Index to Anti-Aging Medicine
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S: Sa - Sl
Safety, Laboratory [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon]
Saccharin [Wikipedia/Saccharin, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Saccharin causes elevated risk of bladder cancer in rats, but not in humans.
Saffron [Links/Saffron, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension;
Saffron carotinoids: crocin (Links/crocin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension),
crocetin (Links/crocetin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension), and
safranal (Links/safranal, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension)].
Saffron is constituted from the red stigmas of Crocus sativus L [Images], and has been prized as a spice and as a mood enhancer. Saffron also improves memory [Papers, Patents, Books], and has anticancer properties [1]. Furthermore, saffron carotenoids provide protection against chemotherapy-induced DNA damage [4], protect heart and blood vessel tissue [5], reduce the impact of diabetes and other metabolic disorders [6], and slow or reverse cognitive disorders and mood disorders associated with aging [7]. Finally, crocetin from saffron is promising in the treatment of pancreatic cancer [8]. There are 3 red stigmas per flower, and up to 4 flowers per Crocus sativus plant. Saffron seems to increase satiety by inhibiting the uptake of serotonin at the synapse like Prozac. However, saffron extract [Images] containing active components safranal [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] and crocin [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] has fewer side effects than Prozac and other antidepressive agents that block serotonin reuptake. Saffron extract is valuable for appetite control, as well as for mood enhancement. See Julius Goepp MD, Curb Compulsive Eating Naturally, Life Extension Magazine, August 2010. Perhaps the slender Buddhists in saffron-colored robes ate saffron to "meditate" with elevated mood, and to control their weight. "O seeker: Rely on nothing until you want nothing." Saffron has been used to treat Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, uncontrolled eating (reactional hyperphagia), and to produce positive, aphrodisiac effects on sexual activity. Saffron contains crocin, which prevents damage to cells that make myelin in the brain, and decreases neuroinflammation and decreases neurological impairment. (In the News, Life Extension Magazine, Nov 2012). See Myelin Sheath.
[1] Jennifer Provos (2015),
Anticancer Properties Of Saffron, Life Extension Magazine, March 2015.
[2] Michael Downey (2012),
Block Food Cravings at Their Molecular Root, Life Extension Magazine, August 2012.
[3] Michael Downey (2013),
A Safer Alternative for Managing Depression, Life Extension Magazine, July 2013.
[4] Premkumar K, Thirunavukkarasu C, Abraham SK, Santhiya ST, Ramesh A. (2006),
Protective effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract against genetic damage induced by anti-tumor agents in mice, Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Feb;25(2):79-84.
[5] Kamalipour M, Akhondzadeh S. (2011),
Cardiovascular effects of saffron: an evidence-based review, J Tehran Heart Cent 2011 Spring;6(2):59-61.
[6] Elgazar AF, Rezq AA, Bukhari HM. (2013),
Anti-hyperglycemic effect of saffrom extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, Eur J Biol Sci 2013; 5(1):14-22.
[7] Moshiri M, Vahabzadeh M, Hosseinzadeh H. (2014),
Clinical applications of saffron (Crocus sativus) and its constituents: a review, Drug Res (Stuttg) 2014 May 21.
[8] Dhar A, Mehta S, Dhar G, et al. (2009),
Crocetin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression in a xenograft mouse model,
Mol Cancer Ther 2009 Feb;8(2):315-23.
[9] Gutheil WG, Reed G, Ray A, Anant S, Dhar A. (2012),
Crocetin: an agent derived from saffron for prevention and therapy for cancer,
Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2012 Jan;13(1):173-9.
Sage [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme].
Sage provides anti-inflammatory, anticancer luteolin, a TNF-α inhibitor used to inhibit inflammation in diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease. Sage (containing carnosic acid) boosts T3. Thyroid hormone (T3) rapidly activates p38 and AMPK in skeletal muscle [Online]. AMPK switches on catabolic pathways that produce ATP for metabolic processes. AMPK/[55]. Increasing AMPK activity inhibits fat storage, reduces cholesterol-triglyceride synthesis, and increases glucose uptake into muscle AMPK/[1], AMPK/[55], improving muscular definition. It also helps senescent cells to vanish by apoptosis AMPK/[1] AMPK/[24] and improves autophagy in senescent cells AMPK/[17], AMPK/[24], AMPK/[25].
Sahelian, Ray [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Ray Sahelian Home Page]. Ray Sahelian is a prolific medicine man who assembles material and writes on a wide variety of interesting medicines that he sells.
Salad Dressings [Links/antiaging salad dressings, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/salad dressing]. Perhaps the best choice for an antiaging salad dressing is extra virgin olive oil [LEF, Links, Video/olive oil] (which contains antioxidant hydroxytyrosol, oleuropien for improved proteasome [LEF] function, and anti-inflammatory oleocanthol) with salad spices from vinegar-and-oil-dressings. Some constituents of olive oil, such as olive oil flavonoids, squalene and olive oil polyphenols, may help to protect against cancer [76]. Flaxseed oil dressing [LEF, Links] is also recommended. Hold the vinegar and water. I note balsamic vinegar is often used in low calorie dressings. It is good to avoid most salad oils [Index/Oils] and omega-6 oils. Note that "diets high in omega-6 fats [LEF] and saturated fats [LEF] are associated with greater prostate cancer risk, whereas increased intake of omega-3 fats from fish has been shown to reduce risk." - William Falloon (2007), Eating Your Way to Prostate Cancer, Life Extension Magazine, February 2007. [76].
Sanger, Fred [Wikipedia/Fred Sanger, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. Fred Sanger devised sequencing techniques for proteins [Images, Papers, Patents, Books], RNA [Images, Papers, Patents, Books], and DNA [Index, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
SAMe [Smart-Drugs/SAMe, S-Adenosylmethionine, Links/SAMe, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon; Index/hTERT methylation, Index/Telomeric Chromatin]. SAMe is used for chondrocyte protection in cartilage, heart protection, liver protection and brain protection, [25s]. SAMe protects against DNA demethylation. DNA is partially methylated in the development process to deactivate genes used in early developmental stages. Certain bacteria methylate their own DNA in order to recognize and attack unmethylated foreign DNA. Also, SAMe supports neurotransmitter production. SAMe itself declines in abundance with advancing age [Images, Papers, Books]. "Folate (folic acid, vitamin B9) plays an essential role in one-carbon transfer involving remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, thereby insuring the provision of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the primary methyl group donor for most biological methylation reactions." - (Young-In Kim, 2005). All methyltransferases use exclusively SAMe for methylation of their target substrates. All known DNA methyltranferases use SAMe as the methyl donor. The methyl donor SAMe upregulates proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes. When it targets synovial cells, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1 releases prostaglandin E2, proteases, collagenases, and glycosidases and decreases SAMe levels. Taking SAMe reverses this situation.
Saponins [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon; Links/Chemical Synthesis of Saponins, Links/Extraction of Saponins, Links/Molecular Spectra of the Saponins, Links/Separation of the Saponins, Links/Quantitative Chemical Analysis of the Saponins]. The saponins include telomerase activators [81s, List] specified by Geron in 2005, such as
(1) astragalosides [Index, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] from astragalus including
(2) astragaloside IV [Index, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
(3) astragenol [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books], and
(4) cycloastragenol [Index, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, article] and from ginseng,
(5) ginsenoside RH1 [Index, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books], then
(6) astraverrucins I [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books], from Astragalus Verrucosis, and
(7) astraverrucins II [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] from Astragalus Verrucosis, which are all
(*) triterpenoid saponins [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
See Geron's European patent on compositions for increasing telomerase activity, or the A' alternate-source version Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity, or A''. The ginsenosides [Wikipedia] are also triterpene saponins, but found in ginseng. Ginsenoside RH1 [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] has been shown by Geron [Compositions..., p.29] to have telomerase-activating properties. However, it has been described as more weakly activating than astragaloside IV in certain experiments [81s/6b]. The astraverrucins [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] are saponins, and astraverrucins I and II [Links, Papers, Patents, Books], which can be obtained from Astragalus Verrucosis, are telomerase activators. See the Chromadex kit of astragalus saponins. Astragalus increases NK cell telomere length most effectively, and NK cells consume pro-inflammatory senescent cells.
Sarcopenia [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
Anti-Aging_Firewalls/Sarcopenia]. Sarcopenia is the old-age wasting away of muscle tissue. It may be retarded with exercise (9), whey protein, and creatine monohydrate (Will Brink, 2013). Muscle regeneration and mitochondrial biogenesis are possible for recovery from sarcopenia. See index entries for Exercise (9), Anabolics, Bodybuilding, Whey protein, and Creatine Monohydrate, which are all myostatin inhibitors. Also see Taurine and Pierno S, De Luca A, Camerino C, Huxtable RJ, Camerino DC (1998), Chronic administration of taurine to aged rats improves the electrical and contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibers [PDF], Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1998 Sep,286(3):1183-90. Note that taurine is abundant in fish.
Also see Fabio Demontis, Rosanna Piccirillo, Alfred L. Goldberg and Norbert Perrimon (2013), The influence of skeletal muscle on systemic aging and lifespan, Aging Cell (2013) 12, pp943949.
Satellite DNA [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon]. Satellite DNA was not thought to be transcribed as genes are, and includes sequences of minisatellite tandem repeats such as the vertebrate 5'-GGTTAG-3' tandem repeats in telomeres [Links/vertebrate telomeres, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Microsatellite DNA [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] includes sequences of shorter tandem repeats 1-4 base pairs long such as 5'-CA-3'. Recently, TERRA telomeric RNA [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] was discovered that is transcribed from telomeric DNA in senescent cells with open telomere t-loops. DNA transcription improves DNA repair, so TERRA telomeric RNA transcription is probably associated with improvements in telomeric DNA repair in senescent cells, making it easier for them to recover from senescence if hTERT is suitably activated. I note that hTERT activation is associated with improvements in DNA repair generally.
Saw Palmetto [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Saw Palmetto is used with beta-sitosterol to correct BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) and male pattern baldness. In fact, saw palmetto contains beta sitosterol. "The herb works by multiple mechanisms, including inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase, interfering with dihydrotestosterone binding to the androgen receptor [74s], by relaxing smooth muscle tissue similarly to alpha antagonist drugs, and possibly by acting as a phytoestrogen."
SBIR Grant from SBA [Links].
Scar Management Cream [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Schisandra Chinensis (Schizandra) [Stem Cell Technology/(6) Schizandra, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Schisandra chinensis is used to elevate glutathione in the liver, sometimes in combination with a supplement based on the cantaloupe melon Cucumus melo [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] to boost SOD activity levels. The SOD then converts primary free oxygen radicals to hydrogen peroxide, which is converted by glutathione into water. This optimizes mitochondrial defense in the liver against non-alcholic fatty liver disease [Index, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See Kirk Stokel (2012), Novel method to combat oxidative liver damage, Life Extension Magazine, January 2012. Also note that Schisandra Chinensis boosts levels of cyclic AMP in the liver, which opposes cellular senescence by downregulating caveolin-1 (gene CAV1). (Refs 9, Therapy). See Yamamoto M., Okumura S., Oka N., Schwencke C., Ishikawa Y. (1999), Downregulation of caveolin expression by cAMP signal [Papers/Downregulation of caveolin, Patents, Books], Life Sciences, 1999;64:13491357.
Schwarzenegger, Arnold (video, bodybuilding) [22].
Scientific American articles on aging [2].
Seeds [GreenWeb, Links/Seeds, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon/Seeds; Links/Astragalus Seeds, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Papers, Books, Links/Astragalus Membranaceus Seeds].
Selegiline (See Deprenyl.) [92].
Selenium [Ben Best/Selenium, Wikipedia/Selenium, Links/selenium, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/selenium, LifeExtension/Selenium; LifeExtension/Selenium supplementation; Links/the biological role of selenium, Links/selenoproteins; Links/selenium and aging, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension LibCong, 2006 article]. According to (Susan Machado, 2012) selenium is antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, improves mitochondrial function, helps overcome insulin resistance, and supports membrane integrity. Antioxidant selenium in the diet is anticancer and can increase glutathione peroxidase levels. Selenium is most abundantly available from brazil nuts, but also found in breads, meats and seafoods. The US RDA is 55-70 micrograms, and today the expert-recommended daily allowance is just 120 micrograms. Note that astragalus membranaceus features selenum poisoning as a failure mode if 33 grams/day of astragalus root is exceeded. See Links/Selenium Side Effects and Links/Selenium Poisoning.
[1] Brozmanova J, Manikova D, Vlckova V, Chovanec M (2010),
Selenium: a double-edged sword for defense and offence in cancer,
Archives of Toxicology, 2010 Dec; 84(12):919-38.
[2] Clarke C, Baghdadi H, Howie AF, Mason JI, Walker SW, Becket GJ (2010),
Selenium supplementation attenuates procollagen-1 and interleukin-8 production in fat-loaded human C3A hepatoblastoma cells treated with TGFbeta1, Biochem Biophys Acta 2010 June; 1800(6):611-8.
[3] Micke O, Schomburg L, Buentzel J, Kisters K, Muecke R (2009),
Selenium in oncology: from chemistry to clinics, Molecules 2009 14(9):3975-88.
[4] Lizuka Y, Ueda Y, Yagi Y, Sakurai E (2010),
Significant improvement of insulin resistance of GK rats by treatment with sodium selenate,
Biological Trace Element Research 2010 Dec; 138(1-3):265-71.
[5] Li YB, Han JY, Jiang W, Wang J (2011),
Selenium inhibits high glucose-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and P-selectin expression in vascular endothelial cells, Molecular Biology Reports 2011 Apr 38(4):230-1-6.
[6] Taskin E, Dursun N (2012),
The protection of selenium on adriamycin-induced mitochondrial damage in rat,
Biological Trace Element Research 2012 Jan 12.
Senescence (M1) and Cancer (past M2 Crisis), [Index/Replicative Senescence, Index/Cellular Senescence,, Ben Best/Senescence; p53; p16; pRB; Links/Senescence, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong, Amazon, Books/Cellular Senescence, Amazon/cellular senescence; Therapy for Recovery from Senescence, Restore or Replace Senescent Cells?, Modifying Senescent Cell Membrane Chemistry for Rejuvenation], [53]. See also Reversing Cellular Senescence [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. Colostrum [List] contains FGF-2 and VEGF, which upregulate survivin, which can reverse replicative senescence. TA/Small molecule telomerase activators [Index, List] (7), carnosine, relatively dangerous statin drugs requiring supplemental CoQ10, and certain telomeric loop control proteins [Index] such as TRF2 [Index] can change the senescent phenotype of cells back to the youthful phenotype, and with small molecule telomerase activators such as astragalus extracts, TA-65, cycloastragenol, or astragaloside IV [RevGenetics, Terraternal, Links] can do this in a relatively unlimited way by activating telomerase production to lengthen telomeres until telomere t-loops close, removing the open t-loop double strand break DNA damage signal that causes p53 [Links] or p16/Rb [Links/p16 gene, Links/Retinoblastoma protein Rb; Index/pRB pathway] to halt the cell cycle [Links] and transition to the M1 senescent state. This happens when perhaps 4,000 base pairs of telomere length remains, and the cell cycle halted, the senescent state is described as the M1 state. It is often described as irreversible, especially when P16INK4A levels are high, although we now have the means to reverse senescence and also the means to reduce P16INK4A concentrations. Interfering with the cell cycle control tumor suppressor protein p53 [Links, Index] and/or p16/Rb [Links/p16 gene, Links/Rb, pRB pathway] can cause cell cycles to continue beyond M1, using up more telomere length until telomere fusion and other cancer-related events can take place leading to tumors as the M2 crisis state is reached. [See Links/Cancer-related cell cycles, Links/cancer cell cycles]. (Also, introduction of viral oncoproteins, such as simian virus 40 (SV40), large T antigen (LT) or human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7, into human cells before M1 allows continued proliferation with further shortening of telomeres, leading to M2 crisis [Hahn and Weinberg, 2002].) At this point, some cells with fused telomeres may recover their ability to generate hTERT and telomerase, resulting in cellular proliferation and tumor growth, which is in particular characteristic of epithelial cell carcinomas such as breast cancer. Telomerase is reactivated in ~90% of human cancers (Artandi, 2006). "Increasing the amount of p53, which may initially seem a good way to treat tumors or prevent them from spreading (metastasis), is in actuality not a usable method of treatment, since p53 can cause premature aging." - Wiki/P53. See also LifeExtension/Carnosine and Cellular Senescence. Note that lipofuscin accumulation [Index] and DNA damage from free radicals and other sources including telomere damage from homocysteine can also eventually lead to cellular senescence, so that one also specifies lipofuscin removers such as CoQ10, ubiquinol, alpha lipoic acid, DMAE, or centrophenoxine along with powerful antioxidants like Vitamin C, and a homocysteine shield including folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and perhaps trimethylglycine (TMG) to protect against cellular senescence and maintain long telomeres. Other methods of preventing cellular senescence which are considered include gene therapy [Index] to install additional copies of hTERT or possibly c-Myc hTERT activator, plasmid installation of c-Myc, and other advanced measures, keeping telomeres long enough to keep the t-loops closed and avoid the M1 state. Note that c-Myc shutdown is required for senescence [David Levens, 2008]. Senescent cells [Books, Images, Books2] exhibit an enlarged cell size, increased lysosome biogenesis, lower rates of protein synthesis and degradation, frequent lobulated nuclear morphology [Images], elevated expression of β-galactosidease [Index] and elevated expression of p16INK4A. Senescent cells growth arrest with G1 cell cycle DNA content, prior to S phase DNA replication. Oxidative damage due to hydrogen peroxide can also lead to senescence, so that it is a good idea to maintain high levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase with endogenous antioxidant enhancers [Index] like ashwagandha, bacopa, shilajit, huperzine A, and alpha lipoic acid. See also Thomas Kuilman, Chrysiis Michaloglou, Wolter J. Mooi and Daniel S. Peeper (2010), The essence of senescence, Genes and Development, 2010, 24: 2463-2479.
The Stability of the Senescent State [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
See Mar Vergel, Juan J. Marin, Purificacion Estevez, and Amancio Carnero (2011), Cellular Senescence as a Target in Cancer Control, Journal of Aging Research, Volume 2011 (2011). "Senescent cells display molecular markers characteristic of cells bearing double-strand breaks. These markers include nuclear foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX and the localization at double-strand break sites of DNA-repair and DNA-damage checkpoint factors, such as 53BP1, MDC1, and NBS1. Senescent cells also contain activated forms of the DNA-damage checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2. These and other results suggest that telomere shortening initiates senescence through a DNA-damage response.... The initiation of senescence triggers the generation and accumulation of distinct heterochromatic structures known as senescence associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF) [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. The formation of SAHF (Senescence Associated Heterochromatic Foci) coincides with the recruitment of heterochromatic proteins and the pRB tumor suppressor to E2F-responsive promoters. SAHF accumulation is associated with stable repression of E2F target genes and does not occur in reversibly arrested cells. SAHF formation and promoter repression depend on the integrity of the pRb pathway. These results provide an explanation for the stability of the senescent state." Also see Benn, P. A. (1976), Specific chromosome aberrations in senescent fibroblast cell lines derived from human embryos, Am J Hum Genet 28(5): 465-473; Meza-Zepeda, L. A., A. Noer, et al. (2008), High-resolution analysis of genetic stability of human adipose tissue stem cells cultured to senescence, J Cell Mol Med 12(2): 553-263; and Boukamp, P., S. Popp, et al. (2005). Telomere-dependent chromosomal instability, J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 10(2): 89-94.
Caveolin-1 controls the Senescent Phenotype and Properties
The primary cell membrane gatekeeper protein for flask-shaped caveolae in the cell membrane that manage cell signaling via endocytosis is caveolin-1, which causes cellular senescence when it is overexpressed. Then caveolae in the cell membrane vanish and become internalized. Reducing the expression level of caveolin-1 restores the youthful phenotype of the cell, lenthens its telomeres a good amount, and recovers the sensitivity of the membrane to growth factors such as EGF and PDGF, eliminating growth arrest. That is, reducing the caveolin-1 expression level can rejuvenate the cell. See Therapy for Recovering from Cellular Senescence and Refs 9.
Senescence Pathway [Index/Replicative Senescence, Index/Senescence, Index/Cellular Senescence; Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Therapy for Recovering from Senescence, Modifying Senescent Cell Membrane Chemistry for Rejuvenation]. Normally, the DNA damage signal from eroded telomeres is transduced by the tumor suppressor p53 [Index], leading to the activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 and exit from the cell cycle. Stress-induced senescence (associated with say, ectopic expression of ras, or from telomere erosion, or from oncogene-induced senescence) can result from activation of p38, which leads to stabilization of p53 and p21WAF1 and subsequent cell cycle arrest. The p38 selective inhibitor SB203580 prevents ras-induced senescence in human BJ fibroblasts. New experimental p38 inhibitors include BIRB796, VX702, VX745, RI487, SCIO-469 and the new orally bioavailable RO3201195. P38 activation is associated with inflammation, is implicated in atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, and osteoporosis, and is thought to lead to subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha when p38 activation is chronic. p38 inhibitors may form a basis for antiaging therapies, especially with regard to Werner Syndrome. Davis and Kipling note that "...Senescent cells express elevated levels of ICAM-1 [Wikipedia, Books] on their plasma membrane, a feature that is associated with inflammatory conditions, being heavily expressed in:
Atheroscelerosis [Index, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Osteoporosis [Index, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Parkinson's Disease [Index, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Rheumatoid arthritis [Index, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon], and
Ulcerative colitis [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon].
Senesecent cells [Images] also excrete inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-15, and transforming growth factor beta. In addition, aged fibroblasts [Images] have upregulated levels of IL-1α and IL-1β....senesecent cells in human tissues may help to create a markedly proinflammatory environment."
- T. Davis and D. Kipling, from "Werner Syndrome, Telomeres, and Stress Signaling" in Telomeres and Telomerase in Ageing, Disease, and Cancer, edited by K. Lenhard Rudolph, p291. "Senescence requires activation of the Rb (retinoblastoma) protein and/or p53 tumor suppressor protein and expression of their regulators such as p16INK4a [Wikipedia, Links] and p15ARF.... Three tumor suppressor genes [Wikipedia, Links] are encoded in a common 40 kb stretch of human chromosome 9b21: 2 highly related CDK inhibitor proteins (p16INK4a and p15INK4b) and ARF, a regulator of p53 stability. Expression of p16INK4a and p15INK4b inhibits CDK4/6 activity [Links], leading to hyperphosphorylation of Rb-family proteins (Rb, p107, p130) and growth arrest [Links]. Expression of ARF inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of MDM2, thereby stabilizing p53. DNA damage inhibits p53 degradation by MDM2 in an ARF-dependent manner and can promote senescence independent of INK4a/ARF activation. DNA damage also likely activates p16INK4a." - N.E.Sharpless, "A Telomere-Independent Process", from Telomeres and Telomerase in Ageing, Disease, and Cancer, p188.
Senescent Arrest [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. It is not the length of telomeres that triggers senescent arrest halting the cell cycle, but telomere uncapping or dysfunctional telomeres. Human epithelial cells [Images] encounter senescence-like growth arrest that is telomere-independent but p16-dependent that is sometimes triggered by suboptimal growth conditions. Overexpression of oncogenes RAS or RAF may induce senescence-like arrest in human or mouse cells. Some histone deacetylase inhibitors expanding chromatin (negating gene silencing) may induce a senescent phenotype. On the other hand, HDAC inhibitors like Tricostatin A expand chromatin and activate hTERT to finally defeat senescence effects. Finally, DNA-damaging stress from radiation, drugs, or from ROS may induce the senescent phenotype by generating double-strand DNA breaks. Telomere dysfunction may introduce growth arrest via ATM/ATR activation and finally through p53 and p16. P53 phosphorylation patterns are similar between senescent and oxidatively stressed cells, but different between senescent and UV- or IR- radiation-stressed cells. Senescent arrest is associated with the phosphorylation of p53 serine 15, which is targeted by ATM/ATR. (Paraphrased from Thomas von Zglinicki, Telomeric Damage in Aging, from Aging at the Molecular Level, Kluwer, 2003, pp. 122-123.) Senescent and stressed cells show similar phenotype and biomarkers of senescence such as higher levels of beta-galactosidase, p16INK4A and elevated caveolin-1 levels (gene CAV1). See also Senescence Pathway, Biomarkers of Aging, Biomarkers of Longevity.
Senile Purpura [Index/Purpura, 81bs, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Index/Skin Lesions, Index/Veil Cells]. Senile purpura are characteristic lesions of old age due to collagen loss in veinous walls. Possible treatments [Links] include vitamin C and Bilberry, and vitamin C with bioflavonoids. See Index/Purpura. Astragaloside IV skin cream (Terraternal) or cycloastragenol skin cream should also help, because the collagen loss is characteristic of replicative senesence. Astragalus Extract disolved in glycerin might be effective as long-term treatment. See Age Transformation for the associated de-aging rates amounting to -5.2 years per year up to -9 years per year. Vitamin K1 and vitamin K1 skin cream help stop subcutaneous bleeding associated with senile purpura, bruises, dark circles, and healing following plastic surgery. In addition, it may be useful to use epidermal growth factor skin creams (with acidic fibroblast growth factor aFGF) to thicken skin and lengthen epidermal telomeres for cellular rejuvenation of the skin, as well as astragalus extract, astragaloside IV skin cream (Terraternal), or cycloastragenol skin cream to rejuvenate dermal fibroblasts that maintain the extracellular matrix.
SENS (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence) [SENS Home, Wikipedia, Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Immortality Institute]. See also Aubrey de Grey [Index, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension].
Separations, Phytochemical & Chemical [Links/Phytochemical separations, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Links/chemical separations, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon].
Sepsis [Links/Sepsis, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Garlic is one of the antibiotics that may be used to cure sepsis, the infection(s) that set in after a surgical operation.
Serum, Young [Links/Young Serum, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Aging Blood Serum, Books/Aging Blood Serum, activates muscle satellite stem cells, reviving old muscle, Links/activating muscle satellite cells with young serum, Links/Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment].
Sesame Lignans [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LIfeExtension; Wikipedia/Lignan, Wikipedia/Sesame, Links/Sesame Lignans in Sesame Oil (Sesamin and Sesamol), Links/sesame seed oil]. Sesame lignans increase mitochondrial activity and fat-burning, enhance vitamin E activity, [26s]. Sesame Lignans protect against lipid peroxidation, and the effects of sesame lignans are augmented by fish oil and/or olive oil, which contains the powerful antioxidant hydroxytyrosol.
Sesame Oil [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Sesame seed oil contains the sesame lignans sesamol and sesamin. It is claimed that rubbing sesame oil into hair blackens hair, and it is also believed by some to prevent further hair loss [74s]. See Rosy Vohra, Sesame Oil and Its Effects to Reduce Age Related Senility. Toasted Sesame Seed Oil [Images] is golden to dark brown in color, and I am trying to determine if the dark brown color is due to the presence of Advanced Glycation End products we prefer to avoid. Clear cold-pressed sesame oil [Images] is also available. "Commercial (sesame) oils are extracted with strong petroleum based solvents and heated to 450 degrees F. Such heat changes the excellent monounsaturated (oleic acid) fats to trans fats which are poisonous to the body." - Youthing Strategy
Sesame Seeds [Wikipedia, Links/Sesame seeds, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, World's Healthiest Foods]. Sesame "seeds, which have shown great potential in reducing blood lipid levels and blood pressure, fighting inflammation and cancer, boosting the body's antioxidant capacity, and enhancing vitamin E bioavailability..." are highly recommended. - Brian Zehetner, Sesame Seeds, LE Magazine, January 2008.
Sex and Aging [Ben Best/Sex and Aging, from Mechanisms of Aging, by Ben Best. See also Sex Hormone Replacement in Older Adults by Ben Best, LibCong/sex and aging. [Erotic Hots Study Guide].
Shark Liver Oil [Wikipedia, Images/shark liver oil supplements; Links/shark liver oil, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/Shark liver oil for lymph node swelling] [108]. Shark liver oil is a folk remedy for lymph node swelling and other disorders, containing alkylglycerols [Links] and squalene [Links]. Cold water shark liver oil contains the highest level of alkylglycerols found in nature, although alkylglycerols are found naturally in bone marrow, liver, spleen, and human breast milk. Shark liver oil is the most concentrated source of the 16 known alkylglycerols, a class of immunostimulants which boost macrophage and natural killer cell activity and which are involved in the production of white blood cells. Shark liver oil immune system stimulation increases antibodies, leukocytes and thrombocytes. Perhaps macrophage activity induced by shark liver oil consumes B-lymphocytes in lymph node folicular pockets to reduce the swelling of lymph nodes, which would make it useful against stage 1A lymphoma (as in early Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma from hair dye). Shark liver oil can be taken at 500-600 mg per day entirely without ill effect, but a 1500 mg serving of Shark Liver Oil can producing vomiting. Note that shark liver oil is a component of Preparation H.
Shay, Jerry W. [Shay-Wright Lab, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; CV].
Dr. Jerry W. Shay (Images).Jerry W. Shay ( has worked very extensively with Woodring E. Wright and other scientists on telomeres, telomerase, telomere loops, replicative senescence, telomere therapies, and cancer. See Hayflick, His Limit, and Cellular Aging by Shay and Wright, which contains a time table for cell division limit discovery and development. Dr. Jerry Shay participated in many historic papers and wrote quite a few impacting solo articles and article with Dr. Woodring E. Wright. See Andrea G. Bodnar, Michel Ouellette, Maria Frolkis, Shawn E. Holt, Choy-Pik Chiu, Gregg B. Morin, Calvin B. Harley, Jerry W. Shay, Serge Lichtsteiner, Woodring E. Wright (1998), Extension of Life-Span by Introduction of Telomerase into Normal Human Cells, Science 16 January 1998: Vol. 279 no. 5349 pp. 349-352. Also see Yu Sheng Cong, Woodring E. Wright and Jerry W. Shay (2002), Human Telomerase and its Regulation, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 2002, 66(3):407. Another very impacting article: Joseph A. Baur, Ying Zou, Jerry W. Shay, Woodring E. Wright (2001), Telomere Position Effect in Human Cells, Science 15 June 2001: Vol. 292 no. 5524 pp. 2075-2077.
She Male Life Extension and Transsexual Medicine [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Links/Transsexual Medical Problems, Amazon/Transsexual Medicine, LifeExtension]. On the average, she males are mildly life extended ladies that will be better protected in the future against associated special medical problems. See lifexnotes6.html for notes on this theme.
Shilajit [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension]. Shilajit is an organic compound shown to double levels of CoQ10 in the mitochondria. The active components of shilajit relevant to mitochondrial defense are fulvic acid and dibenzo-a-pyrones (DBPs). Shilajit also produces higher levels of endogenous antioxidants such as SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in brain tissue, like Ashwagandha and Huperzine A do, and reduces levels of acetylcholinesterase destroying acetylcholine. (Julius Goepp MD, Reverse Mitochondrial Damage, Life Extension Magazine, Feb 2010).
Signs and Symptoms of Aging [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/symptoms of aging].
Signs and Symptoms of Disease [LibCong/symptoms of disease, Wikipedia/Medicine (Books/Medicine), WebMD Symptom Checker, Merck Medical Manuals Online, Wikipedia/Medical Sign, Wikipedia/List of Medical Symptoms, Links/medical symptoms, Images, Video, Papers, Books; Links/medical diagnosis, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Wikipedia/List of acronyms on diseases and disorders; Wikipedia/Pathology, Links/Pathology, Images, Video, Papers, Books].
Silymarin and Silibinin [Telomerase Activators/(102) Silymarin, Product B Telomerase Activators/(146) Milk Thistle Extract, TI/List/Silibinin, Wikipedia/Milk Thistle, Wikipedia/Silibinin, Links/Silymarin, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Ray/Silymarin (Milk thistle); Index/Milk Thistle; Silymarin supplements, Silibinin supplements, Milk thistle extract supplements], [36s] (q). Silymarin is antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective (liver protective, used in cirrhosis of the liver and in hepatitis). "Silymarin increases glutathione in the liver, stomach and intestines by over 50%." [Links/silymarin and glutathione]. Silymarin may be described as a flavonoid. Note that the silymarin complex extracted from milk thistle includes the flavolignans silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B. The silymarin complex prevents kidney injury from mycotoxins in mushroom poisoning, and is effective against nephrotoxic drugs such as cisplatin and Adriamycin (potent chemotherapy drugs, although harmful to the kidneys). In addition, silymarin helps prevent kidney injuries due to high glucose levels and oxidative stress, and it prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury due to the restoration of blood supply following blood flow restriction. Note that silibinin, the primary constituent of silymarin in milk thistle, is a telomerase inhibitor for cancer cells that works well as an anticancer agent against human prostate adenocarcinoma cells, breast cancer carcinoma cells, ectocervical cancer cells, colon cancer cells, and both small and large lung carcinoma cells.
"By altering liver cell membranes, silymarin inhibits toxin intake and stimulates cell regeneration. Silymarin's potent antioxidant activity helps to quell inflammation and replenishes glutathione. Glutathione is the chief antioxidant inside most living cells and is the main line of defense against free radical damage. It is found in high concentrations in the liver." - Philip Domenico and Carey Monserrate (2011), Protect your Body against Today's Toxic Deluge, Life Extension Magazine, September 2011.
Silymarin reduces mortality from alcholic liver damage. In addition, milk thistle's silymarin protects against nerve damage and abnormal brain aging, reducing amyloid-beta deposition in the brain. Silibinin from milk thistle is effective against many malignancies, including those of the liver, colon, skin, and prostate, and inhibits cancer metastasis. Silibinin from Milk thistle extract chelates iron in the liver. See Metal Ions.
Silymarin as a Telomerase Activator
Note that Product B's (146) Milk Thistle Extract (Silymarin) seems to have been identified as a telomerase activator for human fibroblasts at Sierra Sciences in their tests to find telomerase inducers, as described in Product B PatentScope.pdf. According to the patent Product B PatentScope.pdf, Milk Thistle Extract activates transcription of hTERT in human fibroblasts, and may be taken at 10 mg to 5 grams twice daily to lengthen telomeres.
Silymarin can induce true reversal of diabetic neuropathy, painful nerve damage caused by chronic blood sugar elevations [1].
[1] Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M, Khastehkhodaie Z (2010),
Chronic treatment of silymarin improves hyperalgesia and motor nerve conduction velocity in diabetic neuropathic rat, Phytother Res 2010 Aug;24(8):1120-5.
Simmondsin [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Simmondsin (a jojoba extract) works by stimulating the stomach hormone cholecystokinin to increase satiety. Simmondsin is taken 100-500 mg/dose prior to meals. - (after Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 2010).
Simvastatin (Zocor) [Links/Simvastatin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Zocor, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Simvastatin (Zocor) is a statin drug used primarily for the control of cholesterol LDL/HDL ratio that also activates the telomere loop control protein TRF2, which it makes it theoretically capable of closing open telomere t-loops to eliminate the senescent state of the cell by removing the DNA damage signal associated with the open loop. However, TRF2 overexpression not work well, and should not be attempted. (Cong, Wright, and Shay, 2002). Atorvastatin is another statin drug was expected to be useful in producing temporary synthetic youth (for perhaps > 200 years) by this technique. Telomerase activators [List] which actually extend and repair the telomere provide a relatively open-ended solution to cellular rejuvenation featuring possibly infinite lifetimes. It is possible that treatment schemes employing cyclic application of statin drugs followed by application of telomerase activators in each cycle will be useful in obtaining rejuvenation results swiftly. Perhaps we should picture treatment with telomerase activators in the 1st 15-day part of a monthly cycle, followed by 15 days of telomerase inhibitors plus Zocor (Simvastatin) for the 2nd part of each monthly cycle. This might possibly get faster rejuvenation results. In vitro tests of this idea plus relevant tests on human subjects featuring careful annual telomere length assays should be worthwhile. Note that simvastatin upregulates Bcl-2 (75), a telomerase activator.
Note that statin drugs decrease CoQ10 levels, so that CoQ10 or ubiquinol CoQ10 must be taken concurrently with statin drugs, or statin drug side-effects will become painfully evident, including muscle weakness and memory loss.
TRF2 Overexpression
"Overexpression of TRF2 causes telomere shortening in both telomerase-positive and -negative cells. Recent studies also showed that TRF2 also activates telomere degradation." (Cong, Wright, and Shay, 2002). This is discouraging for TRF2-based telomere loop closure therapy programs to lengthen life spans by using Zocor or other TRF2-enhancing drugs.
SIRT1 [Ben Best/Sirtuins and Deacetylases in Aging; Links/SIRT1, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension/SIRT1; Links/sirtuins, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/sirtuins, LifeExtension; Links/gene silencing, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/gene silencing, Index] [27s], (1). NAD+ (NADH, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) enhances SIRT1 activity. (However, niacinamide (nicotinamide), which is converted to NAD+ by a salvage pathway, inhibits SIRT1 activity.) It is also true that resveratrol alone increases NAD+ levels. Also, supplemental NAD+ seems to enhance resveratrol SIRT1 activation. Both resveratrol and NAD+ reduce neural degeneration and extend neuron lifespan. Increased nuclear NAD biosynthesis and SIRT1 activation prevent axonal degeneration. It is suspected that adequate intracellular NAD+ levels are essential for neuronal survival. There is a 1:1 stoichiometry between intracellular NAD+ content and sirtuin-mediated deacetylation, which condenses chromatin. This fact bears on determining optimal dosages of NAD+. Ray Sahelian promotes 2.5 mg of NADH every other day, or perhaps as much as 5 mg every other day. At higher levels, stomach upset is sometimes observed.
"...SIRT1 reduces the expression of p16INK4A and promotes phosphorylation of Rb... It was also observed that the expression of SIRT1 and phosphorylation of ERK and S6K1 was declined in senescent 2BS. Findings suggested that SIRT1-promoted cell proliferation and antagonized cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts may be, in part, via the activation of ERK/S6K1 signaling." See Jing Huang, Qini Gan, Limin Han, Jian Li1, Hai Zhang1, Ying Sun1, Zongyu Zhang1, Tanjun Tong1 (2008), SIRT1 Overexpression Antagonizes Cellular Senescence with Activated ERK/S6k1 Signaling in Human Diploid Fibroblasts, Plos One, 3(3), e1710.
"Tanjun Tong [Images] and co-workers at the Peking University Research Center on Aging and the Peking University Health Science Center, both in Beijing, have found that an overexpression of SIRT1 increases cell growth and delays cell aging in fibroblasts taken from human embryonic lung tissues. The researchers analysed aging activities in fibroblasts grafted with SIRT1, H363YSIRT1 (a malfunctioned form of SIRT1) and control cells. They found that aging-related biomarkers, including increased activity of beta-galactosidase, heterochromatin foci formation, and G1 phase arrest, were reduced in SIRT1-overexpressed cells. The researchers also observed that growth-related ERK and S6K1 signaling pathways were increased in SIRT1-overexpressed cells, but not in cells that had already undergone aging. These findings show that SIRT1 delays cell aging and might extend the cellular lifespan through the activation of ERK and S6K1 phosphorylation. The lack of ERK and S6K1 signaling in aged cells also has implications for future studies in this area." From Jasmine Farsarakis :Nature China (26 Mar 2008), Research Highlights.
Reports indicate that SIRT1 deacetylates Heat Shock Factor 1 to increase its transcriptional activity (see HSF1, a precursor of heat shock proteins). Thus resveratrol may be useful for upregulating heat shock protein expression via SIRT1. "Ku70 and Ku80... form a heterodimer (Ku) that can bind to free double-stranded DNA ends. Inactivation of Ku leads to various defects including telomere length deregulation and end-to-end chromosome fusions... During normal senescence, Ku protein declines in abundance... SIRT1 is able to deactylate and activate Ku70.". - (Choi, Cho, Kang, Lee, Kaeberlein, Suh, Chung, and Park, (2011)). Also see Longo VD, Kennedy BK (2006), Sirtuins in aging and age-related disease, Cell 126, 257-268. "Both Ku and SIRT1 are induced during restoration and are required for senescent cells to return to a youthful phenotype." - after Choi HR, Cho KA, Kang HT, Lee JB, Kaeberlein M, Suh Y, Chung IK, Park SC. (2011), Restoration of senescent human diploid fibroblasts by modulation of the extracellular matrix, Aging Cell 2011 Feb;10(1):148-57. See supplements improving transcription of SIRT1 [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents Books], supplements improving transcription of Ku70 [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents Books], and supplements improving transcripition of Ku80 [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents Books]. Extracellular matrix (ECM) from young cells improves the expression of both SIRT1 and Ku in senescent dermal fibroblasts and enables recovery from the senescent state of the cell, lenthening telomeres. Note that leucine, a branched-chain amino acid, and resveratrol both increase SIRT1 expression, as does caloric restriction. See Mitchell D Knutson and Christiaan Leeuwenburgh (2008), Resveratrol and novel potent activators of SIRT1: effects on aging and age-related diseases, Nutrition Reviews, 25 Sep 2008. Note that SIRT1 deacetylates Ku70. "...Ku70, together with Ku80, makes up the Ku heterodimer, which is involved in maintaining telomere length. When deacetylated, Ku70 helps protect telomere ends from fusion events. Sirt1s effect on Ku70 is another of the ways in which Sirt1 helps maintain telomere structure and prevents the telomere from being inappropriately fused. During conditions of oxidative stress, Ku70 is acetylated, which lessens its ability to bind a pro-apoptotic protein called Bax. By deacetylating Ku70, Sirt1 causes Bax to remain bound to Ku70, preventing Bax from initiating apoptosis."
SIRT3 [Links/SIRT3, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Longevity Genes/SIRT3].
Palacios OM, Carmona JJ, Michan S, et al. (2009),
Diet and exercise signals regulate SIRT3 and activate AMPK and PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle,
Aging (Albany NY) 2009 Aug 15;1(9):771-83.
SIRT6 (Encyclopedia).
Sirtuin Activators [Ben Best/(SIRT1, Sir2, sirtuins, and gene silencing), Links/sirtuin activators, Images, Video, Papers, Patents Books, Amazon]. Small molecule sirtuin activators include resveratrol (Video) and quercetin (Video), both of which are coincidentally small molecule telomerase activators. Quercetin improves the bioavailability of resveratrol, which promotes telomerase activity by phosphorylation of cytoplasmic hTERT, although it condenses chromatin by SIRT1 deacetylation to inhibit hTERT mRNA transcription.
BIOMOL/Sirtuin Activators:
(1) Apigenin [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
(2) Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
(3) Resveratrol [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
(4) Quercetin [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
(5) NAD+, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, enhances SIRT1 activity.
___NADH, a supplement, produces NAD+, as does niacinamide.
___NAD+ + 2e- + H+ <---> NADH .
(6) Leucine, [Index] a Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA), increases SIRT1 expression.
(7) Fisetin [Index], a sirtuin activator, promotes SIRT1 expression.
(8) Piceatannol [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]
____(3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene, a phenolic stilbenoid
____and a metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine),
(9) Butein [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF], a chalconoid from Toxicodendron vernicifluum.

Note that niacinamide (nicotinamide) is a SIRT1 inhibitor that is eventually converted to NAD+, a SIRT1 activator, by a NAD+ synthesis salvage pathway.
Skin [Index/Dermatology; Index/Geriatric Dermatology; Index/Lesions; Index/Phosphatidylcholine; Index/Phospholipid Exchange Therapy; Index/Phytoestrogens; Index/Purpura; Skin of The Utmost Importance: Press for the Erotic Hots Study Guide. Many STDs manifest themselves as skin conditions.Index/Senile Purpura; Index/Skin Clinics; Index/Skin and Collagenase; Index/Extracellular Matrix; Index/Skin Aging Topics; Index/Skin Lesions; Index/Skin Lightening; Index/Veil Cells; Index/Wrinkles, Integrins and Hemidesmosomes; Wikipedia/Human Skin; Wikipedia/Skin, Links/skin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Life Extension; Links/skin rejuvenation, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, Life Extension; Oral phytoceramides].
Oral Phytoceramides [Encyclopedia]
Ceramides comprise about 50% of the components of a sphingolipid mortar between kornified surface skin cells of the stratum corneum risen from deep internal skin layers, but ceramide production is degraded in aging, causing wrinkling, loss of elasticity, loss of hydration, and skin barrier loss. The degradation of ceramide production with increasing age may be due to the telomere position effect. Ceramides found in all four skin layers inhibit elastase, improving the elasticity of skin while improving binding in the stratum corneum surface layer. Best results are obtained from orally bioavailable phytoceramides at about 350 mg/day, taking just 4-5 weeks to produce vastly improved skin characteristics associated with apparent rejuvenation. Oral phytoceramides, however, are not thought to lengthen skin cell telomeres or reverse cellular senescence, although their reconstructive effect on skin is extraordinary. See Downey, Michael (2014), Phytoceramides Skin Rejuvenation From The Inside Out [OnLine], Life Extension Magazine, November 2014.
Skin Cream Ingredients: [Skin Cream Ingredients, Cosmetic Ingredients, Making Cosmetics, Making Cosmetics, Inc, Truth in Aging; Wikipedia/Cosmetics, Links/Cosmetics, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Wikipedia/Cream (Pharmaceutical), Links/Pharmaceutical Cream, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Wikipedia/Lotion, Links/Lotion; Links/Skin Cream Ingredients, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Emollients (moisturizers), Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Surfactants, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Surfactants in Skin Cream, Images, Video; Links/Scents, Images, Video; Links/Skin Cream Scents, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Truth in Aging/Category/ingredients, WebMD/Skin Cream Ingredients, Glossary of Natural Skin Care Ingredients, Index/Growth Factor Skin Creams, Terraternal Astragaloside IV skin cream, other telomerase activator skin creams, including (feminizing) progesterone skin cream and black cohosh skin cream; Images/Tocotrienol-rich fraction supplements with alpha-tocopherol from palm oil; Images/Tocotrienol-rich fraction skin cream with alpha-tocopherol from palm oil; Neck Rejuvenation].
Gamma-tocotrienol reduces aging in dermal fibroblasts and gamma-tocotrienol skin creams exist. See Suzana Makpol,I Azalina Zainuddin,I Kien Hui Chua,II Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof,I and Wan Zurinah Wan NgahI (2012), Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts [NCBI DOC], Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2012 February; 67(2): 135143, and also Makpol S, Durani LW, Chua KH, Mohd Yusof YA, Ngah WZ (2011), Tocotrienol-rich fraction prevents cell cycle arrest and elongates telomere length in senescent human diploid fibroblasts, [NCBI DOC], Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011 Mar 30. Gamma tocotrienol [List] reduces expression of collagenase, a matrix metalloproteinase, from senescent fibroblasts, protecting the extracellular matrix, and has favorable impact on gene expression in both senescent and normal fibroblasts, tending to oppose aging. Tocotrienol-rich fraction containing alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols alpha, beta, gamma, and delta from rice bran, palm oil, oat, or barley, tends to produce telomerase activity in senescent fibroblasts, lengthen telomeres, restore fibroblast morphology, and restart the cell cycle. [Images/Tocotrienol-rich fraction supplements with alpha-tocopherol from palm oil; Images/Tocotrienol-rich fraction skin cream with alpha-tocopherol from palm oil].
I have gotten good results applying soy milk to facial skin and to bags under the eyes. "Topical soy has been shown to improve hyperpigmentation, elasticity, and moisture in the skin. In laboratory studies, soy has been shown to stimulate collagen synthesis and initiate the skins process of repairing elastin." - See Gary Goldfaden, MD and Robert Goldfaden (2011), Reverse Skin Aging Around Your Eyes, Life Extension Magazine, June 2011. Music[2]: Dr. Robert.
Copper Peptides (Loren Pickart), Wikipedia/Copper peptide GHK-Cu, Derma Rollers, ebay/Derma Rollers. Users claim best results for products using Derma Rollers.
Topical Formulations: Patent literature on topical formulations typically describes components from a group consisting of an emulsifier, a carrier (e.g. liposomes), a thickener, and a skin emollient. They may also include structuring agents or gelling agents.
Bioflavonoid Skin Creams [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Hesperidin, Hesperidin Supplements, Hesperidin Skin Creams; Quercetin, Quercein Supplements, Quercetin Skin Creams; Rutin, Rutin Supplements; Rutin Skin Creams]. A combination of bioflavonoids quercetin and rutin was shown to rejuvenate drying skin cells that refused to replicate, so that they began to reproduce again. (Chondrogianni, Kapeta, Chinou, Vassilatou, and Papassideri, 2010), quoted in Gary Goldfaden MD and Robert Goldfaden (2012), How Bioflavonoids Create Youthful Skin Tone, Life Extension Magazine, November 2012 [Dr.Robert]. Quercetin also improves the synthesis of collagen in skin. (Ref). Three bioflavonoids for skin creams, quercetin, hesperidin, and rutin can be used in topical skin creams to "prevent and reverse wrinkles, reduce the appearance of age spots, and even fight spider veins and varicose veins".
Vitamin Skin Creams Vitamin skin creams [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Skin creams incorporating vitamins are often useful, including
Vitamin C skin cream [Images, Papers, Life Extension] (antioxidant, antiglycating, collagen),
Vitamin E skin cream [Images, Papers, Life Extension] (antioxidant), and
Vitamin K1 skin creams [Images, Papers, Life Extension] (dark circles, purpura control).
See also transdermal route of administration of medicines [Wikipedia/Transdermal, Links, Images; Links/Transdermal drug delivery, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books]. Permeation enhancing substances for transdermal administration include aliphatic alcohols (such as ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol) or glycerol (glycerine, glycerin).
Skin topics: [Skin Biology: Skin health and aging skin, Smart Skin Care, Histology of Wrinkles, Skin Care Forum, Wrinkle Treatments].
Skin Cell Transplant: [Fibrocell Science, Fibrocell laViv autologous fibroblast transplants to remove smile lines].
Skin products: [Anti-Aging Skin Care Products, Growth Factor Skin Cream Table, Syn-Tacks, IQ Derma, Hydroderm, EnergoTM, Resurgence, Levela, BellaLabs, CoQ10 skin cream, and Resilience Rescue L-Carnosine skin cream, Center for Skin Research, Jan Marini Skin Research, Truth in Aging, SkinCareRX, Life Extension Foundation/skin care products; See also Cosmetic Outfits: L'Oreal, Revlon, Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, Max Factor, EstLaudEE].
Skin Repair Around the Eyes: [Links Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
Hexapeptide 10 (Refs11/Hexapeptide 10, Neck Rejuvenation/Hexapeptide 10, Serilesine) repairs integrins including hemidesmosomes.
Supplemental Skin Topics: [Oral phytoceramides for facial rejuvenation, Links/anti-aging skin creams, Links/Facial rejuvenation, Links/Gerontological Dermatology, Aging Skin Dermatology, Make Me Heal: Anti-aging skin care products, Anti-Aging Clinics, Anti-Aging Doctors, Derm Net: Aging Skin]. Also see [104] on dark circles under the eyes, and Aging Skin Net, [54]. See also
Dermatology [Index, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon, Life Extension]. Note that among progeric children, whose dermal fibroblasts exhibit short telomeres, baldness is almost universal. In treatment with telomerase activators [81s], skin constitution is restored to young skin after about 20 population doublings are added. (Fossel, p.156). That would amount to perhaps 50 bp/population_double x 20 doublings = 1000 bp, about 2.174 years of treatment with super astragalus root extract at 460 bp/year (about B = -9 years/year rejuvenation rate), or 3.76 years of treatment with weaker astragalus extract and chitosan. I would say improvement is visible after 3 years. However, growth factor skin creams and colostrum [Index, List] skin cream reconstruct collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix with TGF-beta, and lengthen the telomeres of dermal fibroblasts with telomerase-activating growth factors and cytokines in colostrum (IGF-1, IGF-2, EGF, TNF-alpha, FGF, PDGF, VEGF, and TGF-alpha) so I am experimenting (2012) with a colostrum powder in aqueous solution that is rubbed into the skin, prefacing application with hyaluronic acid in aqueous solution to pack the extracellular matrix and plump out wrinkles like an instant face lift serum does. Permeation enhancing substances for transdermal administration include aliphatic alcohols [Images] or glycerol [Images].
Small molecule telomerase activators [Index, List] are promising in treatment of skin conditions. (See Frontiers in Biomedicine by Allan L. Goldstein, p.15.) "Experiments have shown that inserting telomerase into old skin cells returns them to a healthy youthful state, so much so that they cannot easily be distinguished from young cells. A drug that has the same effect may stem and reverse skin failure as we age." - Sierra Sciences. In one set of experiments, transfection with hTERT restored collagen production in cells after 20 further cell divisions, but elastin production was not restored [Funk, 2000, according to Michael Fossel, Cells, Aging, and Human Disease, Science, 2004, p.156-157]. Michael Fossel speculates that the degree of success may depend on the degree of senescence, or that more population doublings are required to completely reset gene expression. See also Geron's Compositions and Methods for Skin Conditioning using small molecule telomerase activators such as astragaloside IV, cycloastragenol, astragenol, and astragaloside IV 16-one. See Terraternal Astragaloside IV Skin Cream. Perhaps cycloastragenol skin cream [Images] would be best, as astragalosides may appear in the blood as cycloastragenol (TAT2) after they have been hydrolyzed by stomach acids. Skin cream using hTERT plasmids in cationic transfection reagent liposomes might be used in the future. Applications might be done as frequently as (say) weekly, depending on how our DNA plasmid lifetime measurements using fluorescent protein markers and (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) FISH probes go.
Note that collagenase (which attacks skin collagen) is typical of substances emitted by senescent cells, especially by dermal fibroblasts, so that replicative senescence itself is no doubt a major source of wrinkling. Most human growth factors are telomerase-activating. Note that FGF2 (bFGF, or Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor), is a telomerase activator acting on dermal fibroblasts that may be promoted using turmeric skin creams such as VICCO Vanishing Cream [Images]. Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (aFGF) may also be effective in rejuvenating skin. Epidermal Growth Factor skin cream is also telomerase activating and rejuvenating.
Growth factor skin creams are frequently based on combinations of
(1) bFGF (List/FGF2, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, FGF2) - bFGF skin cream,
(2) aFGF (List/FGF1, acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor, FGF1) - aFGF skin cream,
(3) EGF (List/EGF, Epidermal Growth Factor) - EGF skin cream,
(4) KGF, (List/KGF, Keratinocyte Growth Factor) - KGF skin cream,
(5) PDGF (List/PDGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor) - PDGF skin cream,
(6) TGF (List/TGF, Transforming Growth Factor) - TGF skin cream,
(7) TGF-beta (List/TGF-beta, Transforming Growth Factor beta) - TGF-beta skin cream,
(8) IGF-1 (List/EGF, Insulin-like Growth Factor 1) - IGF-1 skin cream,
(9) VEGF2 (List/VEGF2, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 2) - VEGF2 skin cream, and
(10) VEGFA (List/VEGFA, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A) - VEGFA skin cream
(11) NGF (List/..., Nerve Growth Factor) - NGF skin cream
(12) HBEGF (List/..., HBEGF Growth Factor) - HBEGF skin cream
or mixtures of these described on Internet that have their special domains of application.
Skin Cream TypeBrandGrowth Factor LinksCost
EGF skin creamNature's Gift Colostrum Renewal Skin CreamEGF (Epithelial Growth Factor)$19.95
EGF skin creamPursue Epidermal Growth Factor CreamEGF (Epidermal Growth Factor)$85.00
EGF skin creamLux Life EGF CreamEGF (Epidermal Growth Factor)$89.00
EGF skin creamReVive Skin Care CreamsEGF (Epidermal Growth Factor)$165.00
Growth factors skin creamRegeniskinEGF, PDGF, TGF, FGF$29.95
KGF skin creamReVive Skin Care CreamsKGF (Keratinocyte Growth Factor)$600.00
IGF-1 skin cream.IGF-1.
FGF2 skin creamVICCO Turmeric Vanishing CreamFGF2 (Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor)$16.04
aFGF skin creamaFGF Skin Softening Essence LotionaFGF (acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor)$69.35
VEGF skin creamJan Marini's Transformation CreamVEGF (Vascular Epithelial Growth Factor)$115.00
Platelet Derived Growth Factor skin cream [Images]Chanel Sublimage La CremePDGF, TGF, HBEGF, ET1, VEGF$390.00
Growth Factor skin cream [Images]Jeunesse Luminesce Skin Rejuvenation LotionTGF-beta, KGF, TGF, IL3/IL6 IL, PDGF, aFGF, VEGF, NGF$134.95
TGF-beta 1 skin cream [Images]SyprexTGF-beta 1$39.50
TGF-beta 1 skin cream [Images]Reviva LabsTGF-beta 1$18.00
Colostrum skin cream [Index, Images]SequelRich in growth factors:
TGF-beta; TGF-alpha, EGF, IGF-1, IGF-2, VEGF, FGF, PDGF.
Note that although most human growth factors are telomerase activators, TGF-beta, which restores the extracellular matrix proteins including both collagen and elastin, is a telomerase inhibitor. This makes TGF-beta skin cream attractive for application to cycles of telomerase activation followed by telomerase inhibition. Palmitoyl tripeptide 3 [Images, Papers, Books] (Syn-coll), a small peptide which removes wrinkles and increases collagen production by 119%, is related to TGF-beta, featuring a unique sequence to mimic the human bodys own mechanism to produce collagen via TGF-beta. TGF-beta (1-3) controls additional cell functions such as growth and proliferation and also regulates cell death. Studies at Cornell, Vanderbilt and Jefferson show that TGF-beta stimulates the expression of both collagen and elastin. TGF-beta is extracted from cells and used in products by Jan Marini, A&G and ReLuma. Note that TGF-beta is a component of colostrum [Images] and colostrum skin creams [Images]. Note that colostrum in water rots like milk, so that it must be kept in the fridge or mixed with a preservative. It seems that mixing colostrum with cream in a blender, then in an ultrasonic cleaner, improves both its transdermal and internal bioavailability by creating milk lipid liposomes for the colostrum.

Hexapeptide-10, which stimulates expression of laminin-5, alpha6-integrin, and hemidesmosomes
to restore dermal-epidermal connectivity for neck rejuvenation, is in
LEF's Cosmesis Tightening and Firming Night Cream $39.00.
Dermedicine's Tightening Neck Therapy Cream $70.00.
Calori Neck Cessity Cream 30ml $34.50.
CSI Rejuvenating Neck Cream - 1 oz $16.00.

Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2 [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; (Associated Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2 Skin Cream [Images])]. Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2 mimics thymopoietin [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], a polypeptide natural youth hormone secreted from the thymus gland, which can be rejuvenated with nitric oxide from arginine at 5-10 grams/day, or by arginine plus citrulline at 5-10 total grams/day. See Gary Goldfaden MD and Robert Goldfaden (2013), Unique Peptide Repairs Aging Skin, Life Extension Magazine, June 2013. Normal aging leads to atrophy of the thymus gland, reducing the expression of thymopoietin, which "jeopardizes immune function, negatively affects the body's ability to produce DNA and undergo normal cell division", and "the body's capacity to maintain youthful function in everything from skin cells to brain cells. The loss of thymopoietin is considered by many immunologists to be a major biomarker of aging.".
Music: You're Sixteen by Ringo Star.
Skin Cancer [Links/Skin Cancer, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong, Amazon; Cancer; Carcinogens; Anticancer Nutraceuticals; Apoptosis, Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors]. Silibinin from milk thistle is effective against many malignancies, including those of the liver, colon, skin, and prostate, and inhibits cancer metastasis. "Diallyl disulfide (DADS), one of the major components of garlic (Allium sativum), is well known to have chemopreventative activity against human cancer such as colon, lung and skin", and also against bladder cancer. (H.F Lua, C.C Sueb, C.S Yuc, et al, 2004). See Index/Anticancer.
Skin Clinics: [Longevity Aesthetics; Links/Aging skin clinics, Images, Video, Books].
Skin and Collagenase [Skin, LifeExtension/Collagenase, Links/Collagenase, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/collagenase, Amazon]. "Aging skin cells produce more collagenase, an enzyme that breaks down collagen. Also, cells become less responsive to signals to make fresh collagen, so the collagen layer underneath the skin begins to shrink and collapse...forming lines and wrinkles. ...Solar UV stimulates the production of collagenase. It also creates enormous numbers of free radicals in the skin." - from The Life Extension Revolution by Phillip Lee Miller, M.D. Green tea extract can inhibit collagenase activity. Telomolecular's Bimene uses nanotechnology to restore collagen in aging skin. Note that collagenase is matrix metalloproteinase 1, which is inhibited by Timp1. See also Matrixyl 3000 (a skin cream that improves collagen synthesis to eliminate wrinkles), matrix metalloproteinases, extracellular matrix, replicative senescence, and skin lesions.
Skin Itching [Links/Itching Skin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Itching Winter Skin, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Low humidity can produce dry, itching skin in the winter. Oils and moisturizers such as glycerin can help relieve the itching syndrome. Hydrocortizone cream (1%) may be used to relieve itching [Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books]. Benadryl Itch Stopping Cream [Images] may also be useful. Fewer hot showers are recommended in the winter to preserve skin oils. I note that boiling water on 4 burners of a stove can quickly humidify and heat dry winter air, although it may resemble a scene from MacBeth. See also Itching Skin.
Skin Lesions [Index/Lesions, Skin, Index/Skin Aging Topics, Index/Skin Aging and Geriatric Dermatology, Index/Geriatric Dermatology, Wikipedia/Dermatology, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Books/Aging Skin, Books/Skin Blemish Removal, Books/skin lesions, Links/skin lesions, LibCong/dermatology; Index/Skin, Index/Lesions, Index/Purpura, Index/Senile Purpura, Index/Veil Cells, Index/Wrinkles and Wrinkle Treatments; anticancer nutraceuticals; cancer].
__Acrochordon [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
__Actinic Keratosis [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
__Melanoma [Links, Images, coursework, Papers, Patents, Books].
__Milia [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
__Nevus [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Wikipedia],
__SCC in Situ [Links, Images, images/Bowen's disease, Books; Papers, Patents, Books],
__Sebaceous Hyperplasia [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
__Seborrheic Keratosis [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Wikipedia],
__Senile Purpura [Index/Purpura, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Wikipedia],
__Solar Lentigo [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/skin lesions, Wikipedia],
__Syringoma [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
__Verruca Vulgaris [common wart, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
__Xanthelasma [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
Many skin lesions, such as a keratosis [Images] or a wart [Images], are conveniently removed by cryosurgical technique [Links, Images, Books, Amazon], with liquid nitrogen or Compound W Freeze-Off. See also Dermatology [Wikipedia, Links, Books, Amazon] and Cryosurgical Insturmentation. It is often true that interferon alpha activators (which attack viral infections), telomerase inhibitors (which attack cancer cell proliferation), and angiogenesis inhibitors (which attack cancerous tumor development) have application to skin lesion treatment. Gotu Kola, Astragalosides and Astragalus Membranaceus Extract assist with wound healing, and Vitamin C skin cream is useful for supporting collagen synthesis taking place during tissue repair, while Vitamin K1 skin cream is useful for supporting blood clotting to stop subcutaneous bleeding associated with bruising and senile purpura or dark circles around the eyes. Telomerase activators like astragaloside IV in skin cream (available from Terraternal) or progesterone skin cream (activating hTERT mRNA transcription), help restore the youthfulness of skin cells, especially to the dermal fibroblasts that secrete the extracellular matrix. Youthful fibroblasts secrete collagen and elastin to maintain the extracellular matrix, while senescent dermal fibroblasts display altered gene expression producing collagenase and stromelysin matrix metalloproteinases that attack the extracellular matrix and produce wrinkles. Senescent dermal fibroblasts also express lower levels of TIMP1 and TIMP3 matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors that preserve the extracellular matrix. Dermal fibroblasts do a lot of skin repair work and should be kept in the youthful phenotype state with telomerase activators, so that they are not subject to replicative senescence or premature stress-activated senescence, which can be inhibited with antioxidants, green tea, and ashwagandha. Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a telomerase activator that is used in cosmetic EGF dermal cream preparations to de-age epidermal keratinocytes, sometimes along with acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF1 or aFGF), which acts on dermal fibroblasts. Avoiding sunlight UV defends against solar keratoses, free-radical elevating sunburn and other problems. However, Vitamin D3 is elevated by sunlight or sunlamps, and should be kept high with supplements or dosed sunlight exposure to inhibit cancer and heart attack. Grape seed oil and extra virgin olive oil may be used on the skin to improve skin repair, provide antioxidant protection, and maintain proteasomes that cycle cellular proteins. "Vitamin K, Arnica montana extract, oats, and vitamin D have been shown to help speed the recovery time for bruises, accelerate wound healing, reduce swelling and inflammation, combat infection (via Vitamin D), and relieve pain". - Gary Goldfaden, MD, and Robert Goldfaden, Heal Traumatic and Degenerative Skin Lesions Naturally, Life Extension Magazine, Sept. 2010, pp.75-80.
Skin Lightening & Darkening Pills [Links/L-Glutathione Skin Lightening Pills, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Skin Darkening Pills, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books]. In addition to its properties as an endogenous antioxidant, L-glutathione [Links, LifeExtension] is sometimes formulated as a skin lightening pill. Oddly, skin darkening pill searches seem to turn up more on skin lightening. See [Links/Skin Darkening; Links/Tanning, Videos/Tanning]. Note that sunlight on the skin produces vitamin D (vitamin D3), and if one does not get enough sunlight, vitamin D3 had best be supplemented.
Skin Aging Topics [Index/Skin, Index/Skin Lesions, Index/Wrinkles, LibCong/skin aging, IQ Derma, Books/the effects of gravity on skin, Books/effects of sleep lines on the skin, Books/effects of expression lines on the skin, Books/effects of hormonal changes on the skin, Books/effects of atrophy on the skin, Books/fine wrinkling resolved by stretching, Books/skin dryness, Books/epidermal atrophy, Books/Langerhans cells, Books/aging and the dermal-epidermal junction, Books/skin aging and cellularity decrease, Books/skin aging and elastic fiber decrease, Books/skin aging and loss of glycosaminoglycans, Books/extrinsic causes of skin aging, Books/skin aging and irregular pigmentation, Strivectin-SD skin cream, Best Wrinkle Creams, Truth In Aging (skin cream components), Hydroderm]. See Geron's Compositions and Methods for Skin Conditioning using small molecule telomerase activators such as astragaloside IV, cycloastragenol, astragenol, and astragaloside IV 16-one. Then see Terraternal Astragaloside IV Skin Cream. In addition, Matrixyl 3000 (palmitoyl tetrapeptide-3) [LifeExtension, Links] is a fatty acid mixed with amino acids, a lipo-peptide, shown to increase collagen synthesis [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] overall by up to 117% and collagen IV synthesis [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] by up to 267%. It also stimulates the healing of lower skin layers, dimenishing the appearance of wrinkles, and increases hyaluronic acid synthesis [Links] up to 267%. Noticibly younger skin with wrinkles half as deep is typically obtained within 2 weeks. See Donell Telomera Skin Cream, which contains astragalus root, retinol, Argireline, and Matrixyl 3000. See also Life Extension's New Face Solution and Resurgence. Also consider skin treatment with Pomegranate: - Rich in punicalagins [Pomegranate, Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia], powerful antioxidants. Increases synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), inhibits oxidation of LDL cholesterol, when applied topically, promotes youthfulness in skin, slows PSA (prostate-specific antigen) doubling time (anti-prostate cancer), speeds wound healing when applied topically, inhibits cyclooxygenase(s) and lipoxygenase when applied to skin, increases collagen synthesis by skin fibroblasts, which also synthesize elastin. [LifeExtension, Links, Wikipedia, Books/antioxidant pomegranate, Books/Pomegranate in NO synthesis, Papers, Links]. See also Dermatology [Wikipedia, Links, Books, Amazon]. Also see Heather's Resveratrol plus Pliatrol skin care solution [Links/Pliatrol].
Skin Aging and Geriatric Dermatology
[Links/Geriatric Dermatology, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Index/Dermatology, Index/Skin, Index/Lesions, Index/Purpura, Index/Senile Purpura, Index/Veil Cells, and Index/Wrinkles and Wrinkle Treatments]. Common conditions in geriatric dermatology include:
Actinic Keratoses [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] (pre-cancer [Images])
Aging Skin [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Atypical Nevus [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] (dysplastic nevus [Images])
Atopic Eczema [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] / Dermatitis [Images]
Basal Cell Carcinoma [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Contact Dermatitis [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Dandruff [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Dry Skin [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Hair Loss [Index, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Herpes Zoster [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] (shingles [Images])
Itching [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Lichen Planus [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Liver Spots [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Malignant Melanoma [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Moles [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Perioral Dermatitis [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Photoaging [Images, Papers, Patents, LEF] / Photodamage [Images, Papers, Patents, LEF]
Pruritus [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] (Itching [Images])
Psoriasis [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Psoriatic Arthritis [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Ringworm [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] (Fungal Infection [Images])
Rosacea [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Scabies [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Scars [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Seborrheic Dermatitis [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Seborrheic Keratoses [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Skin Cancer [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Squamous Cell Carcinoma [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]
Tinea Capitis [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] (fungal infection of scalp [Images])
Tinea Corporis [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] (fungal infection of body [Images])
Tinea Cruris [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] (fungal infection of groin [Images])
Tinea Faciei [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] (fungal infection of face [Images])
Tinea Pedis [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] (fungal infection of foot [Images])
Urticaria [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] (Hives [Images])

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