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L-Theanine [Links, Images/supplements, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. L-theanine "contributes to weight management and reduction of abdominal fat... L-theanine also reduces fatty acids in blood serum." - Vince Giuliano, AntiAging Firewalls. L-theanine from green tea also boosts dopamine levels. See Kakuda T. (2002), Neuroprotective effects of the green tea components theanine and catechins, Biol Pharm Bull 2002 Dec;25 (12):1513-8.
Theories of Aging [IAAS/Theories of Aging, Links/Theories of Aging, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon LibCong/Theories of Aging]. See our main essay.
Therapeutic Cloning [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension, (8)]. Therapeutic cloning is a method of obtaining genetically matched cells and tissues via cloning. Pioneered by Dr. Michael D. West, founder of Geron and other bioscience firms. See also Nuclear Reprogramming and induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS cells) [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Thiamine [Oregon State/Thiamine, Links/Thiamine, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension/Thiamine]. Thiamine and Benfotiamine are water & fat-soluble forms of Vitamin B1 that prevent glucose from reacting with protein, counteracting glycation and glucose toxicity. See related anti-aging Thiazolium compounds and Links/Thiazolium compounds.
Thin-Layer Chromatography [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon]. See Instrumental Analysis.
Thiodiproprionic acid (an antioxidant), [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. [36s] (d).
Thrombophebitis [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension/Thrombophlebitis; Wikipedia/Phlebitis, Links, Video, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension/Phlebitis; Index/Varicose Veins].
Thrombolytic Drugs [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Anticoagulants, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension/Anticoagulants].
Thyme [Telomerase Activators/Thyme, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme]. Thyme contains a ligand of the progesterone receptor, and is thereby a telomerase activator. Consider the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR [HGNC, OMIM]) in different tissues in connection with its use. Thyme can assist with she male or feminine special effects. Hip broadening via bone restructuring, however, may be done with nutraceuticals such as licorice that exhibit strong estrogen bioactivity and proceed through estrogen beta receptors. Thyme is also a source of luteolin, an anti-inflammatory, anticancer TNF inhibitor with application against colon cancer, Alzheimer's Disease and other inflammatory diseases of old age. Note thyme contains antibacterial, antifungual, and anticancer "thymol". Furthermore, thyme contains apigenin, which has has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties and reduces ovarian cancer risk. Thyme, a source of the aniseptic used in Listerine, was used by the ancient Egyptians in embalming, and by the ancient Greeks, who believed it was a source of courage, and burnt it as incense in their temples. Note peppermint inhibits HIV-1.
Music: Incense and Peppermint by the Strawberry Alarm Clock.
Thymus Gland [Smart Drugs/Thymus Gland, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/Thymus Gland, Amazon, LibCong; Links/Restoring thymus gland function, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension], [21s]. The thymus gland over the heart makes T-cells, and begins to shut down functionally in young adulthood. It can be rejuvenated by 5-10 grams/day of arginine, or by a combination of L-arginine with L-citrulline to boost vasodilating nitric oxide, which can be sustained with horny goat weed. However, some problems have been identified in restoring thymus function from regrowth of the thymus via castration. See Ann V. Griffith, Mohammad Fallahi, Thomas Venables, Howard T. Petrie (2012), Persistent degenerative changes in thymic organ function revealed by an inducible model of organ regrowth, Aging Cell, February 2012, 11(1):169-177. That systemic stimuli like castration induce regrowth has been known for more than 100 years. "Induced thymic regrowth [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] is not durable, with the regrown organ returning to an atrophic state within 2 weeks of reaching peak size... The regrown thymus clearly makes more T lymphocytes than its atrophic counterpart..." Continuing daily use of 5-10 grams of arginine for vasodilating nitric oxide to regrow the thymus may be more effective, along with horny goat weed to preserve nitric oxide by inhibiting the NO-destroying enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5). Pycnogenol [Images], by increasing the activity of nitric oxide synthase, acts like a catalyst for the production of nitric oxide from arginine at 50-100 mg. Pycnogenol is also a component of the nitric oxide stack recommended by Jim Stoppani. Also see William Rudolph (2010), Regrow your Thymus Gland with Colostrum [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], Natural News, Friday May 21, 2010.
 Palmer DB (2013), The effect of age on thymic function, Front Immunol 34. 2013;4:316.
Thymic Theory of Aging [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] [21s].
Thyroid Hormones [Links/Thyroid hormones, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/T3, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/T4, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Thyromend/Thyroid Herbs]. UCP3 may be upregulated by thyroid hormone T3, which may be obtained from thyroid hormone T4. The UPC3 gene's protein product is thought to protect mitochondria against lipid-induced oxidative stress. Thyroid hormone T4 may be upregulated by bacopa, then converted to thyroid hormone T3 by bauhiniastatins from bauhinia purpurea L. Thyroid hormone T3 may also be upregulated directly by 7-keto-DHEA to generate UCP3. Guggulsterones [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] are plant sterols extracted from the Indian tree commiphora mukul. E guggulsterones and Z gugglesterones are the most bioactive, enhancing thyroid hormone output and thermogenesis for improved fat burning. Guggulsterones also improve joint recovery and cholesterol levels. Guggulsterones are taken at 20-60 mg/dose 2 or 3 times per day. The amino acid tyrosine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] is used by the body to make norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, and thyroid hormones that raise metabolism, burn fat, and curb appetite. Tyrosine is recommended at 1/2 gram/day to 1 gram/day, 2 times/day, and also 30 minutes prior to workouts.
 Bassett, J. H., P. J. O’Shea, S. Sriskantharajah, et al. (2007),
Thyroid hormone excess rather than thyrotropin deficiency induces osteoporosis in hyperthyroidism,
Mol Endocrinol May;2 1(5): 1095–107. PMID: 17327419.
 Zaidi, M., T. F. Davies, A. Zallone, et al. (2009),
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and bone loss, Curr Osteoporos Rep Jul;7(2):47– 52.
Tianma [Links/Tianma, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
 Ramachandran U, Manavalan A, Sundaramurthi H, et al. (2012),
Tianma modulates proteins with various neuro-regenerative modalities in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, Neurochem Int 2012 Jun;60(8):827-36.
 Manavalan A, Ramachandran U, Sundaramurthi H, et al (2012),
Gastrodia elata Blume (tianma) mobilizes neuro-protective capacities, Int J Biochem Mol Biol 2012;3(2):219-41.
 Zhang CY, Du GY, Wang W, et al. (2004),
Effects of tianma gouteng fang on transmitter amino acids in the hippocampus extracellular liquids in freely moving rats subjected to brain ischemia, Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2004 Nov;29(11):1061-5.
 An SJ, Park SK, Hwang IK, et al. (2003),
Gastrodin decreases immunoreactivities of gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt enzymes in the hippocampus of seizure-sensitive gerbils, J Neurosci Res 2003 Feb 15;71(4):534-43.
 Wei J, Zhou Y. (2012),
Treatment of posterior circulation ischemia with gastrodin and betahistine, Practical Clinical Medicine 2012;13(4).
TIN2 [Shelterin/TIN2, Links/TIN2 protein, Links/telomeric TIN2 protein, Images, Papers, Patents Books; Shelterin, Telosome]. A telomeric t-loop control protein. See TRF2, TRF1.
TIN2: TINF2 (NCBI/TINF2, Wikipedia, Links, Images/TIN2 gene, Images/TIN2,
___Papers, Patents, Books; TRF1-interacting protein 2).
___TIN2 (the shelterin lynchpin), tethers TPP1/POT1 to TRF1 and TRF2,
______connects TRF1 to TRF2, stabilizing TRF2 on telomeres, and
______can enhance some of TRF1's architectural effects on double-stranded telomeric DNA.
___TIN2 is a negative regulator of telomere length (Xin, Liu, & Songyang, 2008).
___Inhibiting TIN2 enlongates telomeres by reducing TIN2 interference with tankyrase 1.
___TIN2 promotes nuclear retention of TPP1 and POT1.
___TIN2-, TPP1- and POT1-interacting proteins are clustered together.
___TIN2 blocks tankyrase 1 from poly(ADP-ribo)sylation of TRF1 and consequent
____TRF1 stripping, contributing to the accumulation of TRF1,
____allowing it to recruit POT1 to single-stranded telomeric DNA. (Ye and de Lange, 2004).
___So knockdown of TIN2 by siRNA derepresses tankyrase 1 at telomeres, removing TRF1,
____allowing the telomerase holoenzyme to access telomeres (Ye and de Lange, 2004).
____Dyskeratosis congenita (a form of bone marrow failure) is associated with mutations in
______exon 6 of TIN2 which often produce short telomeres. (T.Vulliamy, et al, 2011).
____A novel TIN2 variant tethers telomeres to the nuclear matrix.
______(Kaminker PG, Kim SH, Desprez PY, Campisi J., 2009).
___TIN2-Tethered TPP1 Recruits Human Telomerase to Telomeres (Abreu, et al, 2010).
___A TIN2 mutation causes Ataxia and pancytopenia. (Tsangarts, et.al, 2008).
Tinnitis [Links/Tinnitis, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon, She Male Longevity/Tinnitis]. Tinnitis is an unexplained buzzing or ringing in a person's inner ear. High serum levels of CoQ10 reduce tinnitis effects. See J. Finkel (2012), CoQ10 May Combat Tinnitis Effects, Life Extension Magazine, January 2012. Also see Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2011 Sep;19(9):1150-7 and the article Alexander Brookner (2012), Strategies to Protect and Preserve Your Hearing, Life Extension Magazine, May 2012. According to Brookner, tinnitis can be caused by impulse noise. Ethanol lowers our resistance to tinnitis, and to sexuality, which can also induce tinnitis and earrings mirroring a ringing in the ears of a sex star angel. (Tonight us, to knight us.) Sometimes tinnitis is associated with vibrational mental telephathy at close range, or with odd panics and rumors extracted from vibrational static at considerable distance. Many hope to return to the quiet sleep of innocent babes, while some (ΣiQi) prefer a methodology of sex before sleep which may be fitful, leaving ears full of strangely talkative static full of rumors but quite useless for news at great distances from sensitive souls. Then men speak of "listening to their fears", or of the sirens, the Muses of the lower world (femme fatales) who combined women and birds that haunted Ulysses bound to a mast. Tinnitis seems to have evolved as defense mechanism for gay belles, allowing them to evesdrop on the brainwave vibrations of insensitive ogres and nerve-deaf nerds for self-defense or selection purposes, or to transcieve vibrations between fairy godmothers, between ladies and gentlemen, and between true comrades to commune and trip the light fantastic for social purposes, subvocal conversation, murmuring quips, or voyages in Nirvana. It is associated with a Pocahauntas Pentacost effect making it easier to speak in tongues and master foreign speech. As a means to communicate, tinnitis may be programmed in by primal sex star keys predating movies and lost arks of reading and writing, turning on an internal "radio" in a well-stoked sympathetic nervous system. The "nn" in tinnitis seems to mirror the two-finger Sacred Heart church key held to the shoulder by Popes and ecclesiastical officials, or the "How-to" two-finger swirl twisted out at arms length by Bolsheviks for CommuNisM. Long hair seems to hold in signal-coupling musk that improves vibrational sensitivity associated with tinnitis. Every vapid drop of it must be blown away by a fan sometimes to reduce tinnitis symptoms. In Spain, tinnitis sensitivity seems to be amplified by the pricking up of ears as aging proceeds, to support Old Time Communion.
85 Years in Four Minutes - Ears Prick Up in The Grandfather Zone.
Music: Danny Boy, What I Like About You by the Romantics.
Tissue Engineering [Links/Tissue Engineering, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Index/Regenerative Medicine]. See "the decellularization approach to the vascularization problem" - spoken of by Aubrey de Grey in Why Aren't More Wealthy People Funding Aging Research?, Life Extension Magazine, September 2011.
TMG or TriMethylGlycine [Links/Trimethylglycine, Images, Papers, Patents, Books], [32s]. Trimethyglycine (TMG) is typically used in a homocysteine blocker composed of TMG, folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. This is used to inhibit atherosclerotic plaque.
TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha) [Telomerase Activators/(41) TNF-alpha, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension; OMIM/TNF-alpha; TNF ligands (family), TNF receptors (family)]. "The cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induces cell death, perhaps as a way of eliminating damaged or unwanted cells from tissues." - from Cell Signaling, p. 617, The Cell, A Molecular Approach, by Cooper and Housman, 4th edition. TNF-alpha causes apoptosis, cellular proliferation, cellular differentiation, inflammation, tumorigenesis, and viral replication, and has been implicated in Alzheimer's Disease. Note that amyloid-beta from inflammation triggers an increase in TNF-alpha, resulting in further inflammation and amyloid-beta production. Resveratrol and carnosine are amyloid-beta inhibitors [LifeExtension]. Curcumin may be used to combat TNF-alpha-induced inflammation in neurons. TNF-alpha inhibitors [Mayo Clinic/TNF inhibitors] include monoclonal antibodies such as infliximab (Remicade) or adalimumab (Humira), or circulating receptor fusion proteins such as etanercept (Enbrel). Also see Luteolin and the index entry for Luteolin. Note that punicanolic acid in pomegranate flower extracts inhibits the production of TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha's primary role is in the regulation of immune cells. There are indications that TNF-alpha can act to inhibit hTERT expression. See Odile Beyne-Rauzy, Naïs Prade-Houdellier, Cécile Demur, Christian Recher, Jacques Ayel, Guy Laurent, and Véronique Mansat-De Mas (2005), Tumor necrosis factor- alpha inhibits hTERT gene expression in human myeloid normal and leukemic cells, Blood, 1 November 2005, Vol. 106, No. 9, pp. 3200-3205. "The cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) induces cell death, perhaps as a way of eliminating damaged or unwanted cells from tissues. The receptors for TNF and related death-signaling molecules are associated with specific proteases, which are activated in response to ligand binding. Activation of these receptor-associated proteases triggers the activation of additional downstream proteases, ultimately leading to degradation of a a variety of intracellular proteins and the death of the cell." - Geoffrey M. Cooper and Robert R. Hausman, The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 4th edition, (2007) p.617. Thus TNF-alpha inflammation in Alzheimer's Disease tends to sculpt out dead neurons in the brain. Exercise [List, (9)] elevated expression of telomerase-activating TNF-alpha (1.5 fold) in Frank Zaldivar, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, Dan Nemet, Christina Schwindt, Pietro Galassetti, Paul J. Mills, Lori D. Wilson and Dan M. Cooper (2006), Constitutive pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and growth factor response to exercise in leukocytes, Journal of Applied Physiology 100:1124-1133, 2006.
TNF-Alpha Inhibitors [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension]. TNF-alpha inhibitors include:
Tocotrienols (Vitamin E tocotrienols) [Telomerase Activators/(173) Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction, LibCong, Index/Gamma Tocotrienol, Links/Tocotrienols, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension; Links/nutrional tocotrienol sources; Images/Tocotrienol-rich fraction supplements with alpha-tocopherol from palm oil; Images/Tocotrienol-rich fraction skin cream with alpha-tocopherol from palm oil]. See Tocotrienols Could Reduce DNA Damage That Leads To Cancer . "Tocotrienols are concentrated in cereal grains such as oat, barley, and rye, rice bran, with the highest level found in crude palm oil." - Wikipedia/tocotrienol. Tocotrienols have greater antioxidant activity than tocopherols and protect more efficiently against some free radical-related diseases than tocopherols. Tocotrienols such as gamma-delta tocotrienol cut triglycerides, reduce metabolic syndrome lipid levels, reduce triglyceride-induced platelet activation leading to clots, reduce triglyceride accumulation in the left ventricle of the heart, and lower blood levels of LDL and VLDL cholesterol. "Tocotrienol-rich palm oil, rice oils, and purified tocotrienols at doses of approximately 100-200 mg per day have induced these beneficial effects". At these dosages, tocotrienols have reduced total cholesterol and LDL levels by as much as 37% in aging individuals with abnormal lipid profiles, also effectively combating cancer and neurodegenerative disease with multitargeted anti-inflammatory effects. See Jen Storch, Reduce Stubbornly High Triglycerides, Life Extension Magazine, June 2011. Annatto is an excellent source of delta- and gamma tocotrienol without interfering tocopherols. See, for instance, Solaray Annatto Tocotrienols and Annatto Tocotrienol supplements [Images]. See Suzana Makpol, Azrina Zainal Abidin, Khalilah Sairin, Musalmah Mazlan, Gapor Md Top, and Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah (2010), Gamma-Tocotrienol prevents oxidative stress-induced telomere shortening in human fibroblasts derived from different aged individuals, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 3(1); Jan-Feb 2010. See H.Adachi and N.Ishii (2000), The effects of tocotrienols on life span and protein carbonylation in Caenorhabditis Elegans, The Journals of Gerontology Series A, vol 55, no. 6, pp. B280-B285, 2000. Gamma tocotrienol [List] reduces expression of collagenase from senescent fibroblasts, protecting the extracellular matrix, and has favorable impact on gene expression in both senescent and normal fibroblasts, tending to oppose aging. Tocotrienol-rich fraction containing alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols alpha, beta, gamma, and delta from rice bran [Images], palm oil [Images], oat [Images], or barley [Images], tends to produce telomerase activity in senescent fibroblasts, lengthen telomeres, restore fibroblast morphology, and restart the cell cycle. Tocotrienols have extended animal lifetimes by 18%. See Suzana Makpol, Azalina Zainuddin, Kien Hui Chua, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, and Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah (2012), Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts [NCBI DOC], Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2012 February; 67(2): 135–143, and also Makpol S, Durani LW, Chua KH, Mohd Yusof YA, Ngah WZ (2011), Tocotrienol-rich fraction prevents cell cycle arrest and elongates telomere length in senescent human diploid fibroblasts, [NCBI DOC], Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011 Mar 30. Telomerase Activators/(173) Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction. Also see Thomas Rosenthal (2014), Little-Known Benefits of Tocotrienols, Life Extension Magazine August 2014. Tocotrienols reduce the incidence of stroke, reduce homocysteine levels, improve insulin sensitivity, have valuable anticancer properties (for instance against pancreatic cancer), lower lipid levels (by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase), are neuroprotective, and prevent bone loss. See Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Prasad S, Kannappan R. (2010), Tocotrienols, the vitamin E of the 21st century: its potential against cancer and other chronic diseases, Biochem Pharmacol 2010 Dec 1;80(11):1613-31.
Tomatoes Health_Benefits/Tomatoes, contain antioxidant lycopene [Links/Lycopene, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension]. [25h].
Tooth Replacement [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon/Oral Tooth Replacement, Dental].
TOR (Target Of Rapamycin) [Index/mTOR, Wiki/Mammalian target of rapamycin, Links/mTOR, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/mTOR inhibitors, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/mTOR pathway, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Caloric restriction and methionine restriction may enhance life span via mTOR pathway inhibition. TOR inhibitors are useful in dealing with cancer subsequent to operations. See also TOR pathway. "Encoded by the FRAP1 gene, mTOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription.... Decreased TOR activity has been found to slow aging in S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, and D. melanogaster. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has been confirmed to increase lifespan in mice by independent groups at the Jackson Laboratory, University of Texas Health Science Center, and the University of Michigan. It's hypothesized that some dietary regimes, like caloric restriction and methionine restriction, cause lifespan extension by decreasing mTOR activity." - Wikipedia.
Torabolic (Fenugreek Extract) [Links/Fenugreek Extract, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Torabolic, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Torabolic (Fenugreek Extract) promotes muscle growth in bodybuilding. FLEX magazine recommends 500 to 1000 mg 30-60 minutes before a workout and 500-1000 mg before breakfast on rest days. Fenugreek (Torabolic) elevates testosterone via the action of furostanolic saponins [Images] which increase the expression of DHEA and LH (Luteinizing Hormone).
Toxicology [Wikipedia/Toxicity, Links/Toxicity, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon/drug toxicity, q-TOX Drug toxicity prediction software, Books/Drug Toxicity; Wikipedia/LD50; Wikipedia/Toxicology, Links/Toxicology, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LibCong, Amazon/Toxicology; Books/Drug Dosages, Links/Drug Dosages, LifeExtension/Supplement Dosages; Toxicology of Astragalus].
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) elucidates molecular mechanisms by which environmental chemicals affect human disease. See LibCong/toxicogenomics, Links/Poisons, Index/Carcinogens, Links/Teratogens.
Trade Shows Eventseye: Trade Shows Worldwide, Links/Trade Shows USA, Biz Trade Shows, Trade Show Event Resource, Trade Show Scratchpad.
Transduction [Wikipedia/Transduction_(genetics), Links/Transduction in genetics, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon/Transduction; Wikipedia/Viral_vector, Links/Viral vectors, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon/Transduction].
Transfection [Wikipedia/Gene Therapy, LifeExtension/Gene Therapy; Links/Gene Transfection Protocols, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon/Gene Transfection Protocols; Wikipedia/Transfection, Links/Transfection, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Plasmid Transfection, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Gene transfer in cationic liposomes, Images; Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/hTERT transfection, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; LibCong/Transfection, Amazon/Transfection]. Transfection of cells with hTERT plasmids or transfected hTERT proviral code that integrates into the genome, placing an extra copy of the hTERT gene, may extend the life span of an in vitro cell line and a proportion of these cells become immortal [Books], but not malignantly transformed [Books]. Transfection with a genetically engineered retrovirus [Links/retroviral transfection, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] or plasmid [Links/plasmid transfection, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] is a method of inserting a gene into the genome of a host organism. See Gene Therapy [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon], Index/Gene Therapy, and Index/Adenovirus Transfection. See also [Index/Gene Therapy, Links/Gene Therapy Safety Issues, Links/Safety Issues in Adenovirus Transfection for Gene Therapy Applications]. So far, adenovirus transfection looks safe enough for in vitro cell cultures, and I gather experimenters have survived it, although not all patients have recovered from gene therapy. Adenovirus transfections always go to the same site in the genome. Associated Adenovirus AAV transfections always map to a site on Chromosome 19 and are mild by comparison in their side-effects, but the AAV virus cannot contain hTERT, although it can manage to encode relatively compact fluorphores like Green Fluorescent Protein. It may be useful to explore transfection with relatively compact cDNA hTERT from which introns have been eliminated. Invitrogen and other firms have worked out procedures for transfecting cell lines using liposomes containing plasmids fashioned from transfection reagents.
[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Altogen Biosystems/Cell Type Specific Transfection Reagents; Links/Cell Type Specific Transfection Reagents; Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/mRNA Transfection Reagents, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. For instance, see the Invitrogen NEON transfection system, which is applied to the electroporation of liposomes bearing plasmids into various in vitro cultures of cells such as dermal fibroblasts or T-lymphocytes. This method might be used to prepare rejuvenated adult stem cells for stem cell transplant operations. See also Origene Transfection Reagents, Lipofectamine, and FuGene Transfection Reagents from Promega. See hTERT plasmid sources. Michael Fossel suggested using C-myc plasmids for activating hTERT, since there are several sites for C-myc on the hTERT promoter. (See Plasmids.) For other possibilities (such as hEST1A, also called EST1p) based on plasmids including genes improving hTERT performance in telomerase synthesis, see TA/Telomerase Activators and the hTERT promoter. Note that "Intracellular plasmid copy number increases during exposure to a liposomal vector and decreases after the vector removal. In one case, HeLa cells were incubated with a cationic liposomal vector for 24 h. Fluorescent EMA-pGL1 plasmid entry was detected by flow cytometry. At first we see increasing fluorescence intensity distribution during exposure to the liposomal vector. Later we see decreasing fluorescence intensity distribution after removal of the liposomal vector at 24 h, presumably due to EMA fluorescent label dilution resulting from cell division." - Wen-Chi Tseng, Frederick. R. Haselton and Todd D. Giorgio, 1997, Transfection by Cationic Liposomes Using Simultaneous Single Cell Measurements of Plasmid Delivery and Transgene Expression, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1997. This means that plasmids transfected via cationic liposome technology may typically decrease in number as cell division continues, so that repeated application synchronized to cell division frequency may be useful in medical treatment featuring plasmid-in-liposome gene therapy. See Srinivasan C, Siddiqui S, Silbart LK, Papadimitrakopoulos F, Burgess DJ. (2009), Dual Fluorescent labeling method to visualize plasmid DNA degradation, Bioconjug Chem., 2009 Jan;20(1):163-9. For another relevant paper, see Liu Lei, Li Xinyu, Zhu Xuefei and Li Guigang (2008), Cationic liposome-mediated bcl-xl gene transfection into human keratocytes, Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Volume 25, Number 3, June, 2005. Other methods of doing gene transfection exist. See Frank Alexis, Jieming Zeng, and Wang Shu (2006), PEI Nanoparticles for Targeted Gene Delivery, 2006, Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. See also Links/Biodegradable Nanoparticles in gene transfection. Also see Plasmids and Targeted Genome Editing with Zinc Finger Nucleases.
Virosomes [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Index/Virology]. Virosomes are lipid membranes modeled after envelope viruses that fuse with target cells. They may be engineered with antigens on their surfaces for applications such as HIV-1 preventive vaccines. Certain virosomes have been developed around spherical empty influenza virus envelopes that may be used to port proteins, or perhaps specialized plasmid DNA for transfection applications. See Mymetics.
Music: The Sounds of Silence by Simon & Garfunkle.
Transcription and Aging [Wikipedia/Transcription, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Links/Transcription and aging, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. "There are 3 types of RNA in a cell, of which about 70-80% is rRNA, 10-15% is tRNA, and 5-7% is mRNA. The level of total transcription is generally reduced by 15%-30% during aging, but the proportion of different RNAs does not change significantly." - Suresh I.S. Rattan, Transcriptional and Translational Dysregulation During Aging, from Aging at the Molecular Level, ed. Thomas von Zglinicki, Kluwer, 2003, p.180. Transcriptional activity can be boosted by applying HDAC inhibitors that expand chromatin for transcription by acetylation, including lactates from pumping up with weights, garlic (containing diallyl disulfide producing allyl mercaptan), L-carnitine, sulforaphane, and indole-3 carbinol from broccoli. See age-related changes in protein synthesis [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] and decrease in the translational capacity of aging ribosomes [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. "...Generally a decrease in the expression of genes involved in the basic metabolic processes and an increase in the expression of stress response pathway genes is observed (with aging)." - Suresh I.S. Rattan, op.cit, p.187. See Goyns MH, Charlton MA, Dunford JE, et al., (1998) Differential display analysis of gene expression indicates that age-related changes are restricted to a small cohort of genes, Mechanisms of Aging and Development., 101: 73-90. Also see Shelton DN, Chang E, Whittier PS, Choi D, Funk WD (1999), Microarray analysis of replicative senescence, Current Biology, 9: 939-45, and Lee CK, Klopp RG, Weindruch R, Prolla TA (1999), Gene expression profile of aging and its retardation by caloric restriction, Science, 285: 1130-3.
Transcription Factors [HUGO/Transcription Factors, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, ProTF, LibCong, Amazon, Books/Transcription Factors in Drug Design, Amazon/Transcription Factors and Drug Design; Links/Nuclear Receptors, Video, Wikipedia/Nuclear Receptor, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/DNA binding domains; hTERT Promoter; Endogenous Telomerase Activators; TF database; Links/Human Transcription Factor Databases; The Human Transcription Factor Proteome; Index/Zinc Finger Transcription Factors]. "There are approximately 2600 (2067) proteins in the human genome [HUGO Gene Families, HUGO/Human Genome, Index/Gene] that contain DNA-binding domains, ...presumed to function as transcription factors. Therefore, approximately 10% (12%) of genes in the genome code for transcription factors..." - Wikipedia/Transcription Factor. Transcription factors may be activators or repressors. For instance, Sp1 (which binds at a GC box GGGCGG) represses transcription in normal cells by binding a histone deacetylase that compacts chromatin, although it promotes transcription in cancer cells. Many drugs are transcriptional activators that work by establishing a binding to a transcription factor [Images] which can pass through the nuclear pore [Images] and bind to an activation site on the gene promoter or enhancer, activating transcription of mRNA, from which a protein or a protein enzyme is produced on ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The drug may interact with a tunneling cell membrane receptor protein, which interacts with the inside of the cell by releasing an intermediate cell signaling molecule from the inside of the cell membrane. See also the nuclear receptor superfamily. Note that HSP90 is a transciption factor transporter binding to nuclear transcription factors for their transport through pores in the nuclear membrane. HSP90 levels can be elevated via exercise by the action of exercise-induced Interleukin 6. See binding sites for human genome transciption activators and repressors. Receptors for hormones and growth factors may be cytosolic receptors or membrane receptors. The cell membrane is transmissive to some hormones such the steroid hormones estrogen and testosterone, which combine with cytosolic receptors (Estrogen Receptor or Androgen Receptor) that dimerize before import through the nuclear pore, before being equipped with cofactors such as histone acetyl transferase that create a composite transcription factor which interacts with gene promoter DNA. Many transcription factors are prepared as homodimers or heterodimers forming a helix-loop-helix transcription factor with a leucine zipper domain for binding the two halves of the dimer. For instance, c-Myc dimerizes with Max to promote transcription of hTERT, or with Mad to repress transcription of hTERT. For other examples of transcription factors, see the hTERT Promoter.
For for measurements to associate gene promoters with their transcription factors, see Analysis of gene promoter occupancy in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, Wikipedia/Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], and Wikipedia/ChIP-on-chip [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Publications].
Transcriptional Regulation (in Humans) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Transacting Components of Gene Control, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Transcription Cofactors, Papers, Patents, Books]. See also Transcription Factors and Index/Zinc Finger Transcription Factors.
Transplants of Immortalized (Stem) Cells [Links/Transplants of immortalized cells, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Transplants of immortalized stem cells, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Transfection kits for immortalizing cells, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Cell Immortalization Reagents, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Biogenova - Lentivirus Products - LG508 Lenti-hTERT-eGFP immortalizes primary cells in culture; ABM hTERT cell immortalization reagents; Index/Transfection; Index/Stem Cell Technology, Index/Stem Cells]. Transplants of hTERT-immortalized stem cells may be very useful for many specific organ problems in the immortalization of human tissues. Note that this method can produce immortal adult stem cells with immortal descendants and cells that are immortal after differentiation into other types of cells. Producing hTERT-transfected stem cells to yield hTERT-immortalized primary cells may be used to do stem cell transplants yielding immortal humans, immortal hearts, immortal bones. Note that hTR (7) must probably also be included for connective tissues derived from mesenchymal cells such as bone and cartilage, and that HDAC inhibitors must also be taken for telomerase to function properly in these tissues. Immortals prepared with these techniques may require telomerase inhibitors more than other men, but these may be obtained at the grocery store. Rather less medicine is required to maintain the immortal state with this technique, which still requires plenty of testing. Other transfections or medicine may be required to hTERT-immortalize all primary cells in the body. Perhaps eventually all primary cells in the body could be replaced by establishing populations of hTERT-transfected stem cells or something similar. See the NIH document Can Stem Cells Repair a Broken Heart?
Trans-tiliroside [Links/Trans-tiliroside, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension; Links/Trans-tiliroside and AMPK activation, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension; AMPK; AMPK-activating nutraceuticals; Sources; Pathway Analysis]. "Trans-tiliroside...up-regulated gene activation of PPARy, UCP, AMPK, AdipoRl and AdipoR2.." Trans-tiliroside can be isolated from rose hips [Patents] or Potentilla chinensis [Patents].
Trehalose [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension]. Trehalose is a slow-digesting sugar substitute carbohydrate used by bodybuilders to improve definition. See improving muscular definition [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Caloric Restriction; Obesity; Bodybuilding; Thyroid Hormones].
TRF1 (telomere t-loop closure protein) [Shelterin/TRF1, Links/TRF1 protein, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Control of telomere length by the human telomeric protein TRF1, Amazon/telomeric TRF1, LifeExtension]. TRF1 can be stripped from the telomere to open the telomere t-loop for access by the telomerase holoenzyme using tankyrase 1, which may be phosphorylated (with insulin acting on cell surface insulin receptors) and made to react with TRF1 using a NAD+ substrate. Niacinamide (Nicotinamide) can be used to improve expression levels of tankyrase 1 and also to provide the NAD+ substrate, which can also be boosted with NAD supplements. Insulin boosters such as Fenugreek Extract, Gymnema Sylvestre, or 4-hydroxyisoleucine may be used after a workout before bedtime to elevate insulin, which then produces low blood sugar and fatique and perhaps elevated appetite.
TRF2 telomere binding protein [Shelterin/TRF2, Links/TRF2 telomeric binding protein, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/TRF2 protein, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon/TRF2]. "Telomere t-loop formation is critically dependent on the telomere binding protein TRF2..." - Judith Campisi. The t-loop closes at a GGTTAG repeat via a TRF2 protein until the telomere becomes so short that a subtelomeric sequence differing from GGTTAG is encountered, say GGTGAG, so that the loop cannot be bound, which happens when the telomere is about 4 to 7 kbp long. Exogenous TRF2 helps close telomere t-loops, and certain statin drugs [Images] promote TRF2 closure of telomeric t-loops, including atorvastatin [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], simvastatin (Zocor) [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], and (if memory serves) pravastatin [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Mevastatin also elevated TRF2 levels, but has been discontinued due to undesirable side-effects. See Telomere Capping Proteins, (7). Since statin drugs reduce CoQ10 levels, the safest approach to capping telomeres and closing t-loops seems to be using small molecule telomerase activators for the task, such as TA-65, astragalus extract, or astragalosides such as astragaloside IV or cycloastragenol. The action of TRF2 may be facilitated by the action of TRF1 [Links, Control of telomere length by the human telomeric protein TRF1, Books/TRF1, Papers/TRF1, Patents/TRF1, Amazon/telomeric TRF1, LifeExtension] and TIN2 [Links/TIN2 protein, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Application of TRF2 should usually allow a maximum of about (4000 bp telomere at M1)/(50 bp lost/divison) = 80 further cell divisions following the M1 senescence checkpoint, after which telomere fusion should take place. For dermal fibroblasts, there were just 50 cell divisions available in the first place! Thus perhaps statin drugs [Images, Papers, Video, Index] plus extra CoQ10 could equip us with life extension of up to [(50+80)/50]x100 % = 260%, yielding life spans on the order of 220 years. As cell division continues after M1 = 4000 bp, electron microscopy [Electron Microscope Image, Images/T-Loop in Electron Microscope] should show progressively smaller telomere t-loops within cells while retaining the youthful pattern of gene expression and associated small-cell phenotype. Some papers indicate that statin drugs cannot be used to close telomere t-loops as envisioned, however. See:
___(1) Remove cellular senescence by closing telomere t-loops with statins, then
___(2) to lengthen telomeres with telomerase activators during the 2nd part of the cycle, might be useful to obtain quick rejuvenation with lasting effect. Some statin drugs may just function solely as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors that modify the rate control of cholesterol production, lowering LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, but having little effect on TRF2.
Remaining questions are: How quickly do statin drugs close telomere t-loops? How quickly is the close of telomere t-loops due to statin drugs visibly associated with rejuvenation? How much extra CoQ10 is required to safely use statin drugs?
Note that "inhibition of TRF2 results in apoptosis in a subset of mammalian cell types. The response is mediated by p53 and the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) kinase, consistent with activation of a DNA damage checkpoint. Apoptosis is not due to rupture of dicentric chromosomes formed by end-to-end fusion, indicating that telomeres lacking TRF2 directly signal apoptosis, possibly because they resemble damaged DNA. Thus, in some cells, telomere shortening may signal cell death rather than senescence."
"Overexpression of TRF2 causes telomere shortening in both telomerase-positive and -negative cells. Recent studies also showed that TRF2 also activates telomere degradation." (Cong, Wright, and Shay, 2002). This is discouraging for TRF2-based telomere loop closure therapy programs to lengthen life spans by using Zocor or other TRF2-enhancing drugs.
Tribulus [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Side Effects of Tribulus; Links/Tribulus Overdose Effects; Links/Toxicity of Tribulus]. "Tribulus" was formerly thought to elevate testosterone, which can elevate the libido, as its name suggests. However, recent research sometimes states that tribulus does not elevate testosterone or enhance strength, but stimulates androgen receptors in the brain to enhance sexual performance and sexual stamina, functioning as an aphrodisiac. Yohimbine is another aphrodisiac with applications in antiaging medicine. Overdoses of tribulus > 500 mg/day may lead to rising body temperature and fidgeting "can't stand still" behavior. - after Wikipedia/Tribulus and Video/Tribulus - Ray Sahelian. According to competing description, Tribulus (puncturevine) increases testosterone via protodioscin, a furostanolic saponin that causes the brain to release more luteinizing hormone, which acts on the testicles. Tribulus is used to boost muscle and fat loss, taken at 250-750 mg twice a day, cycled 8 weeks on tribulus and 4 weeks off it.
Tribulus boosts melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which can restore hair color. See Yang L, Lu JW, An J, Jiang X. (2006), Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on melanocyte-stimulating hormone expression in mouse hair follicles, PubMed.gov/17259119. See [Links/Tribulus terrestris extract, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Testosterone is an androgenic telomerase activator for muscle cells and hair follicles, although high levels of testosterone can be converted into dihydrotestosterone if levels of 5-alpha-reductase acting on testosterone are too high, causing hair to fall out. A 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor like green tea or L-Lysine (covered by a US Patent for the hair loss application) may be useful when using testosterone boosters. High testosterone tends to restore melanin levels in greying hair, although elevated catalase from boosters of endogenous antioxidants such as Ashwagandha or Bacopa is also recommended to prevent internal bleaching from hydrogen peroxide.
Tricostatin A [Telomerase Activators/Tricostatin A, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Epigenetic Protocols, chap.8, article, article2, dosage, toxicity].
Triglycerides [Links/Triglycerides, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/High Triglycerides, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Fats are triglycerides. High triglycerides are associated with cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, and many other health problems, including obesity. According to Life Extension Magazine (June, 2010), high-risk cardio patients need to suppress triglycerides below 60-80 mg/dL to adequately protect them against vascular disease, and triglyceride levels above 100 mg/dL are considered dangerous in healthy people. Diabetics treated with fenofibrate showed triglyceride levels varying from 164 down to 122 mg/dL after treatment. Arjuna extracts reduce total and LDL cholesterol, reduce trigycerides, and elevate HDL, limiting atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and improving endothelial function. See Caloric Restriction, Oils, Fish Oil, and Fats.
T-Stumps [Links/t-stumps, Images, Video, Papers, Books]. T-stumps are highly truncated telomeres found in cultured cells lacking various DNA damage checkpoints.
Tryptophan, L-Tryptophan See [James_South/Tryptophan, L-Tryptophan, Links/L-Tryptophan, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Dietary sources of Tryptophan]. Tryptophan is required to synthesize serotonin (boosts happiness) and melatonin (promotes sleep) in the body. Tryptophan makes patients nicer and helps to control territoriality, agressiveness, and irritability. A dose of 4.5 grams of tryptophan is a moderate dose for a 165 lb adult. Antidepressant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs such as Prozac) must not be combined with substantial doses of tryptophan to avoid symptoms including coma, delerium, high fever, and involuntary muscular contractions. See Travis Harding (2013), Better Brain Chemistry with Tryptophan, Life Extension Magazine, May 2013.
Music: All You Need is Love, by the Beatles.
Tumorigenesis [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension LibCong, Amazon]. See Cancer [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon] and Carcinogens [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon], also oncology [Books, Video], oncogenes [Books, Video], oncogenomics [Books], and genomic stability [Books, Video]. Note that certain telomerase activators such as astragalus root, astragaloside IV and cycloastragenol (TA-65) tend to promote genomic stability in the absence of cancer, preventing cancers due to genomic instabilities [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon] and telomere fusions [Books, Video, Books/telomere fusions and cancer]. However, there is a subset of telomerase activators that are known to have carcinogenic effect. In some cases this may be because they somehow interfere with p53, which is the case in about 50% of human cancers. The more dangerous telomerase activators can induce cancers in youthful phenotype cells, possibly as a consequence of also inducing cellular proliferation and increasing the rate of mitosis. Telomere damage from accelerated cell division could proceed more rapidly than telomere repair from telomerase activation. This may be the case with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), for instance. Inhibiting EGF decreases cancer risk. Note that alcohol and estrogen have been described as producing cancers by increasing the rate of mitosis.
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α 2nd entry) [Index/TNF-alpha, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension]. TNF-alpha causes apoptosis, cellular proliferation, cellular differentiation, inflammation, tumorigenesis, and viral replication, and has been implicated in Alzheimer's Disease. Note that amyloid-beta from inflammation triggers an increase in TNF-alpha, resulting in further inflammation and amyloid-beta production. Resveratrol and carnosine are amyloid-beta inhibitors [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension]. Curcumin may be used to combat TNF-alpha-induced inflammation in neurons.
TNF-alpha inhibitors [Mayo Clinic/TNF inhibitors, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] include
__monoclonal antibodies [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] such as
_____Infliximab [Images] (also available as Remicade [Images]) or
_____Adalimumab [Images] (also available as Humira [Images]), or
__circulating receptor fusion proteins such as
_____etanercept [Images] (available as Enbrel [Images]),
_____Luteolin [Images], Index/Luteolin, or
_____Curcumin [Images], Index/Curcumin, from turmeric,
__TNF-alpha inhibitor list (nutraceuticals and spices).
TNF's primary role is in the regulation of immune cells. Luteolin [Index, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension] combats proliferation of undesirable cell colonies and is found in high amounts in parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme, and in peppermint along with basil, celery and artichoke, and is also found in green pepper, perilla and camomile tea [36s] (g). Note that TNF-alpha, which is inhibited by luteolin, is a tumor promoter that can promote cancers started by tumor initiators. Some scientists also write that TNF-alpha has been implicated in the focal remodeling of cancerous tissue. Luteolin is also used to suppress dangerous proinflammatory cytokines [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], such as Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha.
Tumor Promoters [Tumorigenesis; Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; NFkB, TNF-alpha; Cancer]. Tumor promoters include inflammatory cytokines, in particular NFkB and TNF-alpha, which are also telomerase activators. They are counteracted by anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals and specific inhibitors, that is, by TNF-alpha inhibitors and NFkB inhibitors. Garlic and curcumin (from turmeric) inhibit both TNF-alpha and NFkB.
Tumor Suppressor Pathways [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. "The majority of senescence-inducing signals [Links, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] engage either or both the p53/p21 [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] and p16/retinoblastoma protein [Links] tumor suppressor pathways, as the final effectors of the senescence program." - Erusalimsky, 2009. See also Judith Campisi, 2001, Cellular senescence as a tumor-suppressor mechanism, Trends in Cell Biology, Volume 11, Issue 11, 1 November 2001, Pages S27-S31. See Index/Replicative Senescence and
Turmeric [Index/Curcumin; Links/Turmeric, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Turmeric Skin Cream, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/VICCO Turmeric Vanishing Cream, Images; Telomerase Activators/Product B/Turmeric Root Extract]. Turmeric contains the antioxidant and metal-ion chelating curcumin, which is useful as an anticancer nutraceutical. It also turns out that turmeric skin cream activates Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2 or Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor bFGF), which is a telomerase activator [Telomerase Activators/FGF2] working on dermal fibroblasts. It cleans up wrinkles effectively by lengthening telomeres in dermal fibroblasts [Images] that maintain the extracellular matrix. Users noticed it provides a feminizing skin treatment like progesterone skin cream [Images]. In fact, turmeric is a ligand of the progesterone receptor, and a telomerase activator (164, 151) via the progesterone receptor pathway. In reality, it restores dermal fibroblast telomeres, enabling them to maintain wrinkle-free skin by supporting the production of collagenase and elastin via rejuvenated fibroblasts. Turmeric may be feminizing, as well as rejuvenating in its effect, since it is ligand of the progesterone receptor, explaining its connection to VICCO Turmeric Vanishing Cream. Rubbing turmeric powder on the skin may have a similar effect. Turmeric is an anticancer nutraceutical. However, FGF2 is an endothelial cell mitogen. According to Tristan Trefoil, a fellow member of the Immortality Institute in Cambridge who has been formulating advanced approaches to an Immortality Diet, turmeric may be taken at up to 8 grams/day to prevent methylglyoxal damage in ketosis.
Type II Diabetes [Encyclopedia, Index/Diabetes].
Tyrosine [Wikipedia, molecule, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Ray; Dietary Sources of Tyrosine]. The amino acid [Images] tyrosine is used by the body to make epinephrine, norepinephrine (NE), dopamine [Index], and thyroid hormones that raise metabolism, promote lipolysis to burn fat, and curb appetite. Tyrosine is recommended at 1/2 gram/day to 1 gram/day, 2 times/day, and also 30 minutes prior to workouts. - (after Muscle and Fitness Magazine). Since the rate of neurotransmitter production is tyrosine-limited, a tyrosine supplement can improve physiological response to severe stress. The recommended dosage for athletes is 500-1000 mg twice daily, at waking and 30 minutes prior to a workout.
 Deijen JB , Orlebeke JF. (1994),
Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress, Brain Res Bull 1994;33(3): 319-23.
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