increased lifespan in mammals).
______Supplements boosting catalase [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
______[OMIM/CAT, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___The 3 SOD genes of superoxide dismutase:
___3.10. SOD1 (cytoplasmic SOD, CuZnSOD),
________[OMIM/SOD1, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___3.11. SOD2 (mitochondrial SOD, MnSOD),
________SOD2 overexpression leads to increased lifespan in mammals.
________Supplements boosting SOD2 [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
________[OMIM/SOD2, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___3.12. SOD3 (extracellular SOD).
________[OMIM/SOD3, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(4) The caveolin genes for caveolin-1, -2, and -3 establish the senescent phenotype.
___4.1. CAV1 [OMIM/CAV1, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Therapy, Refs9].
_____Caveolin-1 expression is upregulated by FOXO transcription factors (Refs10),
_____and results in cell membrane modifications producing the senescent phenotype,
_____the hyporeactivity of the senescent cell, and its insensitivity to growth factors.
_____Folic acid (vitamin B9) stimulates the PI3K/AKT pathway to down-regulate
_____caveolin-1 by sequestering FOXO factors away from the nucleus.
_____Downregulation of caveolin-1 using IGF-1, insulin, exercise, or cAMP from forskolin,
_____exercise, glycyrrhiza, epinephrine, or schizandra, or via caveolin-1 inhibitors such as
_____N-[2-(Cyclohexy-Loxyl)-4-Nitrophenyl]-Methanesulfonamide can restore the
_____youthful cellular phenotype
and properties of non-senescent cells. Pantethine
_____(vitamin B5), lowers LDL cholesterol to reduce caveolin-1 levels.
_____It turns out that c-Myc downregulates caveolin-1 expression, and that c-Myc [Index,
_____hTERT Promoter/c-Myc] can be upregulated by EGF, PDGF, colostrum, or estradiol
_____[Ref, (Tsai L.-C., Hung M.W., et al, (1997))]. See caveolae.
___4.2. CAV2 [OMIM/CAV2, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___4.3. CAV3 [OMIM/CAV3, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(5) FOXO genes upregulate caveolin-1, tending to produce cellular senescence.
_______[Wikipedia/FOX_proteins, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
_______(A. Pieter J. van den Heuvel, Almut Schulze, and Boudewijn M. T. Burgering, 2005).
___5.1 FOXO3a upregulates caveolin-1, finally producing senescent cells.
______[OMIM/FOXO3a, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___5.2 FOXO4 upregulates caveolin-1, finally producing senescent cells.
______[OMIM/FOXO4, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
_____See also AKT, PI3 Kinase, AKT and FOXO and (8) AKT Kinase, below.
_____AKT phosphorylates FOXO transcription factors to bind with 14-3-3 proteins
_____that sequester them away from the nucleus, preventing the transcription
_____of genes such as CAV-1 that induce cell senescence.
(6) Homeobox transcription factors.
___6.1 NANOG overexpression decreases caveolin-1 and FOXO3a mRNA expression.
______[OMIM/NANOG, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(7) Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors
___7.1 p16INK4A induced G1 cell cycle arrest can increase caveolin-1 expression.
______[OMIM/P16INK4a, Wiki, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(8) AKT kinase genes.
____AKT phosphorylates FOXO transcription factors, sequestering them away from
____the cellular nucleus, inhibiting caveolin-1 transcription to inhibit senescence.
____"In the absence of growth factor signaling and Akt activity, FOXO is released from
____14-3-3 and translocates to the nucleus, stimulating transcription of genes that
____inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell death.
" - Geoffrey M. Cooper and
____Robert E. Hausman, The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 4th edition (2007), p. 624.
____8.1 AKT1 [OMIM/AKT1, Wiki, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
______AKT1 activity protects telomeres.
______See Xin Han, Dan Liu, Yi Zhang, Yujing Li, Weisi Lu, Junjie Chen and Zhou Songyang (2013),
______Akt regulates TPP1 homodimerization and telomere protection, Aging Cell 12, 1091-99.
____8.2 AKT2 [OMIM/AKT2, Wiki, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____8.3 AKT3 [OMIM/AKT3, Wiki, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(9) Notch3 [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
See Hang Cui, Yahui Kong, Mei Xu, and Hong Zhang (2013), Notch3 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor by Controlling Cellular Senescence, Cancer Res June 1, 2013 73; 3451.
"... Upregulation of Notch3 was required for the induction of p21 expression in senescent cells. Downregulation of Notch3 led to a delayed onset of senescence and extended replicative lifespan, whereas adventitious expression of Notch3 was sufficient to activate senescence and p21 expression. The ability of Notch3 to induce senescence and p21 expression was dependent on the canonical Notch signaling. Deletion of p21 in cells significantly attenuated Notch3-induced senescence... Restoration of Notch3 expression in human tumor cells resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and activation of senescence." Note that TGF-beta, contained in colostrum, down-regulates Notch3 to delay senescence and extend lifespan. [Ref].
(10) KL (Klotho gene) [Links/KL gene, Images, Papers, Patents, Books];
Klotho [Wikipedia/Klotho_(biology), Links/Klotho, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Klotho gene expression and aging, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Klotho expression, boosted by exercise and vitamin D, increases life span, boosts intelligence, and deflects coronary artery disease. Klotho expression declines in the aging brain. See Bill Sardi (2014), Boosting KLOTHO Gene Protein Sharpens Memory and Learning at Any Age While Prolonging Life [OnLine], Resveratrol News, May 15, 2014.
(11) Methuselah gene (important in the worm C. elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster), favorably regulated by blueberry extract.
The Drosophila melanogaster Methuselah gene (mth) was thought to be less than 10 million years old [3], and thus was suspected to have no relevance to human longevity, having developed well after evolutionary differentiation between insects and the amphibian progenitors of men 360 million years ago. On the other hand, C. elegans also had the gene, so that there are grounds for suspecting that it is actually of great antiquity. About 35% of C. elegans genes have human homologues. Furthermore, human homologues of the Methuselah gene have been discovered [12], [13]. The "human APG1 gene [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] is homologous to the Drosophila methuselah gene associated with extended life span [12]." This gene is associated with the induction of autophagy [13], [15], which is required for dauer development and life-span extension in C. elegans [15].
See also Telomere Loop Control Proteins (The Telosome (Shelterin)), Mammalian Telomere Protein Factors, The Telomere Interactome, and Genes and Senescence. Note that genes in the telomerase group (1) may be turned on while the genes in group (2) are turned off, and that subsequently genes in group (1) may be turned off while the genes in group (2) are turned on, which is done in my cyclic program for telomere lengthening. Genes in the endogenous antioxidant group (3) may always be highly activated to defend DNA and cell membranes. Other genes from the endogenous antioxidants [Index] that may be useful to enhance include those related to CoQ10 and lipoic acid, for lipofuscin removal.
There are other genes that are also impacting to life extension, say the genes of the telosome complex proteins, for instance TRF2. Genes involved in B-vitamin production may be enhanced to defend against homocysteine and to better defend DNA (10). However, it may be adequate just to boost telomerase output by cyclicly activating hTERT, providing supplemental anxioxidants, vitamins, SIRT1 activation when appropriate (using drugs such as resveratrol), and other supplements to control physiological factors in aging such as homocysteine. Drug costs may be lowered in the future by installing extra copies of some of the above genes in groups (1) and (3) using targeted genome editing with zinc finger nucleases or viral transfection techniques. See Maris Kuningas, Simon P. Mooijaart, Diana Van Heemst, Bas J. Zwaan, P. Eline Slagboom, Rudi G. J. Westendorp, Genes encoding longevity: from model organisms to humans Aging Cell, Volume 7, Issue 2, pages 270–280, April 2008.
Music: Hospital Hallucinations from All That Jazz (1979); Bye, Bye Life.
Longjack (Tongkat Ali) [Links/Longjack, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Tongkat Ali, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Longjack (Tongcat Ali) is a testosterone booster. Longjack boosts testosterone levels and decreases cortisol expression when taken 100-300 mg in the morning, 30 minutes before workouts, and before bedtime. Bodybuilding sources suggest 300 mg/day 5 days/week, cycled at 8 weeks on and 2 weeks off. Otherwise aphrodisiac side-effects may become difficult to manage.
5-LOXIN [Links/5-LOXIN, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. A patented extract from the boswellia plant [Links, Images, Video; Links/boswellia extract, Papers, Patents, Images, LifeExtension/boswellia] is shown to suppress the dangerous enzyme 5-lipoxygenase [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] and other pro-inflammatory factors [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] .
Lucidril (Centrophenoxine, Meclofenoxate) [Smart Drugs/Lucidril, Index/Centrophenoxine, Links/Centrophenoxine, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; LibCong/Centrophenoxine, Links/Lucidril, meclofenoxate (Images)]. See also the index entry for Lipofuscin. (4). Lucidril [Links/Lucidril, Links/Centrophenoxine, IAAS/Centrophenoxine, (DMAE + Auxin), Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong] produces higher brain DMAE levels [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] than taking DMAE itself [60], (4). See also Centrophenoxine - anti-aging brain booster. Centrophenoxine is a lipofuscin remover that extends rat life spans up to 33%. (13)
Luciferase [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Luciferase assays, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books]. Note that many bioscience fluorescent assays have been developed around luciferase, firefly luciferase or renilla luciferase, by incorporating a gene for luciferase in an engineered test plasmid, for instance. See also the related themes cell staining, and cell staining reagents, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and green fluorescent protein.
Lung Cancer [Wikipedia/Lung_cancer, Links/Lung cancer, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Smoking, Carcinogens; Cancer; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Watercress; Apoptosis; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors].
25% of smokers live to 80, vs. 57% of non-smokers. Lung cancer is usually caused by carcinogens such as benzopyrene in cigarette smoke or marijuana smoke. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) reduces the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke. Chromite iron ore dust (FeCr2O4) causes lung cancer, and beryllium dust (used for a short while as a liner for fluorescent lamps) is also carcinogenic when inhaled. Note that Panax Ginseng has an anticancer effect on cancers introduced with benzopyrene. Marijuana users have better luck with vaporizing inhalers. Recently there are indications that green tea helps prevent lung cancer, which is also true of EGCG. See anticancer diet and Jon Finkel, EGCG Suppresses Lung Cancer Cell Growth, LEF, August 2010 based on Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa) 2010, May;3(5):670-9. Flavanones (polyphenolic compounds found in fruit, vegetables, and plant-based drinks) protect against upper aerodigestive tract cancers. The body does better against cancer when the immune system is strong, devouring cancer cells before they have much impact [Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Cancer and the Immune System]. Telomerase inhibitors, taken with angiogenesis inhibitors, help induce apoptosis in cancer cells and reduce metatasis, tumor formation, and tumor growth risks. Taking cemetidine 5 days prior to an operation and for a year therafter reduces metastasis risks introduced by surgical oncology. Metformin also helps reduce cancer risks subsequent to surgical operations. (William Faloon, As We See It, LEF, April 2010). Semi-synthetic derivatives of the lignan podophyllotoxin (effective at targeting cancer cells for destruction), including etoposide, teniposide, and etoposide phosphate, are routinely used in lung cancer chemotherapy [Papers, Patents Books]. (LEF, April 2010.) Soy isoflavones have been shown to reduce lung cancer rates. (LEF, Marc Ellman, Soy Protective Against Lung Cancer, June 2010; Am J. Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar;91(3):722-8.) The highest vitamin K2 intake group in a recent cancer study of prostate cancer and lung cancer victims had a 28% lower risk of dying from cancer, the reduction occuring mainly in men. - Am J. Clin Nutr., 2010, March 24; after Dayna Dye, Reduced Vitamin K Intake Associated with Greater Cancer Mortality, Life Extension Magazine, July 2010. See also Yokoyama T, Miyazawa K, Yoshida T, Ohyashiki K (2005), Combination of vitamin K2 plus imatinib mesylate enhances induction of apoptosis in small lung cancer cell lines, International Journal of Oncology 2005 Jan;26(1):33-40. See Balansky R, Ganchev G, Iltcheva M, Steele VE, De Flora S (2010), Prevention of cigarette smoke-induced lung tumors in mice by budesonide, phenethyl isothiocyanate, and N-acetyl cysteine, International Journal of Cancer 2010 March 1;126(5):1047-54. See N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Note that silibinin, the primary constituent of silymarin in milk thistle, is a telomerase inhibitor that works well as an anticancer agent against human prostate adenocarcinoma cells, breast cancer carcinoma cells, ectocervical cancer cells, colon cancer cells, and both small and large lung carcinoma cells. See Sharma G, Singh RP, Chan DC, Agarwal R (2003), Silibinin induces growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death in human lung carcinoma cells, Anticancer Research 23 (3B): 2649–55.
"Nithya Ramnath, MD, and colleagues evaluated tumor samples from 86 patients with lung adenocarcinoma to determine the level of CYP24A1 [Wikipedia, Images], which encodes an enzyme that is overexpressed in many cancers. This enzyme breaks down calcitriol (1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), which has an antiproliferative effect in lung adenocarcinoma. The team found that CYP24A1 expression was 8 to 50 times higher in cancerous compared to healthy lung tissue. Patients with higher levels of CYP24A1 had an increased likeliness of aggressive tumors and a 42% chance of survival after five years compared with an 81% chance for those with low CYP24A1. Scientists are now attempting to identify compounds that block CYP24A1 [CYP24A1 inhibitors (Papers, Patents)], which would increase vitamin D’s anticancer potential and could be combined with vitamin D treatment." - Dana Dye, More Vitamin D Could Help Prevent Lung Cancer Recurrence, LEF News, Life Extension Magazine, June 2011. See also Ahmed S. Aboraia, Sook Wah Yee, Mohamed Sayed Gomaa, Nikhil Shah, Anna C. Robotham, Bart Makowski, David Prosser, Andrea Brancale, Glenville Jones and Claire Simons (2010), Synthesis and CYP24A1 inhibitory activity of N-(2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-phenylethyl)arylamides, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 18, Issue 14, 15 July 2010, pp. 4939-4946. "The most promising CYP24A1 inhibitors described to date are VID-4009 (IC50 = 15.1 nM compared with ketoconazole IC50 = 126 nM in human epidermal keratinocytes) and the vitamin D derived sulfoximes10 (IC50 = 7.4 nM compared with ketoconazole IC50 = 312 nM in V79-CYP24A1 recombinant cell line expressing human CYP24A1), which are based on the structure of the natural substrate, calcitriol." - op.cit. Also see Revel, A. et al. (2003), Resveratrol, a natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist, protects lung from DNA damage and apoptosis caused by benzo[a]pyrene, Journal of Applied Toxicology 2003; 23:255-61. Sulphoraphane from broccoli sprouts [Links, Images] helps prevent cigarette-smoke induced benign tumors from developing, causing apoptosis in initial tumor cells. "Curcumin supresses cancer cell proliferation and invasion in lung carcinoma cells by downregulating the expression of MT1-MMP, NCAM, TOPO-I, TOPO-II, and AXL and the activity of MMP2 and NFkB. Additionally expression of different Heat Shock Protein family members was induced by curcumin." (Teiten, Eifes, Dicato and Diederich, 2010). See also Choi SY, Yu JH, Kim H. (2009), Mechanism of alpha-lipoic acid-induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells, Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009 Aug;1171:149-55. "Diallyl disulfide (DADS), one of the major components of garlic (Allium sativum), is well known to have chemopreventative activity against human cancer such as colon, lung and skin", and also against bladder cancer. (H.F Lua, C.C Sueb, C.S Yuc, et al, 2004). Metastasis of lung cancer to other tissues can be inhibited with NFkB inhibitors such as genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, black tea extract, pterostilbene from blueberries, and modified citrus pectin.
Lutein [Lutein.Info, pronunciation, Wikipedia/Lutein, Links/Lutein, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong, Images/Lutein supplements]. Lutein, zeaxanthin [Index, Images], and meso-zeaxanthin [Images] aid against macular degeneration, [25i], [101]. Lutein also protects against cataracts [Index/Cataracts, Wikipedia/Cataract, Links/Cataract, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Cataracts increase in frequency as sun exposure goes up. "Scientists found a 40% lower rate of cataracts occuring at the center of the lens for every milligram increase in their daily intake of lutein and zeaxanthin!" - LifeExtension. See Foods Containing Lutein and Zeaxanthin [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Green vegetables such as kale, spinach, turnip greens, collard greens, romaine lettuce, broccoli, zucchini, garden peas and Brussel sprouts are the finest sources of lutein and zeaxanthin [Index].
Luteolin [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension Images/Luteolin supplements; Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme]. Luteolin (combats proliferation of undesirable cell colonies). It is found in high amounts in parsley, sage, and peppermint along with basil, celery and artichoke, also found in celery, green pepper, perilla, thyme, and camomile tea [36s] (g). Luteolin is also used to suppress dangerous inflammatory cytokines [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books], such as interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha [IndexT/TNF-alpha]. Luteolin is a PDE4 inhibitor (phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor) tending to preserve cyclic AMP levels for recovery from cellular senescence featuring cyclic AMP (cAMP) elevation to sequester FOXO factors away from the nucleus to lower levels of caveolin-1 (gene CAV1). See Parsely, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme. Luteolin is useful in treating colon cancer and Alzheimers Disease.
Lycopene [Wikipedia/Lycopene, Links/Lycopene, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension/Lycopene; Links/Lycopene in foods, Images/Lycopene supplements,, Amazon; Extraction of Lycopene (Papers, Patents, Books)]. Lycopene, an antioxidant, is superior for decreasing blood lipid levels, application to oxidized LDL, and inflammation. It slows the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque by scavenging the powerful oxidant hypochlorous acid associated with atherosclerosis. Lycopene supplementation produces healthier prostate function. Take at least 10 mg/day. Note that lycopene is best absorbed from processed or heated tomato-based products rather than from raw tomatoes. See also Tomatoes, [25h]. Lycopene, a NF-kB inhibitor, reduces NF-kB activation in cancer cells, and is useful in preventing prostate cancer. See Alex Wilson (2012), Slash Chronic Disease Risk with LYCOPENE, Life Extension Magazine, December 2012.
Lymphoma [Wikipedia/Lymphoma, Links/Lymphoma, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; DNA Microarray Lymphoma study, Amazon, LibCong; Wikipedia, Links/B-cell Lymphoma, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon; Wikipedia, Links/Lymph Node, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon; Links/Hematopathology, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Lymph_Nodes_in_Profile, Grays_Lymph_Nodes_of_Head_and_Neck; Facial Anatomy; Cancer; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors]. The gene Bcl-2 is a target of translocation in a B-cell lymphoma, and produces a Bcl-2 protein that inhibits apoptosis. The effect of the translocation of Bcl-2 is to overdrive expression of the gene, allowing the survival of B-lymphocytes that would normally die. Lymphoma induced by dyeing his hair [see Hair Dye Mutagenic Carcinogens] killed Steve Reeves [web site] at 74 after his lymphoma metastasized. Reeves died at Palomar Medical Center in Escondido, Calif. just eight weeks after his diagnosis. He was cremated and his ashes were scattered in Montana. The 4 occipital lymph nodes at the base of the skull-neck junction on both the left and the right drain the scalp over the occipital region of the skull. [Links/occipital lymph nodes, Books/occipital lymph nodes, Links/Steve Reeves dies of lymphoma, Causes of Lymphoma]. Monoclonal antibodies for treating lymphoma include Rituxan - (generic name rituximab, British trade name MabThera) a nonradioactive bound monoclonal antibody recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Zevalin - an investigative drug from the makers of Rituxan with yttrium-90 radiolabel, and Bexxar - the first radiolabled antibody is in phase III trials and is receiving wider distribution and publicity prior to approval. See Hodgkin's Disease, and Lymphomas (Non-Hodgkins). See also Symptoms: Swollen Lymph Nodes. I expect non-Hodgkins lymphoma from hair dye to show up in the occipital lymph nodes at the back of the neck, in the retroauricular lymph nodes behind the ear, or in the parotid lymph nodes in front of the ear. [Chart] See also [Books/removing the occipital lymph nodes, Books/occipital lymph node surgery, Books/occipital lymph node biopsy, Neck surgery procedure, occipital anatomy 1, 2, Links/occipital artery, Books/Local anesthetic, Links/Local anesthetic, Wikipedia/local anesthetic, Books/melanoma, Books/lymphatic melanoma, Books/lymphoma, Books/treating lymphoma, Links/treating lymphoma, Famous Victims of Lymphoma]. Sometimes swollen lymph nodes may be reduced by treatment with hot wet packs featuring a hot wet hand towel warmed by a hot water bottle, 4-6 times per day, 1/2 hour per treatment, to improve circulation to the node.
Shark liver oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension]. Shark liver oil is a folk remedy for swelling of the lymph nodes. Lymphoma risks were reduced in a study of 35,159 Iowa women aged 55 t0 69 (yielding 415 cases of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma) 22% by dietary vitamin C, 29% by alpha-carotene, 30% by proanthocyanidins, and 38% by manganese. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables reduced risk 31%, yellow/orange vegetables reduced risk 28%, and cruciferous vegetables yielded an 18% reduction in risk. (See Jon Finkle, Antioxidant-rich Fruits and Vegetables May Cut Lymphoma Risk, Life Extension Magazine, April 2010, supported by International Journal of Cancer, 2010 Feb 15; 126(4): 992-1003).) Note that Fucoidan (Foo-coy-dan) [Wikipedia/Fucoidan, Links/Fucoidan, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Fucoidan induces apoptosis in lymphoma cell lines] can induce apoptosis in lymphoma cell [Images] lines. The active principle of anticancer Chinese Wormwood, artemisinin (quinghaosu), may be used to treat lymphoma. See Dr. Robert Rowen's article, "Chinese Herb Cures Cancer," in the May 2002 Second Opinion. "Dr. Rowen's article also mentioned his success with a newly diagnosed case of lymphoma, manifesting as an egg-sized tumor on the left side of the man's head, which spontaneously cleared up two weeks after a two-week course of artemisinin derivatives." [Chistina L White, 2002]. See also Narendra P. Singh and Henry C. Lai (2005), Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Artemisinin and Sodium Butyrate on Human Cancer Cells [OnLine], Anticancer Research November 1, 2005 vol. 25 no. 6B 4325-4331. See artemisinin supplements and sodium butyrate supplements. NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine) induces apoptosis in many kinds of cancer cells. Curcumin downregulates "...CXCR4 and CD20 in follicular lymphoma cells. These genes play an important role in the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma." - (Teiten, Eifes, Dicato and Diederich, 2010). Curcumin has a pro-apoptotic effect on lymphocytic leukemia B cells that is inhibited by stromal cells, so that curcumin is best administrated with EGCG to overcome the protective effect of stromal cells. (op.cit.). See Shishodia S, Amin HM, Lai R, Aggarwal BB (2005), Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits constitutive NF-kappaB activation, induces G1/S arrest, suppresses proliferation, and induces apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma, Biochemical Pharmacology 70: 700-713. Search for supplements inducing apoptosis in follicular lymphoma cells [Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. See LEF's Lymphoma References.
Lysine (L-Lysine) [Index/L-Lysine, Links/L-Lysine, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. L-Lysine is an amino acid. 1500 mg of L-Lysine plus 1500 mg of L-Arginine is used as an HGH secretagogue. It works to elevate HGH even when the patient is at rest and not exercising. L-Lysine and Vitamin C together are used to make L-Carnitine, which improves mitochondrial combustion of fatty acids and is used by bodybuilders for definition. Note that lysine and arginine are both positively charged amino acids, and are used to construct nuclear transport signals that import proteins into the cellular nucleus through the nuclear pore. Note that elastin is cross-linked into a network by covalent bonds formed between side chains of lysine residues similar to lysine residues found in collagen. Perhaps supplementing lysine can improve elastin and collagen cross-linking into an elastic network. Lysine reduces hair loss [Links, Papers, Patents, Books].
Lysosomes and Lipofuscin Removal [Index/Lipofuscin; Links/Lysosomes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/lipofuscin removal, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/Lipofuscin removal; Links/Lysosomes and Lipofuscin Removal, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Amazon/lipofuscin removal], [4s]. See also drugs effective in lipofuscin removal: Index/Centrophenoxine, Index/Lucidril, Index/CoQ10, Index/Ubiquinol, Index/Alpha Lipoic Acid, Index/Acetyl L-Carnitine, and Index/Curcumin.

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