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Obesity [Wikipedia/Obesity, Links/Aging and Obesity, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon, LibCong; Links/Obesity and Gene Expression, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Caloric Restriction; Links/Treatment for Obesity; Testosterone helps reduce obesity; Obesity-Trends-Chart1, Images/Obesity Trends; Taurine]. "Obese individuals run up to a three times increased risk of death... Obesity results in a shortening of the life span by an average of 8 to 10 years... For each extra 33 pounds, the risk of early death increases by around 30%." - William Falloon (2013), Preparing Your Body to Eat, Life Extension Magazine, Feb 2013. Obesity (body mass index 30 and above) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation (systemic inflammation) and higher cancer risks, with 10-20% higher risk of pancreatic cancer. - Caleb E. Finch, p.103 & p.106. The risk of cancer from obesity can be reduced by using treatment with curcumin, one of the most powerful NF-kB inhibitors. Approximately 95% of human cancers feature elevated expression of the transcription factor NF-kB, which is a telomerase-activating tumor promoter that also drives pathways supporting cancer proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Conversely, dietary caloric restriction was the first life extension technique proven effective. C-reactive protein levels characteristic of systemic inflammation rise with obesity. "Compared with control patients, 572% more heart attack patients had C-reactive protein levels above 3.00 mg/Liter." - William Falloon, As We See It, Life Extension Magazine, September 2010. Obesity is associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors including high triglycerides, high blood glucose, high blood LDL/HDL ratio, and high C-reactive protein. Obesity may be associated with diabetes or arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) due to glycation sugar-damage. Morbidly obese patients may complain of fibromyalgia nerve pain. "Overweight individuals succumb to cancer, vascular occlusion, kidney failure, diabetes, arthritis, early senility, and other illnesses. Nearly three times more Americans are obese today (2010) compared to 1960. A more startling statistic is that six times more Americans are morbidly obese (body mass index 40 and above) than in 1960... One out of every three young Americans (ages 2 to 19) is already obese." - William Falloon, As We See It, Life Extension Magazine, October 2010. See obesity statistics [Images], diseases of the morbidly obese [Images], morbid obesity statistics [Images], and US immigration statistics [Images]. William Falloon op.cit., pp.12-13, has identified 27 correctable obesity inducers [LEF]:
(1) Loss of leptin sensitivity [Index/Leptin, LEF, Leptin; Leptin sensitivity, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
__Treated with irvingia, adipostat, caffeine (say from coffee) or garcinia cambogia extract.
(2) Low adiponectin [LEF, Adiponectin, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; HUGO],
(3) Excess glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase [LEF, glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase],
(4) Excess amylase activity [LEF, amylase; Links/amylase inhibitors, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
___Treated with amylase inhibitors such as white kidney bean extract or red kidney beans.
(5) Excess lipase activity [LEF, lipase, lipase inhibitors, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
___Treated with Green Tea (lipase inhibitor), ECGC, Black Tea, Theaflavins;
(6) Excess calorie intake [Index/caloric restriction],
(7) Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia [LEF, high triglycerides; Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
(8) Postprandial hyperglycemia [LEF, high blood sugar, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
(9) Deficient resting energy expenditure (Lack of exercise (9), Caloric restriction),
(10) Elevated C-reactive protein [LEF, C-reactive protein, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
___Treated with fish oil (2400 mg/day) and/or pain-relieving krill oil (300 mg/day).
(11) Loss of insulin sensitivity
____[LEF, insulin sensitivity, Index/Insulin, Treatment, Papers, Books; Taurine],
(12) Insufficient fiber intake [LEF, dietary fiber, Papers, Patents, Books, Index/Soluble fiber],
(13) Serotonin deficit [LEF, serotonin, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
___Treated with the serotonin-booster [Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] 5-HTP.
(14) Testosterone deficit (men) [LEF, Index/Testosterone, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
(15) Estrogen-progesterone imbalance (women)
____[LEF, Index/Estrogen, Index/Progesterone, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
(16) Thyroid deficit [LEF, Thyroid gland, Thyroid hormones, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
____Treated with Bacopa, Bauhinia Purpurea L, 7-keto-DHEA, Guggulsterones, Tyrosine.
(17) Decreased physical activity
____[LEF, Lack of exercise (9), insulin sensitivity, Index/Exercise, Bodybuilding],
(18) Fasting hyperinsulinemia [LEF, Links/hyperinsulinemia, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
(19) Excess gluconeogenesis [LEF, gluconeogenesis, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
(20) Insomnia/insufficient sleep [LEF, insomnia, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
(21) Polycystic ovary syndrome [LEF, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
(22) Cortisol excess [LEF, Index/Cortisol, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books],
____Ashwagandha, Withania Somnifera.
(23) Medications promoting obesity (antidepressants,
____antipsychotics, anti-epileptics, corticosteroids, sulfonylureas, and beta blockers).
(24) Psychological dysfunction (binge eating, depression) [LEF],
(25) Insufficient Vitamin D [LEF, Index/Vitamin D],
(26) Poor dietary choices [LEF, Index/Caloric Restriction],
(27) Excess glucosidase activity [LEF, glucosidase, Treatment, Papers, Patents, Books].
Low testosterone causes obesity, a problem for patients who have suffered testicle removal. Furthermore, obesity causes aromatase levels to rise, leading to a drop in testosterone as aromatase converts testosterone into estrogen. (Julius Goepp, MD, Low Testosterone Promotes Obesity in Aging Men, Life Extension Magazine, October 2010). Furthermore, obesity is associated with higher probability of non-alcholic fatty liver disease [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. - Life Extension Magazine, September 2011; FASEB Journal 2011 June 25(6):1793-814. Finally, obesity degrades the density of dopamine receptors [HUGO], down-sizes the brain, and is a factor in age-related brain deterioration. Conversely, exercise [Index] upgrades the density of dopamine receptors, improves cerebral circulation, and opposes age-related brain deterioration. See Reehan AG, Roberts DL, Dive C (2008), Obesity and Cancer: pathophysiolical and biological mechanisms, Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry, 2008 Feb; 114(1): 71-83. Taurine has lipid-lowering characteristics and is useful at 3 grams/day in treating obesity. See Zhang M, Bi LF, Fang JH, et al. (2004), Beneficial effects of taurine on serum lipids in overweight or obese non-diabetic subjects, Amino Acids 2004 Jun;26(3):267-71. Tsuboyama-Kasaoka N, Shozawa C, Sano K, et al. (2006), Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) deficiency creates a vicious circle promoting obesity, Endocrinology 2006, Jul:147(7):3276-84.
Oils [Wikipedia/Oil; Links/oils, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Links/vegetable_fats_and_oils, Wikipedia/Vegetable fats and oils, LifeExtension/Oils, LifeExtension/Fats]. "Store your oil in the refrigerator. Rancid oils are a major source of destructive free radicals in our diet. If you store the oil in the cupboard at room temperature, the oxidation process creates free radicals." - Terraternal/Antioxidants
___Oils containing gamma tocopherol [Links, Links/gamma tocopherol, Wiki/tocopherol].
______Corn Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
________High in relatively harmful omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which increase
________the probability of breast cancer in postmenopausal women,
________and of prostate cancer in men.
______Peanut Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
_________Rich in gamma tocopherol vitamin E.
______Sesame Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
________Includes sesamin, sesamol: sesame lignans.
________Cold-pressed best, toasted & browned includes trans fats.
______Soybean Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LEF].
________Usually "relatively high proportion, 7-10%, of oxidation-prone linoleic acid".
______Walnut Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
________"a good source of omega-3 fatty acids".
Canola Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
___"Low in saturated fat, high in monounsaturated fat,
___beneficial omega-3 fatty acid content
Coconut Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
___"Coconut oil contains 92% saturated fatty acids.".
___It consists primarily of medium-chain fatty acids.
___It may be described as a source of medium-chain triglycerides.
Grapeseed Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
___Cosmetic, useful for skin repair around the eyes [Images, Video, Papers, Books].
___Sometimes contains carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons from preparation method.
Olive Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
_____Contains oleic acid, antioxidant hydroxytyrosol,
______oleuropein for proteasome function, oleocanthol.

Oregano Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
___Oregano contains a ligand of the progesterone receptor, ergo a telomerase activator.
____Carvacrol [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
Palm Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
______Like coconut oil, it contains medium-chain triglycerides.
Safflower Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
_____Rich in Vitamin E and omega-6 fatty acids.
Sunflower Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
______Rich in omega-6 fatty acids.
Thyme Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
___Thyme contains a ligand of the progesterone receptor, ergo a telomerase activator.
___See Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme.
Fish Oil [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
___EPA [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
___DHA [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].
See Fats [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension].

Oil Ceramides (Phytoceramides)
Some oils are high in linoleic acid, a ceramide precursor, and sometimes also in phytoceramides, which are very effective in facial rejuvenation when taken orally, restoring skin elasticity, removing skin discoloration, and restoring skin protective barrier functions in as little as 5-8 weeks to revive the youthful phenotype.
See Life Extension, Skin Restoring Phytoceramides with Lipowheat,
___30 Veggie Liquid Caps $18.75 (iHerb, Wichita Stores, LEF)
___Michael Downey (2014), Phytoceramides Skin Rejuvenation from the Inside Out,
_____Life Extension Magazine, Nov 2014.
___Specifications • Shipping Weight: 0.12 lbs (0.05kg)
___•Product Code: LEX-15963
___•UPC Code: 737870159636
___•Package Quantity: 30 Veggie Liquid Caps
___•Dimensions: 1.8 x 1.8 x 3.4 in, 0.1 lbs (0.05kg)
___•Expiration Date: Jun 2016 Expiration Date Info
___SRP: $25.00
___Our Price: $18.75
___Nearby Stores: Vitamin Shoppe, 2210 N. Rock Road, Wichita, KS (316)-612-9658.
___On-Line Stores

Oils High in Linoleic Acid, a Ceramides precursor, and Oil Description
____[Ref, Links, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Safflower oil 78% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/safflower oil, LifeExtension];
Grape seed oil 73% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/grape seed oil, LifeExtension];
Poppyseed oil 70% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/poppyseed oil, LifeExtension];
Sunflower oil 68% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/sunflower oil, LifeExtension];
Hemp oil 60% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/hemp oil, LifeExtension];
Corn oil 59% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/corn oil, LifeExtension];
Wheat germ oil 55% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/wheat germ oil, LifeExtension];
Cottonseed oil 54% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/cottonseed oil, LifeExtension];
Soybean oil 51% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/soybean oil, LifeExtension];
Walnut oil 51% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/watnut oil, LifeExtension];
Sesame oil 45% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/sesame oil, LifeExtension];
Rice bran oil 39% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/rice bran oil, LifeExtension];
Pistachio oil 32.7% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/pistachio oil, LifeExtension];
Peanut oil 32% [17] [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/peanut oil, LifeExtension];
Canola oil 21% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/canola oil, LifeExtension];
Egg yolk 16% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/egg yolk, LifeExtension];
Linseed oil 15% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/linseed oil, LifeExtension];
Lard 10% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/lard, LifeExtension];
Olive oil 10% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/olive oil, LifeExtension];
Palm oil 10% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/palm oil, LifeExtension];
Cocoa butter 3% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/cocoa butter, LifeExtension];
Macadamia oil 2% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Macadamia oil, LifeExtension];
Butter 2% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/butter, LifeExtension];
Coconut oil 2% [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/cocoanut oil, LifeExtension].
Old age cognitive decline [Index/Cognitive Decline, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon]. Alpha lipoic acid (600 mg/day - 1800 mg/day) with acetyl L-carnitine (250 mg/day - 750 mg/day) plus arginine helps accelerate neurite growth and prevent old age cognitive decline.
Treatments: [Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension] [109].
A combination of uridine [Links, Images], choline [Links, Images], and DHA [Links, Images] caused brain levels of lecithin or phosphatidylcholine [Links, Images] to go up 45% in gerbils.
Both resveratrol and NAD+ (NADH) reduce neural degeneration and extend neural cell lifespan. Increased nuclear NAD+ biosynthesis and SIRT1 activation prevent axonal degeneration in nerve cells [Images]. It is suspected that adequate intracellular NAD+ levels are essential for neuronal survival. There is a 1:1 stoichiometry between intracellular NAD+ content and sirtuin-mediated deacetylation. This fact should be directly related to optimal dosages of NAD+. Ray Sahelian promotes 2.5 mg of NADH every other day, or perhaps as much as 5 mg every other day. At higher levels, stomach upset is sometimes observed. Nicotinamide (niacinamide, niacin, vitamin B3) is processed to produce NAD+, and is dramatically life-extending.
Alpha-GPC (alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine) or
GPC (glycophosphocholine [Links, Images], or Gliatilin),
helps prevent memory loss and senile dementia [Books, Wikipedia/Dementia, LifeExtension/senile dementia].
Brain aging has been related to up-regulation of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines such as:
interleukin-6, and
C-reactive protein.
To counteract brain aging caused by these factors, Life Extension Magazine (March 2009) recommends:
blueberry extract [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension],
grape seed extract [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension],
vinpocetine [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension],
phosphatidylserine [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension],
glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LEF, IndexEH/GPC],
uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension],
ashwagandha [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension],
ginger [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension],
rosemary [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension],
hops [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension] and
pregnenolone [Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension]
in Julius Goepp's article Preserving Cognitive Function with Aging. See the LEF formula product COGNITEX, which includes many of these ingredients. See also Antiinflammatory Drugs, Antioxidants and Dementia, Memory Enhancing Nutraceuticals, Brain Deterioration (Age-Related) and Neurodegenerative Disorders.
Note that phosphatidylserine repairs mitochondrial membranes, so that phosphatidylserine reverses memory loss.
Oleocanthol [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/oleocanthal]. Oleocanthol in olive oil [LifeExtension/olive oil] inhibits COX-1 and COX-2 cyclooxengenases [Wikipedia, Links] more strongly than ibuprofen, gram for gram, although it takes 50 ml of extra virgin olive oil to mobilize 10% of the impact of an ibuprofen dose recommended for analgesia. - Caleb E. Finch, p.172. Oleocanthol also improves clearance of amyloid beta, preventing Alzheimer's Disease. See Abuznait AH, Qosa H, Busnena BA, El Sayed KA, Kaddoumi A. (2013), Olive-oil-derived oleocanthal enhances beta-amyloid clearance as a potential neuroprotective mechanism against Alzheimer’s disease: in vitro and in vivo studies, ACS Chem Neurosci 2013 Jun 19;4(6):973-82.
Oleuropein [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Papers/Oleuropein & proteasome]. "We demonstrate that oleuropein, the major constituent of Olea europea leaf extract, and a component of olive oil and olives, enhances the proteasome activities in vitro stronger than other known chemical activators, possibly through conformational changes of the proteasome [Images]. Moreover, continuous treatment of early passage human embryonic fibroblasts with oleuropein decreases the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduces the amount of oxidized proteins through increased proteasome-mediated degradation rates and retains proteasome function during replicative senescence. Importantly, oleuropein-treated cultures exhibit a delay in the appearance of senescence morphology [] and their life span is extended by approximately 15%." [1] (76). Proteasomes maintain protein turnover by digesting proteins tagged with ubiquitin.
[1] Magda Katsiki, Niki Chondrogianni, Ioanna Chinou, A. Jennifer Rivett, and Efstathios S. Gonos (2007),
The Olive Constituent Oleuropein Exhibits Proteasome Stimulatory Properties In Vitro and Confers Life Span Extension of Human Embryonic Fibroblasts, Rejuvenation Research June 2007, 10(2): 157-172.
[2] Omar SH (2010),
Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects, Sci Pharm, 2010;78(2):133-54.
[3] Omar SH (2010),
Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive, Saudi Pharm J 2010 Jul;18(3):111-21.
Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension].
Olive Leaf Extract (Olea europaea) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. Olive leaf extract contains oleuropein, which improves proteasome function, delays senescence morphology, and extends the life span of cells about 15% while lowering ROS levels with antioxidant effect. See Julian Everson (2013), Unexpected Benefits of Olive Leaf Extract, Life Extension Magazine June 2013. By stimulating proteasome function, olive leaf extract works to degrade damaged proteins in the skin around the eyes. - after Robert Goldfaden and Gary Goldfaden, MD (2013), Protect and Rejuvenate Delicate Skin Around the Eyes, Life Extension Magazine, August 2013.
Olive leaf extract is also anti-inflammatory (effecive in treating gout, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis), anti-tumor, prevents cancer, promotes arterial health (inhibiting the formation of atherosclerotic plaque), lowers cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, lowers blood sugar, and inhibits cognitive decline. Neuroprotective effects of olive leaf extract are derived from its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Olive Oil [Links/Olive Oil and aging, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; LibCong/Olive Oil; Links/Extra virgin olive oil, Papers; Links/Extra virgin olive oil polyphenols, Papers]. Health benefits: anti-oxidant hydroxytyrosol [Books] squalene [Index, Books], oleic acid [Books], oleuropein [Index, Patents, Links, Books, Papers, Papers/Oleuropein & proteasome], oleocanthol [Links, Papers; LifeExtension/oleocanthal] in olive oil [LifeExtension/olive oil] inhibits COX-1 and COX-2 cyclooxengenases [Wikipedia, Links], (76). Oleuropein from olive oil enhances proteasome activity in both normal and senescent cells, and delays senescence. Olive oil-based salad dressings are probably the best choice for a longevity salad dressing, such as olive oil or olive oil with water combined with vinegar-and-dressing spices. Up to 2 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil are recommended per day for cardiovascular benefits [3]. This produces lower LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios [3] and substantially reduces hypertension [3], [10] by increasing plasma nitric oxide, a vasodilator. HDL cholesterol levels rise as olive oil polyphenol levels rise.
High polyphenol olive oil (extra virgin olive oil) substantially reduces oxidized LDL cholesterol [3], whereas low polyphenol olive oil produces fails to reduce oxidized LDL cholesterol [Patents, Books]. Oxidized LDL can enter arterial walls, damaging the vascular endothelium and promoting inflammation, an early step in atherosclerosis. Extra virgin olive oil not only increases HDL, but also improves the HDL efflux capacity to remove bad cholesterol from macrophages for elimination from the body through bile, lowering overall cholesterol [3], [12], [13].
Olive oil is one of the elements of the Mediterranean diet [Links, Images, Papers, Books] that makes it most effective. Medical studies show that olive oil reduces the risk of stroke substantially [1]. Intensive olive oil users in one study experienced a 41% reduction in stroke incidence. In another study, patients with the highest plasma levels of oleic acid [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] had a 71% reduction in stroke incidence [1]. The monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid has been shown to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good”) cholesterol and decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol.
Squalene, often described as anticancer, is present in olive oil and in shark liver oil. Squalene is the principal hydrocarbon found in your sebum, an oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands in mammalian skin, where it amounts to approximately 12% of the total fat content. Squalene hydrates the skin, penetrating deeply to form a barrier against water loss that defends the face against fine lines and wrinkles. The amount of squalene in the skin decreases rapidly in one's 20s, making skin increasingly vulnerable to UV radiation, sunburn, dehydration, and wrinkles. Jeanne Calment defended her skin with olive oil components squalene, antioxidant hydroxytyrosol defending against ROS, and proteasome-defending oleuropein, which defends aging skin against accumulation of defective proteins.
[1] Dana Dye (2011),
Olive Oil Use linked with Lower Risk of Stroke, Life Extension Magazine, September 2011.
[2] Michael Downey (2014),
Olive Oil: Powerful Protection Against Aging And Mortality, Life Extension Magazine, August 2014.
[3] Marsha McCulloch, RD (2015),
Olive Oil Offers Unique Cardiovascular Protection, Life Extension Magazine, April 2015.
[4] Covas MI (2007),
Olive oil and the cardiovascular system, Pharmacol Res 2007 4. Mar;55(3):175-86.
[5] Bulotta S, Celano M, Lepore SM, Montalcini T, Pujia A, Russo D (2014),
Beneficial effects of the olive oil phenolic components oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: focus on protection against cardiovascular and metabolic disease, J Transl Med 2014 Aug 3;12:219.
[6] Waterman E, Lockwood B (2007),
Active components and clinical applications of olive oil, Altern Med Review 2007 Dec;12(4):331-42.
[7] Killeen MJ, Pontoniere P, Crea R (2011),
Hydroxytyrosol: An examination of its potential role in cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and longevity, AgroFood Industry Hi-Tech 2011 Sept/Oct;22(5):16-9.
[8] Covas MI, Nyyssonen K, Poulsen HE, et al (2006),
The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors, Ann Intern Med 2006 Sept 5;145(5):333-41.
[9] Meisinger C, Baumert J, Khuseyinova N, Loewel H, Koenig W (2005),
Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a strong predictor for acute coronary heart disease events in apparently healthy, middle-aged men from the general population, Circulation 2005 Aug 2;112(5):651-7.
[10] Ferrara LA, Raimondi AS, d’Episcopo L, Guida L, Dello Russo A, Marotta T (2000),
Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensivemedications, Arch Intern Med 2000 March 7;160:837-42.
[11] Omar SH (2010),
Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive, Saudi Pharm J 2010 Jul;18(3):111-21.
[12] Khera AV, Rader DJ (2013),
Cholesterol efflux capacity: Full steam ahead or a bump in the road?,
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2013 Jul;33(7):1449-51.
[13] Hernaez Á, Fernández-Castillejo S, Farràs M, et al (2014),
Olive oil polyphenols enhance high-density lipoprotein function in humans: A randomized controlled trial,
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2014 Sept;34(9):2115-9.
[14] Widmer RJ, Freund MA, Flammer AJ, et al (2013),
Beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich olive oil in patients with early atherosclerosis,
Eur J Nutr 2013 April;52(3):1223-31.
Olovnikov, AM, Alexey Olovnikov, [Links, Images, resembles Obiwan Kenobi, Papers, Patents, Alexey Olovnikov (Images)Books, Amazon]. Olovnikov was the molecular biologist who first proposed telomere shortening in landmark papers in 1971 and 1973. [A theory of marginotomy. The incomplete copying of template margin in enzymic synthesis of polynucleotides and biological significance of the phenomenon, Abstract] as a necessary consequence of the DNA replication mechanisms involving DNA polymerase, which he termed "marginotomy", no doubt to describe a phenomenon involving continuous loss of margin at each subsequent mitosis in the cell cycle. Today Olovnikov's "telogenes" are more likely to be described as arrays of tandem GGTTAG minisatellite repeats, since they are not transcribed, as genes are, but merely replicated and maintained or not. I can remember hearing Olovnikov's name on the radio, somehow, years ago, before I became familiar with telomeres and telomerase. Also see papers on telomere shortening [Links, Papers] by James D. Watson (1972). For historical perspective, see Alexey M. Olovnikov, Telomeres, telomerase, and aging: Origin of the theory, Experimental Gerontology, Volume 31, Issue 4, July-August 1996, Pages 443-448. See also the End Replication Problem.
Omega-3 fatty acids [AmericanHeart/Omega-3 fatty acids, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; EPA, DHA]. See omega-3 links, Linus Pauling Institute on omega-3 fatty acids, essential fatty acids, [25g]. Omega-3 fatty acids help heart disease patients experience slower telomere shrinkage rates [1]. Anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids prevent apoptosis of neuronal cells in vitro. Flax seed oil (alpha lineolic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. Flax seed, cold water fish, and walnuts are sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega 3 fatty acids in fish oil consistently reduce the probability of sudden cardiac death following a heart attack, optimal dosage being about 4000 mg of fish oil per day. "Kyolic, garlic, GliSODin (oral superoxide dismustase complex), fish oil, and cocoa polyphenols have all been shown to improve clinical markers of arterial blood flow." - William Falloon, As We See It, Life Extension Magazine, September 2010. The NF-kB inhibitor effects of omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation associated with cancer, dimenishing cancer growth, proliferation, invasion, tumor blood vessel growth, and metastasis from gene products promoted by the transcription factor NF-kB. This has been observed for omega-3 fatty acids in pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, and skin cancer. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids inhibit inflammation due their effect on the inflammatory enzymes COX-2 and 5-LOX. Omega-3 fatty acids are often proscribed as fish oil for arthritis and other diseases featuring inflammation. Lowering omega-6 fatty acid levels while elevating omega-3 fatty acids can cause telomere lengths to increase, using 1250 mg to 2500 mg of fish oil (a telomerase inhibitor) per day. Olive oil should be used to substitute for omega-6 fatty acids wherever possible. Omega-6 fatty acids from corn oil, safflower oil, and sunflower oil should be reduced in the diets of old people, along with arachidonic acid from egg yolks and meats. I have applied omega-3 fatty acids during the telomerase inhibitor part of a treatment cycle using both telomerase activators and inhibitors, since EPA and DHA are both telomerase inhibitors. However, there is now some indication that this applies for cancer cells only, and that DHA is a telomerase activator via its dopamine level enhancing property, which indirectly elevates HGH [3], [4]. Note that omega-3 fatty acids protect against post-operative atrial fillibration.
[1] Dayna Dye (2010),
Higher Omega-3 Fatty Acid Levels Correlated with Reduced Telomere Shortening Rate,
Life Extension Magazine, April 2010. See also the supporting article
Journal of the American Medical Association., 2010, Jan 20;303(3).
[2] Heinrichs SC (2010),
Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for optimizing neuronal structure and function,
Mol Nutr Food Res 2010 Apr;54(4):447-56.
[3] Michael D. West (2013),
How Engineered Stem Cells May Enable Youthful Immortality,
Life Extension Magazine, February 2013.
[4] Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Epel ES, Belury MA, et al. (2012),
Omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, and leukocyte telomere length: A randomized controlled trial,
Brain Behav Immun 2012 Sept 23.
Oncology [Links/Oncology, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension; anticancer nutraceuticals, cancer]. Oncology is the science of cancer medicine. See also carcinogens and anticancer drugs and nutraceuticals.
Onions [Links/Onions, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension; Images/Onion Lillies, Images/Garlic Lillies]. Garlic and onions are "lillies of the field" with valuable medicinal properties. Onions are primary useful for benfotiamine, the lipid-soluble form of vitamin B1 useful in improving nerve conduction velocity and neutralizing glucose toxicity by opposing glycation. Onions also contain quercetin, which preserves the eyes from cataracts and has telomerase activating effect on dermal fibroblasts. Apples [Apple Polyphenols] are a more popular source of quercetin.
OPB-9195 (2-isopropyli-denehydrazono-4-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylacetanilide) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. OPB-9195 (2-isopropyli-denehydrazono-4-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylacetanilide), a new compound in 1997, carbonyl-trapping agent is a synthetic thiazolium derivative inhibiting cross-linking and improving kidney function, made by Otsuka Pharmaceuticals Ltd. It blocks carbonyl groups, reducing the overall rate of AGE formation and reduces lipoxidation end-products such as malondialdehyde (MDA). First studied in relation to diabetic complications in rats, it reduced AGEs, restored nerve conduction velocity, limited free radical formation and reduced the rate of DNA damage (10).
Optical Emission Mass Spectometry [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong]. Used at GAIA Herbs in their in-house Microbial Research Testing [Links]. See Instrumental Analysis and Pharmaceutical Engineering.
ORAC scale [Books/ORAC scale, Oxygen Radicals Absorbance Capacity, LifeExtension, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, antioxidant herbs on ORAC scale, ORAC scale of antioxidant foods Links/High ORAC foods, Links/High ORAC herbs]. ORAC stands for Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity. The highest ORAC value belongs to hydroxytyrosol in olives and extra virgin olive oil. ORAC values in ORAC units per 100 grams (about 3.5 ounces) of top-ranked antioxidant foods are:
Acai Berries [LEF] 18,400
Pomegranates [LEF] 10,500
Blackberries [LEF] 5,100
Bilberries [LEF] 4,200
Blueberries [LEF] 3,200
Plums [LEF] 2,800
Raspberries [LEF] 2,700
Strawberries [LEF] 2,600
Oranges [LEF] 2,400
Elderberry [LEF] 2,200
Cherries [LEF] 2,100
Black Currant [LEF] 1,160
Red Grapes [LEF] 1,100
Broccoli flowers [LEF] 900
Kiwi fruit [LEF] 900
Beets [LEF] 840
Bell Red Pepper [LEF] 710
Grapefruit, pink [LEF] 483
Onion [LEF] 450
Corn [LEF] 400
Eggplant [LEF] 390
- (Roni Enten (2010), The Secret Behind Acai, Life Extension Magazine, June 2010).
Oral Cancer [Links/oral cancer, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension]. See Enwonwu CO, Meeks VI (1995), Bionutrition and oral cancer in humans, Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 1995; 6(1):5-17.
Oral Phytoceramides (Encyclopedia: Phytoceramides).
Oral Probiotics [Dental; Links/oral probiotic lozenges, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension/Oral Probiotic Lozenges; Links/Oral probiotics, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LEF]. Probiotics [Links/Probiotics, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Oral probiotics may be used to replace bacteria in the mouth responsible for gingivitis and periodontal disease with friendly bacteria such as S. Salivarius, reducing tooth decay and lowering the overall level of inflammatory cytokines in the body, which tends to reduce atherosclerosis and thereby heart attack and stroke. Inflammation from periodontal disease may also contribute to Alzheimer's Disease and other disorders associated with an inflammatory environment for cells.
Organ Regeneration [Links/Organ Regeneration, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Kidney Regeneration, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Liver Regeneration, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Retinol, Retinoic Acid in Regenerative Medicine]. There are telomerase activation techniques for organ regeneration [Papers, Patents, Books], and new stem cell transplant techniques for organ regeneration [Papers, Patents, Books] in which stem cells are injected into the vascular system near an organ and the plastic stem cells reconstruct the organ. Telomerase activators may be selected for their specific influence on tissue. For example, the endothelial progenitor cells of the kidney glomerulus may be stimulated with Ginkgo Biloba, Nitric Oxide from L-Arginine, and Resveratrol to promote telomere growth and wound healing. See also Kidney Disease and Stem Cell Therapy for Kidney Disease. Note that retinoic acid [List] (perhaps from retinol or carrots) has recently been determined to be a key element in tissue regeneration. See retinoic acid in tissue regeneration [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. See Ben Best (2014), The 2013 SENS Foundation Conference, Life Extension Magazine, June 2014. See Malcolm Maden on Tissue Regeneration. Malcolm Maden, PhD, is a professor of biology at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida.
[1] Wieczorowska-Tobis K (2008),
Organ alterations due to aging, Pol Arch Med Wewn 2008;118 Suppl:63-9.
Organelles of the Aging Brain [Links/Organelles of the aging brain, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension], of aging tissue [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Video, Books; LifeExtension/Organelles; Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Phosphatidylserine, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Acetyl L-Carnitine, Neurodegenerative Disorders, Brain deterioration, Amyloid Inhibitors; Microglial Activation, Microglial Senescence, Microglia in the Aging Brain].
Organic Certification See Oregon Tilth, GAIA Herbs.
Organic Synthesis [Wikipedia/Organic chemistry; Links/Techniques of Organic Synthesis, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Links/Synthesis Techniques in Biochemistry, Images, Papers, Books]. See Index/Analytical Chemistry, Index/Bioinformatics, Index/DNA Microarray Analysis, Index/Drug Bioavailability, Index/Drug Design & Discovery, Index/Genomics, Glossary of Chemical Terms, Instrumental Analysis, Index/Pharmaceutical Analysis, Index/Protocols, Index/Phytochemicals, Index/Saponins, List/Telomerase Activators, List/Telomerase Inhibitors.
Organism Design [Links/Organism Design, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Links/Genome Design, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Links/Virus Design, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. An optimal virus for transfection of the hTERT gene to a specific site in the human genome will be probably be designed for gene therapy. See Adenovirus Transfection for approach that works, but which makes the patient sick for a time. The AAV virus family of serotypes, however, does not make man noticibly sick, and makes it possible to map DNA code to a specific site in the genome. However, in this case the DNA that can be mapped is too short to represent hTERT. The optimal solution may be found using new genome design technology and genome insight based on extensive organism DNA sequencing studies. See Craig Venter on Genome Design and Craig Venter on Organism Design. It may be desirable to transfect copies of other genes for longevity applications, too. See Longevity Genes and Virology. Perhaps aging can be conveniently halted or reversed with an injection or a series of a few injections, as if we were administering a vaccination.
Ornithine [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension, LibCong]. Ornithine is found in fish, meat, and eggs, and boosts HGH levels. It is used in HGH secretagogue formulas like L-Arginine + L-Ornithine [Images] as an HGH booster. Ornithine is not the product of a gene coded for in DNA, but is formed by the breakdown of arginine in the citric acid cycle. Ornithine is mainly involved in urea formation, and removes ammonia from the liver, protecting it from cirrhosis of the liver. Ornithine reduces excerise fatique via the excretion of ammonia. It is used to form polyamines. A conventional dose would be 0.5 to 2.0 grams at bedtime.
Ornithine Alpha-ketoglutarate [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong]. Ornithine Alpha-ketoglutarate is anabolic, improves circulating amino acid levels, and is used to promote HGH expression. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) also increases muscle glutamine concentration and maintains a positive nitrogen balance in skeletal muscles. This supplement is described as potent and well-proven. 5-10 grams is usually taken before workouts and before bedtime.
Orthodontic Surgery [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, More Amazon]. See Dental.
Osteoblasts [Wikipedia/Osteoblast, Links/Osteoblasts, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon]. "Osteoblasts...are mononucleate cells that are responsible for bone formation; in essence, osteoblasts are sophisticated fibroblasts that express all genes that fibroblasts express, with the addition of the genes for bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Osteoblasts produce osteoid, which is composed mainly of Type I collagen [Images]. Osteoblasts are also responsible for mineralization of the osteoid matrix. Zinc, copper and sodium are some of the many minerals produced. Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly being reshaped by osteoblasts [Images], which build bone, and osteoclasts [Images], which resorb bone. Osteoblast cells tend to decrease as individuals become elderly, thus decreasing the natural renovation of the bone tissue." - Wikipedia/Osteoblast. Osteoblasts found in the arterial endothelium of patients suffering from arteriosclerosis have been reported. See Papers/Osteoblasts replace endothelial cells. I note that fat cells (Adipocytes, Images) sometimes differentiate into other cellular types.
Osteoporosis [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon, LibCong]. There is osteoporosis and male osteoporosis [102]. Small molecule telomerase activators are promising in regard to treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. (See Frontiers in Biomedicine By Allan L. Goldstein, p15.) Osteoporotic bone demineralization results in bone fragility leading to fractures. Diets rich in phytoestrogens, in particular soy isoflavones, are associated with a lower incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures in the population. Chinese studies in Beijing showed that consumption of soy isoflavones at > 90 mg/day markedly improves bone density in menopausal women. Japanese researchers concluded that the lignan isotaxiresinol increases bone formation in simulated menopause and inhibits bone resorption. (Dale Kiefer, LifeExtension/Lignans, April 2010, p.87.) Vitamin D (which helps bones incorporate phosphorus and calcium), and Vitamin K2 (which helps return calcium in the blood to bone), are useful in preventing osteoporosis. See Julius Goepp, MD, Brittle Bones and Hardened Arteries: The Hidden Link, Life Extension Magazine, September 2010. Also see Laurie Barclay, MD, New Stragegies for Optimizing Bone Strength, Life Extension Magazine, April 2009. Twenty percent of elderly people who suffer a hip fracture die within a year. Weight-bearing exercise [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] and collagen calcium chelate [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] are useful in strengthening bones and preventing fractures. Dried plumb extract (perhaps 100 grams/day) [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] improves bone structure and function, even when bone loss was thought to be irreversible. Collagen calcium chelate, magnesium, silicon, boron, dried plum extract, and vitamin D with Vitamin K2 work together to support bone health. Treatment of osteoporosis with bisphosphenates shows weaknesses that are causing it to become less popular.
Smokers have lower bone mass, lose bone more rapidly, and experience a higher fracture rate.
[1] Lewiecki EM, Watts NB (2009),
New Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis,
Southern Medical Journal, 2009, Jan 9.
[2] Franklin M, Bu SY, Lerner MR, et al. (2006),
Dried plum prevents bone loss in a male osteoporosis model via IGF-1 and the RANK pathway,
Bone 2006 Dec;39(6):1331-42.
[3] Arjmandi BH, Khalil DA, Lucas EA, et al. (2002),
Dried plumbs improve indices of bone formation in postmenopausal women,
Journal of Womens Health Gender Based Medicine 2002 Jan;11(1):61-8.
[4] Gupta HS, Seto J, Wagermaier W, et al. (2006),
Cooperative deformation of mineral and collagen in bone at the nanoscale,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2006 Nov 21;103(47):17741-6.
[5] Ron Perez (1911),
The Little-Known Link Between Bone Health and Total Health,
Life Extension Magazine, August 2011.
[6] Vermeer C, Theuwissen E (2011),
Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing, Menopause Int 2011 Mar;17(1):19-23.
[7] Demer LL, Tintut Y (2009),
Mechanisms linking osteoporosis with cardiovascular calcification,
Curr Osteoporos Rep 2009 Jul;7(2):42-6.
[8] Bassett, J. H., P. J. O’Shea, S. Sriskantharajah, et al. (2007),
Thyroid hormone excess rather than thyrotropin deficiency induces osteoporosis in hyperthyroidism,
Mol Endocrinol May;2 1(5): 1095–107. PMID: 17327419.
[9] Zaidi, M., T. F. Davies, A. Zallone, et al. (2009),
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and bone loss, Curr Osteoporos Rep Jul;7(2):47– 52.
Ovarian Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Patents/treating ovarian cancer, LibCong, LifeExtension, Amazon; Cancer; Carcinogens; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis; Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors].
Apigenin (from celery, for instance) reduces ovarian cancer risk. See cancer, carcinogens, and anticancer drugs and nutraceuticals. Genistein, a soy isoflavone, upregulates ER-beta receptors which seem to oppose carcinogenic factors promoted by ER-alpha receptors in breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer. Isoflavones from fruits and vegetables protect against ovarian cancer. See Gates MA, Vitonis AF, Tworoger SS, et al. (2009), Flavonoid intake and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study, Internal Journal of Cancer 2009 Apr;124(8):1918-25. See also Shukla S, Gupta S. (2010), Apigenin: A promising molecule for cancer prevention, Pharmaceutical Research 2010 June;27(6):962-78. (See Apigenin). Gingerol in ginger can kill ovarian cancer cells by inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) and autophagocytosis (self-digestion). Gingerol inhibits NF-kB activity by blocking the entrance of the transcription factor NF-kB into the nucleus, thereby down-regulating TNF-alpha and other inflammatory cytokines such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, silymarin blocks the proliferation of colon, lung, cervical, prostate, and ovarian cancer cell lines.
[1] Yu HC, Chen LJ, Cheng KC, Li YX, Yeh CH, Cheng JT (2012),
Silymarin inhibits cervical cancer cell through an increase of phosphatase and tensin homolog,
Phytother Res 2012 May;26(5):709-15.
[2] Fan L, Ma Y, Liu Y, Zheng D, Huang G (2014),
Silymarin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells,
Eur J Pharmacol 2014 Nov 15; 743:79-88.
Oxidative Stress [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension, Amazon, Patents/treating oxidative stress], (1). See also the index entries for ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) and Antioxidants. Glycation, for instance sugar carbonylation of proteins, may lead to the production of Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs), inflammation, and to consequently heightened expression of ROS, for which antiglycating drugs and related AGE-inhibitors and AGE-breakers have been discovered. See also Anti-Inflammatory Nutraceuticals. Note that heightened inflammation, especially in senescent cells, tends to lead to the production of TNF-alpha and Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta, which have been implicated in the focal remodeling of cells in tumor formation and cancer. That is, Oxidative Stress can lead to inflammation causing the cell to generate its own carcinogens in the form of inflammatory cytokines. This is partly due to the tendency of oxidative stress to cause DNA damage (10) shortening telomeres to produce cellular senescence before replicative senescence due to repeated cell division can set in. The senescent cells then produce proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta implicated in cancer. GGTTAG sequences are most easily damaged by oxidative stress at the guanine triplet GGG, such that G-rich telomeric sequences make single-strand telomeric DNA more vulnerable to oxidative stress than non-telomeric chromatin. Guanine triplets are highly sensitive to oxidation. (Paula Martinez and Maria A. Blasco, 2011). Thus a high rate of telomeric oxidative damage correlates with a high telomere shortening rate, and antioxidant treatment reduces telomere erosion rates.
Anthocyanins from berries such as acai berries [Index], aronia berries (chokeberries), bilberries [Index], blackberries [Index], blackcurrants, blueberries [Index], cranberries, elderberries, and grapes [Index] "strongly combat oxidative stress, a causative factor in the pathogenesis of many major diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cancer, and allergic disorders." - Michael Downey (2013), Uncovering the Broad-Spectrum Protection of Anthocyanins, Life Extension Magazine, July 2013.

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