Index to Anti-Aging Medicine
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S: Sm - Sz
Smart Drugs [Ben Best, Links/Smart Drugs, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong/smart drugs, LifeExtension, Erowid/smart drugs; Index/Nootropics].
S-methionine sulfoxide reductase A (via MsrA gene) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension]. See "High Quality Life Extension via peptidyl methionine sulfoxide reductase", Links/Life Extension via peptidyl methionine sulfoxide reductase, increases Drosophila life span 85%, [50s].
Smoking and Aging [Main Essay/Smoking, Ben Best/Smoking and Aging, Images/smoking and life expectancy; System One Smoking Impact Graphics; Links/smoking and aging, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Mortality Charts; Lung Cancer; COPD]: 25% of smokers live to 80, vs. 57% of non-smokers. Smokers have lower bone mass, lose bone more rapidly, and experience a higher fracture rate.
NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine) reduces the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke. Lung cancer is usually caused by carcinogens such as benzopyrene in cigarette smoke or in marijuana smoke. Note that Panax Ginseng has an anticancer effect on cancers induced with benzopyrene. Also see Revel, A. et al. (2003), Resveratrol, a natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist, protects lung from DNA damage and apoptosis caused by benzo[a]pyrene, Journal of Applied Toxicology 2003; 23:255-61. Taurine, "an amino acid present in fish, is able to restore normal blood vessel function in smokers." (LEF). Nicotine from smoking constricts blood vessels and aggravates the effect of atherosclerotic plaque, increasing the likelihood of cardiovascular problems, heart attack, and stroke. See Lung Cancer, Heart Attack, Cardiology, Cardiovascular Disease, Stroke. See also Lecacheux M, Karila L, et al. (2009), Cognitive modifications associated with tobacco smoking, Presse Med Sept;38(9):1241-52. Also see Ray T, Maity PC, Banerjee S, et al. (2010), Vitamin C prevents cigarette smoke induced atherosclerosis in guinea pig model, Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, 2010 Aug 31; 17(8):817-27.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
[Index, Wikipedia, Links/Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Essay/Smoking]. COPD is a typical result of smoking with inhalation that is a substantial cause of death. See Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease in Causes of Death in New York State, below.
Press for mortality charts.
Quercetin...opens up COPD-inflicted airways. It restores normal elasticity of lung tissue and reduces inflammation. Just as important, it reduces production of the protein-melting enzymes that dissolve alveolar walls, helping to retain the lungs' normal architecture and function." - Anne Buckley (2012), Quercetin: Broad-Spectrum Protection, Life Extension Magazine, September 2012. Bharani A, Ahirwar LK, Jain J (2004), Terminalia arjuna reverses impaired endothelial function in chronic smokers, Indian Heart Journal, 2004 Mar-Apr;56(2):123-8. See Arjuna.
SNPs - Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms [Index/DNA Sequencing, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon/SNPs analysis; the SNP consortium; the Human Genome Variation Database; HUGO, Index/Cancer, Index/Carcinogens, Index/Gene (Human Genome), Index/Gene Therapy, Index/Zinc Finger Nucleases]. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome can create different scenarios for nutritional supplementation and medical treatment. To date, nearly 10 million SNPs have been cataloged. See GeneLink, used by Solgar NutrigenomX, which provides a report on about 12 SNPs, together with tailored supplements from Solgar. See also Gene Essence, which prepares a personalized genetic information "Gene Essence Report" on about 90 medically important disease association SNPs through Biomarker Pharmaceuticals, using a DNA chip equipped with 1.8 million DNA probes to detect over 1 million SNPs. See GeneDx for diseases connected to SNPs, and also Courtagen for SNPs connected to diseases associated with the 1,100 protein mitochondrial proteome that are programmed by nuclear mitochondrial genes. For more complete SNP coverage of the human genome and other genomes, see Applied Biosystems/AllSNPs. Also see the April 2008 article Genetic Polymorphisms and Human Aging: Association Studies Deliver [Links/Genetic Polymorphism and Human Aging, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LIfeExtension, Amazon]. See also DNA microarrays [Index, Wikipedia/DNA_microarray, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Affymetrix, Applied Biosystems/AllSNPs]. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms should be correctable with Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) technology for Targeted Genome Editing. Adenovirus transfection technology can sometimes put in a gene for generating antisense RNA to inhibit a bad gene, as well as allow the imbedding of a new gene at a unique site on the genome. ZFN technology should enable a broad selection of genome repairs. Diseases due to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) include cystic fibrosis and sickle-cell anemia. See also 23andMe for personal genetics [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Soba Noodles [Links, Images] are used in bodybuilding to improve definition.
Society of Biogerontology [Society of Biogerontology, LibCong/biogerontology, Links/biogerontology, Video; Links/Who's Who in Biogerontology, Papers, Books, Video].
Sociology of Death and Dying [Trinity/Sociology of Death and Dying, Links, Video, Books, Amazon], [17].
SOD - Super Oxide Dismutase
[Links/SOD, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon LibCong, LifeExtension;
Links/mitochondrial SOD, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension;
Links/extracellular SOD, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension;
Links/cytoplasmic SOD, Images, Papers, Patents, Books/cytoplasmic SOD, LEF] [52] and sprouts [64s], wasabi SOD-booster substitute.
____(1) CuZnSOD - Cytoplasmic SOD
_______[Links/SOD1, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Wiki/SOD1].
_______[Links/the SOD1 promoter, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; GeneCards].
_______Transcription factor sites on the SOD1 promoter [Papers, Patents, Books] include:
_______PPAR-alpha (2), p53 (5).
_______CoQ10 boosts SOD1 in hypertensive patients (Arch Med Sci, 2010 Aug 30;6(4):513-8).
____(2) MnSOD - Mitochondrial SOD
_______[Links/SOD2, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Wiki/SOD2].
_______[Links/the SOD2 promoter, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; GeneCards].
_______Transcription factor sites on the SOD2 promoter [Papers, Patents, Books] include:
_______NFkB (1), NFkB1 (2), FOXO1 (4), FOXO1A (4), Sp1 (2), and AP-2alpha (N).
_______MnSOD is 8% of SOD in rodents, 50% of SOD in man.
_______MnSOD functions like a tumor suppressor gene (Chem Biol Interact 2005 Feb 28;152(1):49-58).
____(3) SeCuSOD - Extracellular SOD
_______[Links/SOD3, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Wiki/SOD3].
_______[Links/the SOD3 promoter, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; GeneCards].
_______Transcription factor sites on the SOD3 promoter [Papers, Patents, Books] include:
_______Sp1 (4), PPAR-gamma1 (6), and PPAR-gamma2 (6).
_______Selenium and copper SOD = SOD3.
_______SeCuSOD - Intracellular SOD [Images]. Selenium & Copper SOD = SOD3.
[48s], [49s]. See the genes for SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3.
"SOD" may be elevated with:
__Alpha lipoic acid plus exercise improves levels of SOD1 and catalase
_____[LEF, Int J Mol Med 2010 Mar;25(3):337-46].
__Apple polyphenols "reversed markers of aging and imminent death" while
_____ upregulating superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2, and catalase
_____[LEF, J Agric Food Chem 2011 Mar 9;59(5):2097-106.]
__Ashwagandha [Images],
__Bacopa [Images],
__Carnosine protects SOD2 (Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, mitochondrial SOD)
_____[LEF, Bull Exp Biol Med 2003 Feb;135(2):130-2].
__Chaga [Index, Images] (400 mg) may also be used, is perhaps the best source.
__Chinese Wolfberry [Images] (GoJi Berry [Images]),
__CoQ10 boosts SOD1 in hypertensive patients [Arch Med Sci, 2010 Aug 30;6(4):513-8].
__Cucumus melo [Images. See Shisandra Chinesis (Schizandra)].
____Cucumus melo (cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo LC., Cucurbitaceae)) elevates SOD activity.
__Exercise increases in myocardial MnSOD (SOD2) activity.
_____See the effect of exercise on the expression of SOD [Papers, Patents, Books].
__GliSODin [Images, Images, Patents, Books, LEF], cantaloupe SOD source.
__Huperzine A [Images],
__Noni [Images],
__Resveratrol increased SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, catalase, and GPx1; also NO and VEGF.
_____Nuclear SIRT1 and resveratrol induce SOD2 (MnSOD, mitochondrial SOD) in cardiomyocytes [Ref].
_____Sirtuin Activators for SIRT1 should induce SOD2 in cardiomyocytes.
__Shilajit [Images],
__SODzyme [Images],
__Wheat Grass [Images].
SOD-mimetics such as MnTBAP (taken by injection only) [Images] and Wasabi [Images] are also useful. Note that SOD is found most abundantly in the liver, adrenal gland, kidney, and spleen. See
(1) Supplements boosting cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1) [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
___Links/supplementing cytoplasmic SOD, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF],
(2) Supplements boosting mitochondrial SOD (SOD2) [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
___Links/Supplementing mitochondrial SOD, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF], and
(3) Supplements boosting extracellular SOD (SOD3) [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
___Links/Supplementing extracellular SOD, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
SODzyme [Links/SODzyme, Links/GliSODin] SOD-boosters [Images] from Life Extension magazine, [52], [64s].
SOD-mimetics [MoreLife/SOD-mimetics, Links/SOD-mimetics, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon].
Sodium [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. A high-salt or high-sodium diet can lead to hypertension (high blood pressure), making strokes more likely. Furthermore, high salt or high sodium diets can lead to bloating due to water retention, making it difficult to achieve sharp definition for photogenic photos, movie work, or dancing. Bodybuilders may shed excess water with low-sodium diets, long workouts in sweat shirts, sauna, diuretics, and reduced water input in order to achieve sharper definition for contests or photos. Safety considerations in low-sodium diets and reduced water consumption are important when taking these steps to sharpen up.
Sodium Deoxycholate [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
Press for Sigma-Aldrich Sodium Deoxycholate.
Sodium Deoxycholate.

Images/sodium deoxycholate molecule]. Sodium deoxycholate, like chitosan, may be used to improve the bioavailability of astragalosides in astragalus membranaceus root extract. Sodium deoxycholate "solubilizes fats for absorption into the intestines". It has the chemical formula C24H39NaO4.

Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate and Sodium Butyrate [BIOMOL/HDAC Inhibitors, Links/HDAC
Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate molecule.
Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate.
, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, C10H11NaO2]. "Drosophila fed the histone deacetylase inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate showed up to 52% longer maximum life span." [87]. Note that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors) expand chromatin, enabling gene transcription. Gene silencing via HDACs (or via SIRT1) that silence chromatin by contracting it to disable transcription has also been used for life extension benefits in other species. Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate scavenges ammonia and prolongs life span (Kang, 2002), displaying anticancer activity and inhibiting cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, inducing apoptosis in glioma cells. Some HDAC inhibitors such as CGK 1026 or Tricostatin A also activate hTERT to produce the catalytic component of telomerase, extending cell life span by extending telomeres to enable more cell divisions in mitotically competent cells.
Sodium Butyrate molecule
Sodium Butyrate molecule.
It may be useful to take the histone deaceylase inhibitor (HDAC inhibitor) sodium butyrate [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, C4H7NaO2, Cayman Chem/sodium butyrate, Vendors/BODYBIO] to facilitate transcription of hTERT and hTR. By upregulating Sp1, sodium butyrate is thought to improve the expression of the hTR component of telomerase, upgrading the expression of hTR in mesenchymal-derived tissues such as connective tissues, so that it may be applied to neck rejuvenation, for instance. According to Cayman Chem, "Sodium Butyrate alters the expression of a select group of genes containing butyrate response elements and may also involve Sp1/Sp3 binding sites. Sodium butyrate induces growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells, primarily via HDAC inhibitor activity. It suppresses inflammation by reducing the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-gamma, IL-6, and IL-1beta." Other sources claim that sodium butyrate upregulates Sp1, which is a transcription factor that upregulates hTERT activity. Thus sodium butyrate may function as a telomerase activator like Tricostatin A due to its activity as an HDAC inhibitor. Note that Sp1, which is upregulated by sodium butyrate, upregulates the telomerase activator epiregulin, which is typically upregulated by exercise. However, the proper dose of sodium butyrate for further upregulating epiregulin during exercise is presently unknown. Sodium butyrate is also a detoxifier of ammonia and neurotoxins. Other sites note that sodium butyrate induces growth arrest (in cancer cells) by inhibiting DNA synthesis, arresting actively proliferating cells in G1 to induce differentiation. It is used to treat colon cancer, and is included in farm animal feeds to improve animal characteristics.
Both sodium 4-phenylbutyrate and sodium butyrate are useful for accelerating hTERT mRNA production by expanding chromatin for transcription activity, and improve the performance of many other telomerase activators, especially those that induce hTERT mRNA expression. Sodium butyrate hyperacetylates chromatin histones for chromatin expansion.
Sodium Butyrate reduces glutathione levels but "treatment significantly increases the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase." - Louis M, Rosato RR, Brault L, Osbild S, Battaglia E, Yang XH, Grant S, Bagrel D. (2004), The histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate induces breast cancer cell apoptosis through diverse cytotoxic actions including glutathione depletion and oxidative stress, International Journal of Oncology, 2004 Dec;25(6):1701-11. Also, check out beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, a metabolite of leucine that prevents catabolism and binds in fat reduction. It may turn out to be an HDAC inhibitor. Beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate is used by bodybuilders 2-3 grams 30 min before meals, 3-6 grams in pre- and post-workout meals. Check out other butyrate species. See Kosta Steliou, Michael S. Boosalis, Susan P. Perrine, Jose Sangerman, and Douglas V. Faller (2012), Butyrate Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, BioResearch Open Access, V1, No.1, Aug 2012. Note that diallyl disulfide from garlic allicin has been described as an HDAC inhibitor equivilant for many purposes to sodium butyrate.
Soluble Fiber [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LIfeExtension]. Soluble fiber improves immune system function.
South, James articles by James South, supplements regimen.
Soy [Links/Soy, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Soy Isoflavones, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Soy Protein, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Soy Food Products, Images, Video; Memory Enhancing Nutraceuticals]. See Protein, Phytoestrogens and Isoflavones. Soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein) are phytoestrogens with a structure similar to 17-beta-estradiol. 15-20 grams of soy protein are recommended per day, (or 50-90 mg of soy isoflavones or phytoestrogens) to defend the body against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, symptoms of menopause, and obesity-related syndromes such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. 25 grams per day of soy protein can be used for cholesterol reduction; soy improves blood lipid profiles. Soy is anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and favorably regulates gene expression. (See Oscar Rodriguez, Is Soy Safe?, LEF, July 2010.) Estrogen receptors include alpha (ER-alpha) and beta (ER-beta) receptors. Genistein, a soy isoflavone, upregulates ER-beta receptors which seem to oppose carcinogenic factors promoted by ER-alpha receptors in breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer. Licorice, a strong estrogen bioactivity nutraceutical based on glycyrrhiza, might be used with genistein to improve hip structuring speed, as the hips contain estrogen beta receptors. Genistein is also a telomerase inhibitor for cancer cells and is useful for treating prostate cancer. Perhaps genistein should not be taken while trying to activate telomerase, so that soy products should not be taken during the telomerase activation part of a telomere treatment cycle. (Check). The effect of soy isoflavones on nitric oxide synthase relaxes blood vessels, and their effect on genes is to upregulate detoxifying and antioxidant defenses, reducing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines, reducing cell adhesion proteins, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and improving blood vessel reactivity. Soy also contains phytic acid that reduces homocysteine, which is also lowered by soy isoflavones. Furthermore, soy prevents inflammatory oxidation of cholesterol by increasing the activity of the antioxidant paraoxonase 1 (PON1) found in HDL cholesterol. Genistein inhibits NFkB and inhibits the production of atherosclerotic plaque. In addition, soy isoflavones reduce the density of vital receptors for thromboxane A2, reducing platelet aggregation and inhibiting bloot clots. Soy peptides inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), lowering blood pressure. Thus heart attack and cardiovascular disease defenses are improved by soy. I have gotten good results applying soy milk to facial skin and to bags under the eyes. "Topical soy has been shown to improve hyperpigmentation, elasticity, and moisture in the skin. In laboratory studies, soy has been shown to stimulate collagen synthesis and initiate the skin’s process of repairing elastin." - See Gary Goldfaden, MD and Robert Goldfaden (2011), Reverse Skin Aging Around Your Eyes, Life Extension Magazine, June 2011.
phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine, both of which help reverse memory loss, are both available from soy. Note that lecithin (see soy lechithin and phosphatidylcholine) enhances the bioavailability of polyphenols, including resveratrol and quercetin.
Side Effects of Soy: Too much soy milk (1/2 gallon per day for two days) causes constipation, and burns the urinary tract throughout the last few inches of one's penis. This probably first suggested the name "Soy", a circumstance most familiar to experimenters. The "S" in soy (S for shapely) may be suggested by soy's genistein impact on estrogen-beta receptor expression applicable to restructuring for transsexual purposes.
Music[2]: Dr. Robert by the Beatles; Movies: Soylent Green (1973), starring Charlton Heston (Moses).
Spermidine (Encyclopedia Entry).
Spices [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Medicinal properties of spices, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Anticancer spices, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Antiglycating spices, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Anti-inflammatory spices, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Antibacterial spices, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Antiviral spices, Papers, Patents, Books; Index/Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme, Saffron, Antibiotics, Antiviral Drugs, Index/Anticancer Nutraceuticals, Index/Anti-inflammatory Nutraceuticals; Herpes, HIV, Virology]. See Bharat B. Aggarwal, Michelle E. Van Kuiken, Laxmi H. Iyer, Kuzhuvelil B. Harikumar and Bokyung Sung (2009), Molecular Targets of Nutraceuticals Derived from Dietary Spices: Potential Role in Suppression of Inflammation and Tumorigenesis, Experimental Biology and Medicine, August 2009, vol. 234 no. 8 825-849, and Bharat B. Aggarwal, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Kuzhuvelil B. Harikumar, Sheeja T. Tharakan, Bokyung Sung, Preetha Anand (2008), Potential of Spice-Derived Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention, Planta Medica 2008; 74: 1560–1569. See also Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S (2004), Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2004 December; 1030:434-41. Spices that function as NF-kB inhibitors are anticancer because the transcription factor NF-kB promotes genes whose products support cancer cell proliferation, invasion, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis. See ginger, gingerol, and zerumbone. Furthermore, cinnamon bark is anti-viral (cures HIV), as is eugenol (a leaf oil from the cinnamon bush that cures both oral herpes (HSV-1) and genital herpes (HSV-2)), and garlic is anti-viral (cures HIV) and anti-bacterial. Spices like saffron, which inhibits the reuptake of serotonin a bit like Prozac, have been used to control satiety and appetite.
Spider Vein Treatment [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Rutin]. Spider veins are tiny, red, purple and/or blue veins found on the surface of the skin. See Walgreens: Freeman Vita-K Professional Spider Veins Treatment [Images] ($9.99; $11.27 at Walmart) and Skin Doctors Vein Away Plus Spider Vein Cream [Images] ($29.99; $23.94 at Walmart). Rutin is used to treat spider veins.
Spinach [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Spinach is a source of lutein and zeaxanthin [25i]]. Spinach is also a source of Beta Ecdysterone [Links, Images/beta ecdysterone supplements, Images/beta ecdysterone molecule], a chemical found in spinach, having anabolic properties increasing muscle growth 20% according to recent studies at Rutgers University. Muscle & Fitness magazine recommends 100 mg of beta ecdysterone with meals and before and after a workout, 400-500 mg/day. Spinach is one of the best vegetable sources of Vitamin K2, which defends against old-age systemic calcification of tissue [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Fermented milk products such as Swiss cheese and soy products such as natto are still better sources of vitamin K2.
Spirulina [Links/Spirulina, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Spirulina has come up in proposals for Immortality Diet stemming from Tristan Trefoil's program of research. See Li Ching-Yuen.
Sports Medicine [Links/Sports Medicine, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon, LibCong]. See Anabolics, Anatomy and Physiology, Bodybuilding, Caloric Restriction, Cardiology, Creatine Monohydrate, Exercise [List], HGH, Joint Injuries, Medical School, Myostatin Inhibitors, Protein, Stiff Back, Testosterone, Whey Protein.
Sprouts [Links/Sprouts, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Sprouts for nutraceutical SOD, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Sprouts help with superoxide dismutase (SOD), wheat, corn, soy,... [64s].
Squalene [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Often described as anticancer, present in shark liver oil and in olive oil. Squalene is the principal hydrocarbon found in your sebum, an oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands in mammalian skin, where it amounts to approximately 12% of the total fat content. Squalene hydrates the skin, penetrating deeply to form a barrier against water loss that defends the face against fine lines and wrinkles. The amount of squalene in the skin decreases rapidly in one's 20s, making skin increasingly vulnerable to UV radiation, sunburn, dehydration, and wrinkles.
St. John's Wort [Links/St. John's Wort, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. St. John's Wort is used for anti-depressive dopamine and serotonin level control. St. John's Wort is prepared from Hypericum perforatum [Images] and inhibits the reuptake of neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. The active compounds in St. John's Wart include naphtodianthrones and the phloroglucinols hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin. The dose recommended by the manufacturer is taken 3x per day. In addition, St. John's Wort shows activity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) via hypericin, a constituent of St. John's wort.
Statin Drugs [LEF, Wikipedia/Statin, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon; Cholesterol; Atherosclerosis]. The statin drugs have been used primarily to control cholesterol [1], [2], [7] to avoid or treat atherosclerosis in cardiology, and to prevent strokes. Statin drugs such as Zocor (Simvastatin) are often effective in closing telomere t-loops to halt senescence effects, but reduce CoQ10, so that statin drug users require more CoQ10. Note that CoQ10 is a life-extending drug and endogenous metabolic factor that helps mitchondria process fatty acids into ATP for energy. Therefore, taking statins without supplemental CoQ10 subtracts a life-extending substance and precious stores of energy, so that side effects including tired muscles and weak memory become evident, as muscular and mental energy fail due to lack of CoQ10. In addition, statins without CoQ10 would produce a shorter lifespan, as supplemental CoQ10 produces longer lifespans. See side-effects of statin drugs. Atorvastatin (Lipitor) can increase levels of TRF2 telomere loop closure protein like Simvastatin (Zocor), but is weaker. Finally, it turns out that TRF2 overexpression is not useful for life extension. Statins have been observed to provide an enhancement of the associated telomere protection biology [Paper, Books], but are often avoided due to certain hazards. In certain experiments atorvastatin (0.1 mol/L) and mevastatin (1.0 mol/L) both led to a more than 3-fold increase in the expression of the telomere capping protein TRF2 (telomere repeat-binding factor), as shown by immunoblotting. Simvastatin (Zocor) had the same effect on TRF2 expression at 0.5 µmol/L [5]. The same team showed that statins can delay the onset of replicative senescence simply by inhibition of the nuclear export of TERT in endothelial cells [6]. Today atorvastatin is available by prescription, but mevastatin is not used due to multiple side effects. The statin drugs are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors that modify the rate control of cholesterol production [1], [2], [7]. Uncapping of telomeres may be detected by the loss of TRF2, and the effect of the statins has been produced by application of exogenous TRF2 [Index, Links, Books, Papers], which protects human telomeres from end-to-end fusions. PARP1 interacts with TRF2 and is involved in repairing damaged telomeres. "As the length of telomeres in leukocytes shortened the risk of coronary heart disease increased... the risk was substantially attenuated by pravastatin [Links, Video, Books]. Since statins have been shown to increase the production of a protein-telomere capping protein (TRF2) that prevents telomeres from shortening it is a potential hypothesis that statins bring about their benefit by this mechanism. This is very early research but it implies that statins could well have the ability to slow certain aging processes." - ErinPharm Gazette, Jan. 2007. Simvastatin upregulates Bcl-2, a telomerase activator. I note that my friends have warned me not to meddle with statin drugs due to side effects [article, Books, Links] such as lowering the body's level of CoQ10. See:
atorvastatin (Lipitor) [Links/atorvastatin, Links/atorvastatin side effects, Links/application of atorvastatin, Links/sources of atorvastatin, Images/atorvastatin supplements; Links/Lipitor],
simvastatin (Zocor) [Links/simvastatin (Zocor) Images, Papers, Video],
pravastatin [Links/pravastatin, Links/pravastatin side effects, Links/application of pravastatin, Links/sources of pravastatin, Images/pravstatin supplements] and
CoQ10 [Links/sources of CoQ10, Images/CoQ10 supplements, Links/sources of Ubiquinol, Images/Ubiquinol supplements].
See also TRF2. Atorvastatin (Lipitor), simvastatin (Zocor) or pravastatin plus CoQ10 or Ubiquinol may make lifetimes on the order of 220 years in apparently youthful condition possible, based on approximately 4000/50 = 80 extra cell division cycles available without cellular senescence after the M1 senescence checkpoint, when telomeres are close to 4000 bp long. This should strengthen the immune system. By comparison, life extension with telomerase activators is open-ended, although statin drugs may erase cellular senesence effects more rapidly. The effects of statin drugs on markers of aging from the senescence pathway such as beta galactosidase and p16INK4A should be checked in this matter. A cyclic program of application to:
___(1) Remove cellular senescence by closing telomere t-loops with statins, then
___(2) to lengthen telomeres with telomerase activators during the 2nd part of the cycle, might be useful to obtain quick rejuvenation with lasting effect. Perhaps we should picture treatment with telomerase activators in the 1st 15-day part of a monthly cycle, followed by 15 days of telomerase inhibitors plus Zocor (Simvastatin) for the 2nd part of each monthly cycle. This might possibly get faster rejuvenation results. In vitro tests of this idea plus relevant tests on human subjects featuring careful annual telomere length assays should be worthwhile.
TRF2 Overexpression
"Overexpression of TRF2 causes telomere shortening in both telomerase-positive and -negative cells. Recent studies also showed that TRF2 also activates telomere degradation." (Cong, Wright, and Shay, 2002). This is discouraging for TRF2-based telomere loop closure therapy programs to lengthen life spans by using Zocor or other TRF2-enhancing drugs [2], [3], [4].
[1] Yamashita S, Tsubakio-Yamamoto K, Ohama T, Nakagawa-Toyama Y, Nishida M (2010),
Molecular mechanisms of HDL-cholesterol elevation by statins and its effects on HDL functions,
J Atheroscler Thromb 2010 May;17(5):436-51.
[2] Robert Haas, MS, (2010),
Lower Cholesterol Safely, Life Extension Magazine, March 2010.
[3] Brown WV (2008),
Safety of statins, Current Opinion in Lipidology 2008;19:558-62.
[4] Ahn SC (2008),
Neuromuscular complications of statins,
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 2008; 19:47-59, vi.
[5] Ioakim Spyridopoulos, MD; Judith Haendeler, PhD; et al. (2004),
Statins Enhance Migratory Capacity by Upregulation of the Telomere Repeat-Binding Factor TRF2 in Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Circulation, 2004; 110:3136-3142.
[6] Judith Haendeler, Jörg Hoffmann, J. Florian Diehl, Mariuca Vasa, Ioakim Spyridopoulos, Andreas M. Zeiher, Stefanie Dimmeler (2004), Antioxidants Inhibit Nuclear Export of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and Delay Replicative Senescence of Endothelial Cells, Circulation Research, 2004;94:768-775.
[7] Susan Wiggins (2015),
Natural Methods To Control Cholesterol, Life Extension Magazine May 2015.
Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books]. See linear regression analysis, F-distribution, chi-squared distribution, P-values.
Stem Cell Support (Encyclopedia)
Stem Cell Technology [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Stem Cell Support; NIH Stem Cell Information, LibCong, 5, 56, iPS cells; Howard Hughes Medical Institute Stem Cell Lectures; Tomsk Institute Life Extension Drug G5 (Links/New G5 pill from Tomsk Institute, Images, Papers, Patents, Books); Adult Stem Cell Research, (Videos); Skin Stem Cell Gun; CELLSCRIPTTM; Anticancer Telomerase Activators], (8), [5], [6], [10], [56]. See Activate Your Stem Cells. Stem cells treated with small molecule telomerase activators such as astragalus extract or astragaloside IV exhibit extended lifetimes allowing them to divide and proliferate vigorously, so that stem cells become more numerous. However, stem cells have more potential cell divisions than ordinary cells in the first place, because they typically express telomerase when they divide. "Certain stem cells or germline populations are telomerase positive and have long or indefinite lifespans, illustrating that telomerase expression per se is not oncogenic." - after Andrea G. Bodnar, Michel Ouellette, Maria Frolkis, Shawn E. Holt, Choy-Pik Chiu, Greg B. Morin, Calvin B. Harley, Jerry W. Shay, Serge Lichtsteiner, and Woodring E. Wright (1998), Extension of Life-Span by Introduction of Telomerase into Normal Human Cells, Science, vol.279, 16 January 1998. See also Fahy GF, Kent S. (2010), Immortal stem cells for anti-aging therapies. An interview with Michael D. West, PhD [On-Line Article], Life Extension Magazine 2010 Jun;16(6):26-32. See Index/Transplants of Immortalized (Stem) Cells.
Tomsk Pharmaceutical Institute Life Extension Pill [Links/New G5 pill from Tomsk Institute, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Headline News]. "The drug that was discovered by the scientists... boosts the body’s production of stem cells, which enable the regeneration of the body’s organs and tissue." See supplements improving internal production of stem cells for regenerative therapy [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. For instance, see Stem Cell 100TM [Immortal Humans].
StemCell 100 Component Probes

(1) Extracts of astragalus root [Encylopedia, Images, supplements] promote internal production of stem cells for regenerative therapy.
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____Astragalus root increases the number of stem cells in bone marrow and lymph tissue [Ref1, Ref2].
____Astragalus root stimulated immune cells
_______as quantified by CD69 expression on CD4 and CD8 T cells [Ref].
____Astragalus increases bone marrow stem cell proliferation and VEGF expression [Ref].
____Astragalus increases the proliferation of white blood cells and bone marrow stem cells.
____Extracts of astragalus root also lengthen telomeres.
(2) Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino Tree) [Images, supplements]
____Contains marsupsin [Images, Papers, supplements] and pterostilbene [Images, Papers, supplements].
____These are two stable resveratrol analogs that promote stem cells, lower inflammation,
____and stabilize metabolism.
____See the probes resveratrol analogs promote stem cells, marsupsin promotes stem cells and
____pterostilbene promotes stem cells. (unverified).
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
______Pterostilbene inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer stem cells [Ref].
(3) Polygonum multiflorum stem [Images, sups; Roots: (he shou wu); Index/Fo-Ti, Index/He Shou Wu].
____"fights premature aging and promotes youthfulness. "
____Furthermore, Polygonum enhances fertility by improving sperm count in men and egg vitality in women. Polygonum strengthens muscle. Animal studies show that it can extend lifespan. Polygonum protects the liver and brain against damage, perhaps by improving immune and cardiovascular health. "The stem sections of Polygonum multiflorium are also calming to the nervous system and promote sounder sleep."
____See the associated Polygonum multiflorum probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
____and associated Fo-ti probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
______Found patent for Fo-Ti enhancement of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation
______and bone marrow stem cell proliferation
______Note that Fo-Ti is a strong estrogen bioactivity telomerase activator.
(4) Pine bark OPCs [Images, supplements; Index/Pycnogenol]
____include flavonoids and oligo-proanthocyanidins (OPCs) extracted from Pine Bark,
____which greatly reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation.
(5) L-Theanine [Images, supplements] a natural amino acid from Camellia sinesis reducing mental stress and inflammation while improving cognition and protecting brain cells from ischemic or toxic injury.
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] and (138) Black Tea Extract.
(6) Schisandra berry [Index, Images, supplements] "used by many Chinese women to preserve their youthful beauty. For thousands of years, Schisandra has been prized as an antiaging tonic that increases stamina and mental clarity, while fighting stress and fatigue. In Chinese traditional medicine, Schisandra berry has been used for liver disorders and to enhance resistance to infection and promote skin health and better sleep. Schisandra berry is classified as an adaptogen, which can stimulate the central nervous system, increase brain efficiency, improve reflexes, and enhance endurance. Modern research indicates that Schisandra berry extracts have a protective effect on the liver and promote immunity. A double-blind human trial suggested that Schisandra berry may help patients with viral hepatitis, which is very prevalent in China. Recent work indicates that the liver is protected by the enhanced production of glutathione peroxidase, which helps detoxify the liver."
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(7) He Shou Wu [Index, Images, supplements] "used Chinese herbal medicines to restore blood, kidney, liver, and cardiovascular health. Fo-Ti is claimed to have powerful rejuvenating effects on the brain, endocrine glands, the immune system, and sexual vigor. Legend has it that Professor Li Chung Yun took daily doses of Fo-Ti to live to be 256 and is said to have outlived 23 wives and spawned 11 generations of descendents before his death in 1933. While it is unlikely that he really lived to such an old age there is scientific support for Fo-Ti as beneficial for health and longevity. Like the Indian Keno bark, Fo-ti contains resveratrol analogs and likely acts by various mechanism, which includes liver detoxification and protection of skin from UVB radiation."
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(8) Camellia sinensis [Index, Images, supplements]. "Green Tea Polyphenols have many bioactive polyphenols including the potent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). A 2006 Japanese study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that adults aged 40 to 79 years of age who drank an average of 5 or more cups of tea per day had a significantly lower risk of dying from all causes (23% lower for females and 12% lower for males). The study tracked more than 40,000 adults for up to 11 years and found dramatically lower rates of cardiovascular disease and strokes in those drinking 5 or more cups of tea. Many studies have found that adults drinking 3 or more cups of tea per day have significantly less cancer. Other studies have found that green tea helps protect against age-related cognitive decline, kidney disease, periodontal disease, and type 2 diabetes. Green tea also promotes visceral fat loss and higher endurance levels. Summarizing all of the thousands of studies on tea and tea polyphenols that have been published, it can be concluded that tea polyphenols preserve health and youth. This conclusion is backed up by gene studies showing that tea polyphenols decrease insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which is a highly conserved genetic pathway that has been strongly linked to aging in yeast, worms, mice, and humans. If everyone could drink 4 to 5 cups of green tea each day, they could enjoy these important health benefits, but for most people drinking that much green tea can disturb their sleep patterns. ". (Thus StemCell 100 uses decaffinated tea).
_____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(9) Drynaria rhizome [Images, supplements] "for healing bones, ligaments, tendons, and lower back problems. Eastern martial art practitioners have used Drynaria for thousands of years to help in recovering from sprains, bruises, and stress fractures. Drynaria has also helped in many cases of bleeding gums and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). The active components of Drynaria protect bone forming cells by enhancing calcium absorption and other mechanisms. Drynaria is also reported to act as a kidney tonic and to promote hair growth and wound healing."
_____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(10) PQQ [Index, Images, supplements] are typically used to promote mitochondrial biogenesis.
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Also see Chalice, a similar preparation for stem cells, and Douglas Laboratories Joint, Tendon, Ligament Stem Cell Support formulation document, which contains a number of relevant facts. Vitamin C positively modulates mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and motility via hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which acts as a multifunctional cytokine on cells of epithelial origin. Anticancer telomerase activators are sometimes useful for improving stem cell proliferation. To me it seems that perhaps 33 grams of astragalus root/day or the extract equivilant (or more) would be more effective for improving stem cell proliferation than a 500 mg tablet. I use 33 grams/day of astragalus root, plus astragalus root extract on the skin and scalp. See VIDA Institute on astragalus root/astragalus root extract equivilancies. Perhaps this product would best be given with an additional 11 grams of astragalus root extract per day, or 33 grams of NOW astragalus root per day, with application on a cyclic basis. Astragalus extract is well-tolerated in very high doses by experimental animals such as dogs. However, it may be useful to include other telomerase activators. Furthermore, HDAC inhibitors like L-carnitine and/or sodium butyrate may be used accelerate transcription induced by telomerase activators by hyperacetylating chromatin to expand it for improved hTERT and hTR transcription rates. I note that it is impressive how much Stem Cell 100 lengthens the life span of a fruit fly, and the adult stem cell proliferation angle is promising and worthy of study. DHEA improves the proliferation of neural stem cells. See Bickford PC, et al. (2006), Nutraceuticals synergystically promote proliferation of human stem cells, Stem Cells and Development 2006 Feb;15(1):118-23.
"Increased expression of the p16 gene as organisms age reduces the proliferation of stem cells. This reduction in the division and production of stem cells protects against cancer while increasing the risks associated with cellular senescence.... Concentrations of p16INK4a increase dramatically as tissue ages." - Wikipedia. Expression of P16INK4A can be reduced with exercise, nerve growth factor, resveratrol, retinol or retinoic acid from carrots to enhance the stem cell supply. High p16INK4A levels are often associated with aging, smoking, and physical inactivity.
Stem Cell Therapies [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
"Stem cell therapies are currently being applied to over 50 diseases, including heart, lung, neurodegenerative, and eye disease, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dozens of companies are developing therapeutic solutions that are in different stages of clinical use and clinical trials. Some high-profile therapies include Dendreon's Provenge for prostate cancer, Geron's first-ever embryonic stem cell trials for spinal cord injury, Fibrocell's laViv cellular therapy for wrinkles, and well-established commercial skin substitutes (Organogenesis' Apligraf and Advanced BioHealing's Dermagraft)." - (Melanie Swan, Rejuvenation Research, 2011).
Stem Cells [Links/stem cells, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, NIH Stem Cell Information, LibCong/stem cells, grown from human skin, Human Embryonic Stem Cells, culturing links, Biocompare stem cell culturing hardware; CELLSCRIPTTM; Howard Hughes Medical Institute Stem Cell Lectures, (8)]. Stem cells divide to form one daughter cell that remains a stem cell and another cell that can proliferate and then differentiate. See also
Adult stem cells (Index, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Bone marrow stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Cancer stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
___Suppressed with di-indolyl-methane from glucosinolates from cruciferous vegetables.
Cardiac stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Embryonic stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Endothelial progenitor cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Endothelial stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Hematopoietic stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF).
___Hematopoietic stem cells divide less than 100 times in humans [Ref, Lansdorp].
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
_____(Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF; CELLSCRIPTTM).
_____Kariko Katalin, Weissman Drew, et al., (2011),
_____Fast Telomere Extension may be the method of choice
_____for lenthening iPSC stem cell telomeres [Ref].
Intestinal stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Keratinocyte stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Mammary stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
MAPC stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
___Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books).
Meristematic stem cells (pine) (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Mesenchymal stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
___Yan Penga, Sha Huangc, Biao Chenga, Xiaohu Nieb,
___Jirigala Enhec, Changjiang Fengb, Xiaobing Fuc (2013),
___Mesenchymal stem cells: A revolution in therapeutic strategies of age-related diseases,
___[PDF], Ageing Research Reviews, 12 (2013) 103– 115.
___Vitamin C positively modulates mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and motility.
___Dash Surjya Narayan, Dash Nihar Ranjan, Guru Bhikaricharan, and Mohapatra Prakash Chandra
___(2014), Clinical Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Diabetic Foot Ulcers,
___Rejuvenation Research February 2014, 17(1): 40-53.
___Cartilage is derived from mesenchymal cells.
Muscle stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Muscle satellite stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Neural crest stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Neural stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
___Neuroprotective HGH improves proliferation of neural stem cells.
___DHEA treatment caused up to 29% increase in the number of neurons produced by stem cells.
Olfactory stem cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Pluripotent stem cells
_____(Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF; CELLSCRIPTTM);
Skin-derived precursor cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Testicular cells (Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF);
Transplants of Immortalized (Stem) Cells.
See Erasing Signs of Aging in Human Cells Now a Reality, Science Daily, 2011 and Laure Lapasset, Ollivier Milhavet, Alexandre Priur, et al. (2011), Rejuvenating senescent and centenarian human cells by reprogramming through the pluripotent state [PDF], Genes and Development 2011 25:2248-2253.
Johns Hopkins researchers recently found that a lone brain stem cell in mice is capable not only of replacing itself and giving rise to specialized neurons and glia (astroglia), but also of generating two new brain stem cells. - Biosingularity, July 2011. Max Planck Institute for Brain Research researchers in Frankfurt and Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics researchers in Freiburg succeeded in producing central nervous system cells from neural stem cells of the peripheral nervous system. If peripheral stem cells are maintained under defined growth conditions, they generate oligodendrocytes, which form the myelin layer that surrounds the neurons found in the brain and spinal cord. (op.cit.). See Michael D. West PhD (2013), How Engineered Stem Cells May Enable Youthful Immortality, Life Extension Magazine, February 2013. Also see ReCyte Therapeutics, a subsidiary of BioTime, which manufactures young cells to regenerate tissues afflicted with age-related degenerative diseases. See West MD, Vazin H. (2010), Back to Immortality: The restoration of embryonic telomere length during induced pluripotency, Regenerative Medicine, 2010; 5(4):485-8. See also Pathfinder Cells, which are used for organ repair [Patents, Books], but are not actually stem cells.
Stem Cells - Rick Weiss, "The Power to Divide - Stem Cells", National Geographic, July 2005, pg.2, NIH Stem Cell Information, Stem Cell Basics, Stem-Cell Research: Where Does It Go From Here?, Stem Cells Journal, Stem Cell Research Foundation, TIME on stem cells, Wikipedia on Stem Cells (Stem Cells as Green Gems.), Embryonic Stem Cells at the University of Madison, Wisconsin, LibCong/stem cells, Links/stem cells [56, (8)], [6]. Also see Regenerative Medicine.
StemLifeLine Home/StemLifeLine - A San Francisco based firm offering personalized stem cell creation for individualized therapies. [TIME article, (8)].
Stem Cell Transplants [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Transplants of Immortalized (Stem) Cells; (8)]. Invitrogen and other firms have worked out procedures for transfecting cell lines using liposomes containing plasmids fashioned from transfection reagents. For instance, see the Invitrogen NEON transfection system, which is applied to the electroporation of liposomes bearing plasmids into various in vitro cultures of cells such as dermal fibroblasts or T-cells. This method might be used to prepare rejuvenated adult stem cells for stem cell transplant operations. See hTERT plasmid sources. Michael Fossel suggested using C-myc plasmids for activating hTERT, since there are two sites for C-myc on the hTERT promoter. For other possibilities (such as hEST1A) based on plasmids including genes improving hTERT performance in telomerase synthesis, see TA/Telomerase Activators [List]. Transplanted fat cells enriched in stem cells directing regeneration may be used to reconstruct breast tissue after surgery in breast cancer. See Greg Fahy, PhD (2011), Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer Breast Restoration, Life Extension Magazine, December 2011.
Stem Cells replace Senescent Cells (Technique) See special questions and probes.
Stiff Back [Links/Treating Stiff Backs, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; (9)]. Old age stiff back and gait disorders are sometimes due to inflammation associated with TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha inhibitors such as luteolin (found in celery) may be used to alleviate stiff back. Anti-inflammatory drugs in general (such as fish oil) may be somewhat useful in treating stiff back. Boosting cerebrospinal fluid with supplements such as hyaluronic acid and SAMe may help. See also Joint Injuries, Glucosamine Sulfate, SAMe and Pain Medicine. Ibuprofen may be applied, although overuse is a hazard.
Stomach Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Cancer; Carcinogens; Anticancer Nutraceuticals, Apoptosis, Telomerase Inhibitors; Anticancer Telomerase Activators; Metastasis, NFkB, NFkB Inhibitors, Angiogenesis Inhibitors]. Allicin in crushed garlic can induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Helicobacter Pylori [Images] infections (which produce ulcers) can produce stomach cancer (gastric cancer). N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) may be used to treat Helicobacter pylori infections leading to gastric cancerogenesis. Vitamin K2 is also useful in treating cancers, including stomach cancer. See Carcinogens and Gastric Cancer. Tokita H, Tsuchida A, Miyazawa K, et al. (2006), Vitamin K2-induced antitumor effects via cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in gastric cancer cell lines, International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2006 Feb;17(2):235-43. Fahey JW, Haristoy X, Dolan PM et al. (May 2002), Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 99 (11): 7610–7615.
Steroid Receptor Superfamily [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Simple steroid hormones are uncharged and diffuse directly through the cell membrane. Steroid hormones [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] like estrogen or ecdysone (both telomerase activators), may be transported through the cell membrane and bind to steroid receptor superfamily proteins that can pass through the nuclear pore, bind to DNA, and activate transcription. Alternatively, some receptors are already bound to the promoter or enhancer region of a gene, and require the presence of a drug to bind to a receptor site to activate transcription of mRNA, which is subsequently bound to ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum to produce proteins or enzymes via translation with tRNAs. The steroid receptor superfamily are a family of nuclear transcription factors. Certain drugs (including perhaps telomerase activator cycloastragenol) can bind to nuclear transcription factors [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Wikipedia/transcription factor] bound to gene promoters, or bind to nuclear transcription factors that subsequently become bound to gene promoters, activating gene transciption.
Strivectin-SD Skin Cream Strivectin-SD Skin Cream - Includes a patented and effective anti-wrinkle oligopeptide [Links/anti-wrinkle oligopeptide, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Stroke [Wikipedia/Stroke, Links/Stroke, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension] [74].
stroke recovery [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension].
cerbral infarction [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
ischemic strokes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
intracerebral hemorrhages [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension],
subarachnoid hemorrhages [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Atherosclerosis is one of the primary causes of stroke. Another primary cause of stroke is Hypertension (high blood pressure), which can be elevated by too much salt in the diet, or high cortisol levels due to stress. Old age causes veinous repair mechanisms based on adult stem cells to fail, causing the brain to become more vulnerable to stroke when telomeres are short. Senescent endothelial cells are also more adhesive to monocytes, accelerating the development of atherosclerotic plaque. There are:
__(1) stroke risk reduction nutraceuticals [Papers, Patents, Books, LEF; Atherosclerosis, Plaque],
_____Olive oil, oleic acid, magnesium (hypertension control), ashwagandha (cortisol control), vasodilators.
_____Policosanol (cholesterol and lipid control), green tea, black tea (lipase inhibitors),
_____aspirin, ginkgo biloba, fish oil (platelet aggregation inhibitors),
_____alpha tocotrienol (by induction of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1), and
_____tocotrienol vitamin E, which induces arteriogenesis in canine specimens [1].
__(2) drugs and procedures that reduce stroke severity [LEF], and
__(3) drugs and procedures that assist with stoke recovery [LEF].
See also ischemic reperfusion injury and supplements reducing ischemic reperfusion injury. Medical studies show that olive oil reduces the risk of stroke substantially. Intensive olive oil users in one study experienced a 41% reduction in stroke incidence. In another study, patients with the highest plasma levels of oleic acid [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] had a 71% reduction in stroke incidence [5]. NFkB inhibitors also reduce stroke risks [6]. "Abnormal apoptosis of neurons is thought to underlie neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases and stroke. Studies of cultured neurons have shown that TERT overexpression can prevent apoptosis in experiments relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and stroke." [7].
Policosanol, found naturally in beeswax and sugar cane, is effective at reducing blood lipid levels [Papers, Books] for people with high cholesterol. Policosanol treatment improves outcomes in ischemic stroke.
High leptin levels are associated with stroke [3], [4], and may be reduced with melatonin, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, and omega-3 fatty acids.
[1] Rink C, Christoforidis G, Khanna S, et al.(2011),
Tocotrienol vitamin E protects against preclinical canine ischemic stroke by inducing arteriogenesis,
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2011 Nov;31(11):2218-30. See Tocotrienols and Vitamin E.
[2] Fanaei H , Karimian SM, Sadeghipour HR, et al. (2014),
Testosterone enhances functional recovery after stroke through promotion of antioxidant defenses, BDNF levels and neurogenesis in male rats, Brain Res 2014 Apr 16;1558:74-83. See Testosterone.
[3] Soderberg S, Stegmayr B, Ahlbeck-Glader C, Slunga-Birgander L, Ahren B, Olsson T (2003),
High leptin levels are associated with stroke, Cerebrovasc Dis 2003;15(1-2):63-9. (Index/Leptin).
[4] Henriksen JH, Holst JJ, Moller S, Andersen UB, Bendtsen F, Jensen G (200),
Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin, Clin Sci (Lond) 2000 Dec;99(6):527-34 (Index/Leptin).
[5] Dana Dye (2011),
Olive Oil Use linked with Lower Risk of Stroke, Life Extension Magazine, September 2011.
[6] Schneider A, Martin-Villalba A, Weih F, Vogel J, Wirth T, Schwaniger M (1999),
NF-kappaB is activated and promotes cell death in focal cerebral ischemia,
Nature Medicine 5:554-559.
[7] Mark P. Mattson, Peisu Zhang, and Weiming Fu (2000-2012),
Roles for TERT and Telomerase in Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis, Marie Curie Bioscience Database.
Stroma [Definition, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension]. The supportive tissue around an organ secreted and maintained by fibroblasts [Index], which typically have a Hayflick Limit of 50.
Sugars [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension/sugars]. Bodybuilders have used simple sugars like dextrose (glucose), which are very rapidly digested, as insulin boosters. Honey is another fast-digesting sugar. They have been applied in post-workout shakes, ideally with pre-digested whey protein hydrolysates, to stop muscle catabolism after a workout and restore glycogen to muscle tissue. Since sugar damage such as glycation is dangerous, muscle catabolism is probably better opposed with cortisol inhibitors such as ashwagandha, creatine monohydrate, and DHEA. Whey protein isolates may be used with insulin elevation, but the whey hydrolysates support muscle synthesis better, and then elevating insulin helps the muscles absorb whey peptides and branched-chain amino acids. Note that keeping insulin high all the time can lead to metabolic syndrome, obesity, type II diabetes, and other fatso curses to be opposed with caloric restriction. Incidentally, fats are more fattening than sugars. In reality, the insulin elevation after a workout should not be applied from ingestion of sugars, which can cause glycation damage leading to Alzheimers Disease, but from insulin-boosting supplements such as gymnema sylvestre and fenugreek extract. Note that Larry Scott died of Alzheimer's Disease at 75, possibly traceable to sugar-boost insulin spiking.
Sugar damage [Mercola/Sugar damage, LibCong/glycation, sugar and insulin], [47], (5). See the index entries for Glycation, Protein Glycation, Carbonylation of Proteins, Carbonylation of Proteins or DNA, Diabetes, Caloric Restriction, and Metabolic Syndrome.
Sulforaphane and Isothiocyanates [VitaCost/Sulforaphane and isothiocyanates, Wikipedia/Sulforaphane, Links/sulforaphane, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension/Sulforaphane; Links/isothiocyanates, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Wikipedia/Broccoli_sprouts]. Molecular formula C6H11NOS2, Molar mass 177.29 g/mol. Sulforaphane is obtained from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli sprouts, broccoli, Brussels sprouts or cabbages. "The enzyme myrosinase transforms glucoraphanin, a glucosinolate, into sulforaphane upon damage to the plant (such as from chewing). Young sprouts of broccoli and cauliflower are particularly rich in glucoraphanin." - Wikipedia/Sulforaphane. Sulforaphane in broccoli [25f], protects retinal pigment epithelial cells against photooxidative damage, is cancer-preventative, and helps suppress Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that causes stomach ulcers and is associated with many cases of stomach cancer [Life Extension Magazine, July 2009]. Sulforaphane is used to prevent prostate cancer, as well as stomach cancer, inhibits breast cancer stem cells, and is generally valuable for its antioxidant properties. Sulforaphane is found in greatest abundance in broccoli sprouts [Links/sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts]. Sulforaphane acetylates DNA, expanding chromatin and promoting transcription from genes.
[1] Dashwood RH, Ho E (October 2007),
Dietary histone deacetylase inhibitors: from cells to mice to man,
Seminars on Cancer Biology 17 (5): 363–369.
[2] Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG, Posner GH (March 1992),
A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure,
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (6): 2399–2403.
[3] Li et al. (2010),
Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells,
Clinical Cancer Research 16 (9): 2580–2590.
[4] Fahey JW, Haristoy X, Dolan PM et al. (May 2002),
Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (11): 7610–7615.
[5] Syed M. Meeran, Shweta N. Patel, and Trygve O. Tollefsbol (2010),
Sulphoraphane Causes Epigenetic Repression of hTERT Expression in Human Breast Cancer Lines,
PLos One, July 2010, vol.5, issue 7, e11457.
[6] Dong-Oh Moona, Sang-Hyuck Kanga, Ki-Cheon Kima, Mun-Ock Kimb, Yung Hyun Choic and Gi-Young Kim (2010), Sulforaphane decreases viability and telomerase activity in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells through the reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway, Cancer Letters, Volume 295, Issue 2, 28 September 2010, Pages 260-266.
Sunburn [Wikipedia/Sunburn; Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Sunburn as a carcinogen, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension; Skin Cancer; Melanoma; Links/Sun screens, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension].
Supercentenarians [Wikipedia/Centenarian; Wikipedia/Supercentenarians, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Supercentenarians are over 110 years of age. Only 153 supercentenarians [Supercentenarian Counts] over 110 years of age are known to exist in the 18 major developed countries according to Robert & Vaupel, 2001, cited by the biology of aging [Books, Amazon] expert Robert Arking, although gerontologist Robert Young has found 696 claimants worldwide. Note that more than 56,000 Americans are centenarians over 100 years of age. The 122 year, 164 day world record holder in aging is Jeanne Calment (b.1875-d.1997). Supercentenarians are most likely to die in January and least likely to die in July [Ref].
Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) [Index/SOD, Wikipedia/Superoxide Dismutase, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension]. "The SOD molecule in the cytoplasm contains copper & zinc atoms (Cu/Zn-SOD), whereas the SOD in mitochondria contains manganese (MnSOD)." (Ben Best), Superoxide Dismutase image, the 3 SODS, Superoxide Dismutase and Oxidative Stress, Links/superoxide dismutase, Life Extension mag on Superoxide Dismutase, [52], [48s], [49s]. Human superoxide dismutases include

SOD1 [cytoplasmic SOD,
__(boosted by CoQ10, ubiquinol, alpha lipoic acid, apple polyphenols, and resveratrol)],
SOD2 [mitochondrial SOD,
__(boosted by exercise, apple polyphenols, resveratrol, and carnosine)], and
SOD3 [extracellular SOD,
__(boosted by resveratrol)].

Superoxide dismutase may be elevated with SODzyme [Images], GlySODin [Images], Huperzine A [Images], Ashwagandha [Images], or Chinese Wolfberry [Images] (GoJi Berry [Images]). SOD-mimetics such as MnTBAP [Images] (taken by injection only) and Wasabi [Images] are also useful. Also examine chaga, xango, wheatgrass, huperzine A, shilajit, and noni as nutraceuticals elevating SOD levels. Note that ashwagandha and bacopa both elevate the expression of endogenous antioxidants including SOD. Wheatgrass elevates both SOD and catalase.
Superoxide Dismutase, extra-cellular [Index/SOD, Wikipedia/SOD3, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], structure still unknown. Boosted by resveratrol.
Superoxide Dismutase, mitochondrial [Index/SOD, Wikipedia/SOD2, Links, Images, Video, Books, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension]. 8% of the SOD in rodents, 50% of SOD in man. Boosted by exercise, apple polyphenols, resveratrol, and carnosine.
Superoxide Dismutase, cytoplasmic [Index/SOD, Wikipedia/SOD1, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Boosted by CoQ10, ubiquinol, alpha lipoic acid, apple polyphenols, and resveratrol. Superoxide Dismutase links, LibCong, [52].
Supplement Dosages, Optimum for anti-aging, [According to Kurzweil and Grossman, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/Optimum supplement dosages, Images, Video, Papers, Books]. [62s].
Supplement Science [, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. See also The Medical Biochemistry Page. [Links/Medical Biochemistry, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon].
Guide to Pharmacology: Receptors and Ligands
Supplements Eliminating Senescent Cells
(See special/Supplements Eliminating Senescent Cells).
Supraphysiological Mitogenic Signals [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Supraphysiological mitogenic signals can cause a cell to enter the senescent state. Chromosomal damage can also cause cellular senescence [Links, Papers, Patents, Books]. This is typically due to shortened telomeres that finally produce a DNA damage signal when capping telomere t-loops come undone.
Surgery [Links/Surgery, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong;
Links/Surgical Oncology, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong;
Links/Plastic Surgery, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong;
Links/Surgical Instruments, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong;
Links/Cryosurgery, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong;
Links/Surgical Nursing, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong;
Links/Surgical Supplies, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong].
Surgery, Anti-Aging [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Neck Rejuvenation; Refs11/Plastic Surgery for Neck Rejuvenation]. Anti-Aging surgery is today usually plastic surgery for rejuvenation, probably more stem cell and bone marrow transplant-oriented in the future.
Surgical Methods See [Bibliography/Surgical Methods, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong/surgical methods; Links/Surgical Equipment, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong/surgical methods].
Suzanne Somers [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon].
Suzanne Somers. Author of Ageless, Knockout, Bombshell, Breakthrough, and Sexy Forever, books on maintaining optimum condition. See Books by Suzanne Somers [Images]. Suzanne Somers is a member of the Life Extension Foundation, and has written articles for Life Extension Magazine.

Synephrine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Synephrine (bitter orange) is the active component of citrus aurantium [Images] that stimulates receptors on fat cells that increase the release of fat, effectively increasing the metabolic rate and curbing appetite. Synephrine is recommended as 200-600 mg/dose of citrus aurantium [Images] standardized for 5-50 mg/dose of synephrine 2-3 times/day before meals. - (after Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 2010).
Syn-Tacks [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
According to Marta, "Five Best anti-aging ingredients to look out for", Truth in Aging, February 19, 2009, "Syn-Tacks is a synthetic peptide made by combining two peptides: palmitoyl dipeptide-5 diaminobutyloyl hydroxytheronine [Images, Papers, Patents] and palmitoyl dipeptide-6 diaminohydroxybutyrate [Images, Papers, Patents]. According to the manufacturer of Syn-Tacks, these two peptides interact with the most relevant protein structures of the dermal-epidermal junction [Images, Papers] and stimulates a broad spectrum of things responsible for youthful skin – laminin V, collagen types IV, VII and XVII and integrin – all at once. Collagen IV activity is increased by 190%, according to the manufacturer. However, as yet, there are no independent tests to verify this."
Synthetic Catalytic Scavengers [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Synthetic catalytic scavengers from Eukarion extend the life span of C.Elegans 50% (1).
Systemic Calcification [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Aortic Sclerosis, Aortic Stenosis, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Atherosclerotic Plaque, Osteoporosis, Calcium, Magnesium, Soy, Vitamin K2, Vitamin D]. I get the impression that: When calcium is low for normal physiological processes, the body may extract calcium from the bones for the task involved. If vitamin K2 and vitamin D are low then, the calcium does not go back into the bones, and systemic calcification with osteoporosis from robbing the bones of calcium may result. Soy can help prevent osteoporosis. Using a calcium supplement prevents the body from robbing the bones for calcium, and helps prevent calcification of tissues. A calcium supplement, Vitamin K2, and vitamin D help prevent aortic stenosis and aortic sclerosis, the "hardening of the heart" that can stop exercise from keeping the immune system up with endogenous telomerase activators. Thus Jack Lalanne, low on vitamin K2 from taking it only from vegetables and never from the superior sources Swiss cheese, Gouda cheese, or natto, and probably without a calcium supplement, wound up with aortic stenosis, tending to discourage the exercise that kept his immune system strong enough to deflect the pneumonia which finally killed him. Garlic might have been used to defeat the pneumonia, but then one smells like garlic, a fine sex repellant with fumes that pass through one like a gas. Furthermore, calcification of atherosclerotic plaque, making it more difficult to treat, or arterosclerosis from calcification of arterial tissues and or glycation from blood high sugar, may take place in the absence of vitamin K2, vitamin D, and a calcium supplement.
[1] Demer LL, Tintut Y (2009),
Mechanisms linking osteoporosis with cardiovascular calcification,
Curr Osteoporos Rep 2009 Jul;7(2):42-6.
[2] Hjortnaes J, Butcher J, Figueiredo JL, et al. (2010),
Arterial and aortic valve calcification inversely correlates with osteoporotic bone remodelling: a role for inflammation, Eur Heart J 2010 Aug;31(16):1975-84.
[3] Wallin R, Schurgers L, Wajih N (2008),
Effects of the blood coagulation vitamin K as an inhibitor of arterial calcification,
Thromb Res 2008;122(3):411-7.
[4] Fodor D, Albu A, Poanta L, Porojan M (2010),
Vitamin K and vascular calcifications, Acta Physiol Hung 2010 Sep;97(3):256-66.

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