Index to Anti-Aging Medicine
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U
Ubiquinol [LEF/Ubiquinol, Links/Ubiquinol, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Ubiquinol is a super bioavailable CoQ10 8x as bioavailable as ubiquinone CoQ10. Ubiquinol is an antioxidant, excellent for cell membrane maintenance and mitochondrial maintenance, antiaging, anti-lipofuscin and anti-ceroid. Often pictured as heart medicine [1], [2], [3], but also useful in treating kidney disease [4], [5] and providing neuroprotection [6], [7]. Most recently, Life Extension Magazine has announced enhanced-absorption ubiquinol or "enhanced delivery ubiquinol" [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Ubiquinol may be used with shilajit [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] to improve ubiquinol CoQ10 concentrations in mitochondria x 2. Ubiquinol may be given at dosages of up to 900 mg/day [8].
References
[1] Lina Buchanan, CoQ10: The Longevity Factor, Life Extension Magazine, Jan 2013.
[2] Bradley Tomkins (2014), CoQ10 Proven Benefits in Heart Failure Patients,
Life Extension Magazine April 2014.
[3] Martin Stein (2015),
CoQ10 Combats Congestive Heart Failure, Life Extension Magazine, April 2015.
[4] Ishikawa A, Kawarazaki H, Ando K, Fujita M, Fujita T, Homma Y (2011),
Renal preservation effect of ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10,
Clin Exp Nephrol 2011 Feb;15(1):30-3.
[5] GazdŪkovŠ K, GvozdjŠkovŠ A, KucharskŠ J, SpustovŠ V, BraunovŠ Z, Dzķrik R (2001),
Effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with kidney diseases,
Cas Lek Cesk 2001 May 24;140(10):307-10.
[6] Orsucci D, Mancuso M, Ienco EC, LoGerfo A, Siciliano G (2011),
Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration by means of coenzyme Q10 and its analogues, Curr Med Chem 2011;18(26):4053-64.
[7] Matthews RT, Yang L, Browne S, Baik M, Beal MF (1998),
Coenzyme Q administration increases brain mitochondrial concentrations and exerts neuroprotective effects, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 1998 July 21;95(15):8892-7.
[8] Biofactors 2008;32(1-4):119-28.
[9] Failla ML, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Aoki F (2014),
Increased bioavailability of ubiquinol compared to that of ubiquinone is due to more efficient micellarization during digestion and greater GSH-dependent uptake and basolateral secretion by Caco-2 cells, J Agric Food Chem 2014 Jul 23;62(29):7174-82.
[10] Tian G, Sawashita J, Kubo H, et al (2014),
Ubiquinol-10 supplementation activates mitochondria functions to decelerate senescence in senescence-accelerated mice, Antioxid Redox Signal 2014 Jun 1;20(16):2606-20.
[11] Ishikawa A, Kawarazaki H, Ando K, Fujita M, Fujita T, Homma Y (2011),
Renal preservation effect of ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10,
Clin Exp Nephrol 2011 Feb;15(1):30-3.
Ubiquinone [Wikipedia/Ubiquinone (CoQ10, Co-enzyme Q, variants: idebenone, ubiquinone, ubiquinol), LifeExtension/Ubiquinone, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong]. Ubiquinone is a form of CoQ10 now outclassed by the more bioabsorbable ubiquinol form of CoQ10, [39].
UCP3 [Wikipedia/UCP3, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Gene Cards/UCP3, iHOP/MostRecent/UCP3, WikiGenes/UCP3, OMIM/UCP3]. The UPC3 gene's "protein product is postulated to protect mitochondria against lipid-induced oxidative stress. Expression levels of this gene increase when fatty acid supplies to mitochondria exceed their oxidation capacity and the protein enables the export of fatty acids from mitochondria." - Gene Cards/UCP3. Advances in the mitochondrial theory of aging [Index, Mechanisms of Aging/mitochondria] show that dieting-resistant, obese patients have lower levels of UCP3. UCP3 is an uncoupling protein [Diabetes 53:S130-S135, 2004] found in muscle mitochondria that is regulated by thyroid hormone [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See the regulation of UCP3 by thyroid hormone [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Thyroid hormones upregulate UCP3; that is, thyroid hormones triiodothyronine [T3] and thyroxine [T4] stimulate UCP-3 expression in skeletal muscle. Mice with higher UCP3 show higher metabolic intensity (17% greater oxygen consumption), and 36% longer life span according to Ben Best. Today there are a few supplements available in caloric restriction that regulate thyroid hormones [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] that might be applied to controlling UCP3. See supplements upregulating thyroid hormone T3 [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] and supplements upregulating thyroid hormone T4 [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
__[1] Tyrosine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. The amino acid tyrosine is used by the body to make norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, and thyroid hormones that raise metabolism, burn fat, and curb appetite. Tyrosine is recommended at 1/2 gram/day to 1 gram/day, 2 times/day, and also 30 minutes prior to workouts. Note that iodine (found in iodized table salt) is also required in thyroid hormone synthesis.
__[2] Bacopa [Links/Bacopa Monnieri, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. New. Supplementation with Bacopa Monnieri leaf improves the expression of thyroid hormone T4 in mice by up to 41%. Bacopa is contained in some commercial fat-burning formulations. - after Dwayne Jackson, PhD, Essential Supplement Handbook, Fall 2011.
__[3] Bauhinia Purpurea L [Links/Bauhinia Purpurea L, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. New. Bauhiniastatins [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] from this plant seem to convert thyroid hormones T4 to T3, a more potent thyroid hormone for fat burning. Thyroid hormone T3 increases of up to 83% have been observed in rats. Bauhinia Purpurea is sold in some commercial fat-burning supplements. op.cit. [Aging Cell; Speakman, J.R. 3(3):87-95 (2004)].
__[4] 7-keto DHEA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] is another supplement used in bodybuilding to improve muscular definition (by increasing the metabolic rate via upregulation of T3 thyroid hormone).
Therefore UPC3 might be upregulated by taking a combination of Bacopa and Bauhinia Purpurea with Tyrosine and iodized salt, or by taking 7-keto DHEA, since this upregulates T3, which stimulates production of UCP3.
Ulcerative Colitis [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon]. Ulcerative colitis is one of the diseases of old age featuring inflammation. See Inflammation and Aging.
Ultraviolet Stress and UV Damage [Links/Ultraviolet stress, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Ultraviolet damage, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. T and C (from TA and GC hydrogen-bonded couples) are DNA pyramidines coupled with DNA purines A and G. In the 5'-GGTTAG-3' hex telomeric sequence, TT is a pair of pyrimidines. "Mammalian telomeres are hypersensitive to ultraviolet (UV) induced DNA damage, as they have sevenfold more Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers (CPDs) than the rest of the genome after UV irradiation. The G-strand is highly prone to form TT-CPDs and the C-strand to form CC-CPDs and CT-CPDs."

G-strand: 5'-GGTTAGGGTTAG...GGTTAG...-3'
C-strand: 3'-CCAATCCCAATC...CCAATC...-5'

"CPDs are repaired by the Nucleotide Excision Repair pathway (NER), which removes the damaged DNA fragment. Shelterin components, in particular TRF2 and TRF1, may repress NER at telomeres." (Paula Martinez and Maria A. Blasco, 2011). See also Rochette, P.J. and Brash, D.E. (2010), Human Telomeres are hypersensitive to UV-induced DNA Damage and refractory to repair, PLos Genetics 6, e1000926 (2010).
UMP [molecule, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/sources, Links/UMP in Colostrum, Links/UMP supplements]. UMP, uridine-5'-monophosphate, "helps comprise RNA, the DNA-like structure that cells use to create mRNA blueprints for proteins from genes. UMP supplementation in animals dramatically increases the production of vital cell membrane structural molecules, such as CDP-choline [Links/CDP-choline supplements]." - Life Extension Magazine. Molecules like CDP-choline are vital for proper synapse function and for associated cell growth and repair. UMP (uridine-5'-monophosphate) is found in the milk of nursing mothers, and is essential not only for the growth and development of infant brains [Images], but also for healthy cognitive function in aging adults. UMP is a component of Life Extension Foundation's Cognitex product, which also contains the potent alpha-GPC (alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine), excellent as an HGH secretagogue, acetylcholine booster and nootropic neuroprotective supplement. Check the UMP content of colostrum and the UMP content of cow's milk.
Uncaria tomentosa [Links/Uncaria tomentosa, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Cat's Claw, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See AC-11 Cat's Claw Extract and Cat's Claw Extract.
Unicellular Organisms Universe Review/Unicelluar organisms [Links/Unicellular Organisms, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong]. See viruses, archeabacteria, bacteria (procaryotic cells), and eucaryotic cells (animals and plants).
Unit Conversion [Links/Unit Conversion, Links/International Unit Conversion].
United States Pharmacopeia [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong]. An annual published compendium which defines US-standard drugs and excipients and associated tests, and is associated with an annual convention, the United States Pharmacopeial Convention. The compendium includes methods for identification, assay, and purity determination of a drug substance or excipient, ect., and forms the basis of enforcement actions by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and is the official pharmacopoeia of the United States and many other nations. See also U.S. standard drug excipients and U.S. standard drug tests.
Universe The Universe, including multicellular organisms [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] and unicelluar organisms [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Uracil DNA-glycosylase [Sigma Aldrich/Uracil DNA-glycosylase, Wikipedia/Uracil-DNA_glycosylase, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. The short one-day deamidation half-life of Uracil DNA-glycosylase causes DNA repair decline during aging, [52s]. That is, the short one-day deamidation half-life of uracil DNA-glycosylase is suspected in the decline of DNA repair during aging. (Hipkiss, T. Zglinicki, Aging at the Molecular Level, pg. 155.) See a uracil DNA-glycosylase in cellular homolog from p.148 of the same book. "With high efficiency and specificity, this glycosylase repairs more than 10,000 bases damaged daily in the human cell." - Wikipedia/Uracil-DNA_glycosylase. "Uracil-DNA Glycosylase (UDG, UNG) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosylic bond between uracil and sugar in DNA and prevents carry-over of DNA in PCR reactions." - Thermo Scientific. Lipid peroxidation is a major source of reactive aldehydes that can react with DNA, and that other sources of DNA damage exist that can be repaired by gene-encoded DNA repair enzymes. Note that uracil DNA-glycosylase may be obtained commercially via genetically engineered E. Coli bacteria and from Thermo Scientific at $44.00 for 200 microliters. See supplements improving the expression of Uracil DNA-glycosylase [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/sources]. Uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) is a phosphatide building block of RNA-DNA that is critical to optimal brain function and the health of neuronal cell membranes. It is found in the milk of nursing mothers, and is essential not only for the growth and development of infant brains, but also for healthy cognitive function in aging adults. Bovine colostrum contains a large amount of uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) and its derivatives, more than in normal milk. Uridine-5'-monophosphate is a component of Life Extension's Cognitex product.
Urinary Tract Infections [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Treating urinary tract infections, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Proanthocyanidins in cranberries
[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Proanthocyanidins in cranberries inhibit E. Coli from binding to the urinary tract, and have antimicrobial effect. The cranberry proanthocyanidins disable fimbriae structures of E. Coli cells [Images] (and fimbriae structures of Stapholococcus saprophyticus, Salmonella, Helicobacter pylori) from latching onto cells in the mucus membranes and the cells lining the surface of the urinary tract, disabling their attachment there. This so-called bacteriostasis forces harmful bacteria to be flushed when the bladder is voided. Cranberry extract in pill form is more economical for this application than cranberry juice.

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract
[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract rich in bacterostatic polyphenols (flavonoids, sambubiosides, and proanthocyanidins) including the flavonoid gossypetin-hibiscus, is also a suitable antimicrobial agent for this application. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract bacteriostatic polyphenols prevent urinary tract infection (UTI) microbes Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from getting a foothold in the urinary tract. The bacteriocidal effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is stronger than that of cranberry extract and comparable to chloramphenicol, which has more hazardous side effects.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics
[Antibiotics; Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Broad-spectrum antibiotics sometimes used on urinary tract infections include trimethoprim, cephalexin, and ciprofloxacin, which are associated with some deleterious side-effects. (See Victoria Dolby Toews, MPH, Halt the Vicious Cycle of Urinary Tract Infections: Novel Next-Generation Antimicrobial Protection, Life Extension Magazine, April 2010.)
Urology [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon].
Ursolic Acid [Wikipedia/Ursolic acid, Links/Ursolic Acid, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, Examine.com; Images/Ursolic acid supplements; Links/Ursolic acid for skin rejuvenation, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Sources of Ursolic Acid, Medicinal Plant Sources of Ursolic Acid, Hopeland Chem-Tech/Ursolic Acid]. Ursolic acid from apple skins, from cranberries, or from rosemary extracts [Ref] can reconsitute aging skin by promoting the expression of ceramides forming the mortar holding cornified skin surface cells together so that human skin becomes better hydrated while simultaneously inhibiting elastase, impoving elastin levels so that skin becomes more elastic, often producing remarkable facial rejuvenation after 4-5 weeks when oral phytoceramides are used. Ursolic acid and quercetin, which can improve telemere length, are both anti-aging apple polyphenols. According to Wikipedia, ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene acid, is used in cosmetics, although the cosmetic effect of ceramides [Images] is best achieved after 4-5 weeks of treatment with orally bioavailable ceramides [Images] such as phytoceramides from plants, as the ceramides are transported upwards via slowly rising skin cells from deeper layers of skin. Treatment with oral doses of ursolic acid from capsules or from apple skins is expected to produce best results after 4-5 weeks of treatment. Ursolic acid also inhibits various types of cancer cells by inhibiting the STAT3 activation pathway and of inhibiting human fibrosarcoma cells by reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 [Images] acting through the glucocorticoid receptor. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitors [Papers] defend gelatin. See Apple Peel Makes Mice Mighty from the University of Iowa, sent to me as a tip from watchful Tristan Trefoil. Ursolic acid, a waxy substance found in apple peels [Images], reduces fat mass in mice (producing smaller fat cells) while increasing muscle mass and strength by helping IGF-1 [Papers] and insulin [Papers]. Perhaps usolic acid can lenthen telomeres by promoting IGF-1 expression, as IGF-1 is a telomerase activator. Ursolic acid protects against atrophy caused by both fasting and nerve damage. Liposomal ursolic acid for transdermal administration of ursolic acid improves expression of ceramides [2], restoring a component of sphingolipids in the extracellular matrix functioning as a mortar to hold cornified skin cells of the stratum corneum skin surface in position. Ceramides also inhibit elastase [Papers], improve skin hydration, and implement facial rejuvenation [3]. See oral phytoceramides, oral phytoceramide supplements, and ursolic acid supplements. Chopped apples with chopped garlic in a tasty sauce and taken on crackers is suspected to promote telomere growth from chopped garlic diallyl disulfide (an HCAC inhibitor promoting hTERT mRNA expression for telomerase), while restoring human skin and lengthening telomeres with the apple polyphenols ursolic acid and quercetin.
Ursolic acid is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease [Ray Sahelian]. (Check) [Ref].

Antihistamines for Cranberry Hives
I note that too many cranberries can cause your body to break out in hives with raised flesh that itches. In December 2014 and January 2014 I ate so many cans of cranberry sauce for ursolic acid that I came down with a case of these cranberry hives. See antihistamines for cranberry hives (natural oral antihistamines such as Vitamin C) and anti-inflammatory skin creams for hives. Histamine is released when foreign particles enter the body and generate an immune response such as hives, watery eyes, or sneezing. Quercetin exhibits anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory effect by preventing histamine release from mast cells and basophils. Rosmarinic acid, luteolin, astaxanthin, and perilla leaf extract also exhibit antihistamine effect.

References
[1] Steven D. Kunkel, et al, (2011),
mRNA Expression Signatures of Human Skeletal Muscle Atrophy Identify a Natural Compound that Increases Muscle Mass, Cell Metabolism, Volume 13, Issue 6, 627-638, 8 June 2011.
[2] Yarosh DB, Both D, Brown D. (2000),
Liposomal ursolic acid (Merotaine) increases ceramides and collagen in human skin,
Horm Res 2000;54:318-21. [Index/Ursolic acid; Links/Merotaine, Links/Liposomal Ursolic Acid, Phytoceramides].
[3] Downey, Michael (2014),
Phytoceramides Skin Rejuvenation From The Inside Out [OnLine],
Life Extension Magazine, November 2014.
Music[2]: The Blue Danube Walz by Johann Strauss II, Born to be Wild (1969) by Steppenwolf.
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, LibCong/US Drug Enforcement Administration.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, LibCong/US Food and Drug Administration.
USP Grade United States Pharmacopeia Grade [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Wiki/United States Pharmacopeia, LibCong/United States Pharmacopeia].
UV-VIS Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon]. Used in Quality Control of Phytomedicines at GAIA Herbs. See Instrumental Analysis.


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