Longevity 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 || Labs | Foots | Refs | Sup Notes 1 | 2 | 3a | 3b1 | 3b2 | 3b4 | 3b5 | 3b6 | 4 | 5 | Vendors | Biblio | Change Log | Mortality Charts | Age Transformation | Special
Life Extension Magazine | IAAS | A4M | QC | Ray | Barron || Mechanisms of Aging | IN | SENS | MEME | METHUS || Springer | WSU | Home | Dental
Topics | Am | An | B | Ca | Cb | D | E | F | G | Hs | Ht | I | J | K | L | Mc | Md | N | O | Pq | Pr | Q | R | Sl | Sm | Te | Tf | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Topics | Index Change Log
|[ Wikipedia | Wikigenes | iHOP | SA Biosciences ]| Geron/Telomerase A | TA Sciences | Sierra Sciences | RevGenetics | Terraternal | Genescient | Product B
Search: Journals | Basic Calc | Sci Calc | PubMed | PubChem | NIH | MedLine | WebMD | Science Direct | Truth In Aging || Clinical Trials | BioMedSearch
Google [Papers, Patents(Lens), Books] | YouTube | Wikipedia | LibCong | Amazon | Powells | MedLib | LibWeb] | Merriam-Webster | Cope | HUGO | U.S. National Library of Medicine | Discovery Medicine
interactions of vanadyl sulphate with the insulin receptor [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See also
the insulin receptor [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] and
ligands of the insulin receptor [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Varicose Veins [Ray/Varicose Veins, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Venous Reflux Disease, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Chronic Venous Insufficiency, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Wikipedia, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Varicose veins now afflict half of all people over 50. They are treated with
The active compound in horse chestnut is escin [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Links/Escin and varicose veins, Video].
Pycnogenol [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] is recommended for varicose veins by Ray Sahelian.
Gotu Kola, too, is used for treating varicose veins, and is also applied to wound healing.
Rutin, a glycoside of quercetin, is used to treat spider veins, and is sometimes also recommended for varicose veins.
One serving (2 caps) of KAL's Vein Defense [Images] contains
Poultices [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Poultices for Varicose Veins [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Poultices for Varicose Veins with a Thrombus [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Nutraceuticals for Varicose Veins [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Nutraceuticals for Varicose Veins with a Thrombus
____[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Veinous Thomboembolism [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Treatment and Prevention of Veinous Thomboembolism
____[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Anticoagulants [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon],
Wound healing is also promoted by the astragalosides, so an anti-aging program [Notes] featuring astragalosides for lengthening telomeres may also be helpful in healing varicose tissue. I note that inflammation can produce more blood flow to an inflamed area, and that focal remodeling of tissue in inflammation [Images] is sometimes associated with tissue telomere growth to support cell division and cell differentiation in the healing process with reform and/or repair of distressed tissue. Thus gradient compression support hose [Images] can induce inflammation in varicose veins. If support hose are applied, the veins sometimes heal back into their non-varicose form due to tissue remodeling [Images, Papers] (probably associated with TNF-alpha). The inflammation seems to cause local vasodilation to support tissue remodeling. The support hose should be retained, however, as the varicosities may otherwise reappear due to a permanently damaged valve. Healed, restructured tissue can seem to fall back out again if support hose are abandoned.
Treating Varicosities of the Great Saphenous Vein [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Treatment of Varicose Veins [Mayo Clinic; Sclerotherapy (Wikipedia/Scleropathy, Foam Scleropathy, microfoam sclerosants, microfoam ultrasound guided sclerotherapy, Sodium tetradecyl sulfate 0.1% to 3%, or Fibro-Vein, Polydocanol), Sclerotherapy with Duplex Ultrasonography, Microsclerotherapy, Laser Surgery, Surgical Vein Stripping, Endovenous Thermal Ablation, Coil Embolization, Ambulatory Phlebectomy, Endoscopic Perforator Vein Surgery].
Check the impact of bicarbonate of soda on clotting and embolism formation. A combination of citric acid and bicarbonate of soda is sometimes used as an anticoagulant. See Ariel Soffer (2013), The Importance of Maintaining Optimal Vein Health, , August 2013.
Vasodilators [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Index/Brain Growth and Development]. Commonly available vasodilators include:
Endogenous Vasodilators [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Endogenous vasodilators include nitric oxide and histamine produced from histadine.
See also angina, atherosclerosis, cardiology, heart attack, stroke, and dementia.
Vascular Diseases [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension]. See index entries for AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products), AGE Inhibitors, Arginine, Arjuna, Atherosclerosis, Arteriosclerosis, Bodybuilding, Boswellia gum extract, Cardiology, Cellular Senescence, Cholesterol, Citrulline, Cocoa, CoQ10, Cortisol, Dark Circles under the Eyes, DHEA, Endothelium, Endothelial Dysfunction, Estradiol, Exercise, Glucoregulatory Agents, Glycation, Hawthorn, Heart Attack, Homocysteine, Hypertension, Hypoperfusion, Leukoaraiosis, Macular Degeneration, Magnesium, Microinfarct Dementia, Nitric Oxide, Pomegranate, Purpura, Smoking, Main Essay/Smoking, Stroke, Telomerase Activators, Ubiquinol, Varicose Veins, Veil Cells, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin K1, and Vitamin K2.
 Dumas de la Roque E, Savineau JP, Bonnet S. (2010),
Dehydroepiandrosterone: A new treatment for vascular remodeling diseases including pulmonary arterial hypertension,
Pharmacol Ther 2010 May;126(2):186-99.
Veil Cells [Nature/Veil Cells, Links/Veil Cells, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Books/Dermatology; Links/Veil cells in dermatology; Images; Index/Dermatology, Index/Purpura, Index/Senile Purpura, Index/Skin Lesions, Index/Skin, Index/Wrinkles]. Veil cells are fibroblast-like cells surrounding small vessels in the skin's dermis [Images]. The number of veil cells decreases as we age, so that growth factors such as EGF and FGF1 providing suitable levels of proliferation and telomerase activation for epidermal keratinocytes [Images] and dermal fibroblasts [Images] may be required to keep them up. Other telomerase activators applied to the skin [Images], such as Astragaloside IV skin cream from Terraternal or a colostrum skin cream, may be useful. The veil cells deposit extracellular matrix "basement membrane" material around blood vessels [Images] in response to vascular damage. Their failure with advancing age is a primary problem in damage from weakened capillary walls [Images] with degraded collagen, since replicative senescence probably causes these cells to exhibit typical dermal fibroblast senescence defects including failure to supply collagen and elastin, and an altered pattern of gene expression in the senescent state that can attack the extracellular matrix with matrix metalloproteinases and fail to protect the extracellular matrix with TIMP1 and TIMP3 matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. This can be the primary problem in senile purpura and telangiectasia (spidery veins that may appear on the nose and cheeks), although UV sunlight damage may also be a factor. Veil cell senescence failure is also a factor in dark circles around the eyes. Vitamin K1 skin cream [Images] is often useful in stimulating clotting in skin cell vessels with failing veil cells in order to halt subcutaneous bleeding in purpura, dark circles under the eyes, or immediately after plastic surgery.
Vendors Longevity Supplement Vendors.
Venipuncture [Links/Phlebotomy, Wikipedia/Venipuncture, Links/Venipuncture, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon]. See Phlebotomy and Biopsy.
Vilon [Links/vilon, Papers, Patents, Books; Peptides Store: Peptide Bioregulators; Prof. Vladimir Khavinson]. Vilon is a peptide bioregulator (Lys-Glu) that is geroprotective and inhibiting to apoptosis [Index, Links/Apoptosis, Video] that is sometimes studied together with the geroprotective telomerase activator epithalon peptide (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) [Telomerase Activators/Epithalon Peptide]. Lys-Glu is also sometimes found under "vilone" [Links/vilone, Papers, Patents, Books]. Vilon was researched by the St. Petersburg Institute of Biogerontology in Russia, which discovered epithalon peptide in 2003, which has been replaced by Endoluten.
Vinpocetine [Wikipedia/Vinpocetine, Smart Drugs/Vinpocetine, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension, IAAS/Vinpocetin; Memory Enhancing Nutraceuticals, Hypoperfusion]. Vinpocetine is nootropic, neuroprotective, and derived from periwinkle flower (Vinca minor). Vinpocetine improves vasodilation, brain circulation, cognition and memory, and mental alertness. Speeds the processing of short-term memory when combined with ginkgo biloba. Prevents release of toxic glutamate [Links/glutamate] and free radicals in the brain. See Links/Vinpocetine (Video), Ray Sahelian on Vinpocetine. Dosages of 30 to 60 mg/day have been shown to be beneficial. Vinpocetine should not be used with blood thinners like warfarin. See Brain Growth and Development. Vinpocetine may be used as a phosphodiesterase-1 inhibitor to help preserve elevated cyclic AMP levels in treatment to recover from cellular senescence. "Vinpocetine exerts several anti-aging mechanisms, but its most profound effect may be its ability to interfere with processes associated with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.... Risk factors in the blood that cause brain vasculature to become blocked include excess homocysteine, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and triglycerides.". - William Faloon (2014), Outwitting Our Aging Brain, Life Extension Magazine, January 2014. Cerebral hypoperfusion is the degredation of cerebral circulation and perfusion through microvascular structure due to atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, high homocysteine levels, hypertension, endothelial senescence, and vascular glycation, which may precede dementias, Alzheimer's Disease, and cognitive decline.
 Patyar S, Prakash A, Modi M, Medhi B. (2011),
Role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases, Pharmacol Rep, 2011 63(3):618-28.
 Bönöczk P, Panczel G, Nagy Z. (2002),
Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in stroke patients: a near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler study, Eur J Ultrasound 2002 Jun;15(1-2):85-91.
 Michael Downey (2015),
Block The Vascular Origins Of Cognitive Decline,
Life Extension Magazine, February 2015.
Viral Oncoproteins [Links/Viral Oncoproteins, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books]. "Cellular transformation with viral oncoproteins can also extend cell lifespan, but through mechanisms that reduce checkpoint control, increase genomic instability, and fail to prevent telomere loss." from Andrea Bodnar, Michel Ouellette, et.al, (1998), Extension of Life Span by Introduction of Telomerase into Human Cells, Science, vol. 279, 16 January 1998.
Virology [Antibiotics, Wikipedia/List of Antiviral Drugs, Antiviral Drugs, Wikipedia/Virology, Virus World, Links/Virology, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/antiretroviral drugs, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF, Amazon, LEF; Links/antiretroviral drugs for HIV, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LEF]. See Antibiotics, Pathology, Pathway Analysis, Adeno-Associated Virus Transfection, Adenovirus Transfection, Bioinformatics, Cancer, Carcinogens, CMV, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Endogenous retrovirus, Garlic, Gene, Gene Therapy, Genomics, Genital Warts, Herpes, HIV, HPV, HSV, HTLV, Longevity Genes, Organism Design, Plasmids, Provirus, and Transfection. See also
Viral Genomes [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Viral Infections [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
Viral Pathogens [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Human Viruses and Associated Pathologies].
Viral Disease [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Virions [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF;
______Links/HPV virions, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF; Genital Warts],
Virosomes [Index], and
Virus Design [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
Viral infections present a stress on the immune system that reduces telomere lengths and shortens lives. Treatment with telomerase activators can compensate for this virus-induced telomere shortening.
Antiviral Antibiotics [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
Antiviral antibiotics (basil, cinnamon, eugenol, garlic) and antiviral nutraceuticals (cinnamon, garlic, licorice) including antiviral herbs (Ref, astragalus, echinacea, garlic, ginger, green tea, licorice, mullein, oregano, and schizandra) should also be applied to stop telomere shortening associated with viral infections by killing the virus. See
Antiviral Nutraceuticals [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF].
There are current reports (2014) that allicin from crushed garlic can work effectively against all viruses and bacteria tested so far, making garlic an effective defense against many biological weapons (anthrax, ect) and a favorite garden vegetable. Furthermore, the HDAC inhibitors diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan (allicin metabolites) may be effective telomerase activators (178) extending the Hayflick Limit for cell division when properly applied to non-cancerous cells, and crushed garlic extract has been tested on dermal fibroblasts. Also see
Antiviral Herbs [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF] and
Antiviral Vaccines [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]. Also see
Antiviral Fusion/Entry Inhibitors [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]. Fusion/Entry Inhibitors interfere, for instance, with HIV virus ability to fuse with the cellular membrane, thereby blocking entry into the host cell. EGCG from green tea appears to interact with gp120 as do several other theaflavins. Actually EGCG binds to the CD4 molecule at the gp120 attachment site. Theaflavin, theaflavin-3-monogallate, and theaflavin-3,3’-digallate extracted from black tea can inhibit HIV entry by targeting HIV gp41 [Ref].
___Adenovirus, a tumor provirus (DNA genome 36 kbp) [Micklos, et.al, DNA Science, p.225].
_____Adenovirus causes only flu-like symptoms in humans, but develops malignancies in mice.
___Epstein-Barr virus can cause lymphoma [Index].
___Hepatitis B virus (DNA genome 3 kb) can cause liver cancer in 10-20% of chronic infections,
___Hepatitis C virus (RNA genome 10 kb) can cause liver cancer in 5% of chronic infections,
___HTLV-1 virus can cause lymphoma or adult T-cell leukemia via the viral gene tax.
___Herpes viruses can cause Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer, and Kaposi's sarcoma.
___HIV virus leads to higher rates of lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma via immunosuppression.
___Papilloma virus [Images] (DNA genome 8 kb) can cause cervical cancer.
___Polyomavirus, a tumor provirus, (DNA genome 5292 bp).
___Rabbit fibroma virus.
___Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) (DNA genome 60 kbp), a chicken tumor provirus.
___Simian virus 40 (SV40), a provirus, (DNA genome 5243 bp).
___T-cell lymphotropic virus can cause lymphoma [Index].
___Retroviruses (RNA-genome 9-10 kb) can cause adult T-cell leukemia [Index].
___C-myc, if translocated by viral infection, may become unregulated and carcinogenic.
___Viral oncoproteins [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] can cause cancer.
About 20% of human cancers are virus-induced, including anogenital cancers (papilloma viruses), liver cancer (hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus) and some lymphomas (Epstein-Barr virus and T-cell lymphotropic virus).
Virosomes [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Virosomes are lipid membranes modeled after envelope viruses that fuse with target cells. They may be engineered with antigens on their surfaces for applications such as HIV-1 preventive vaccines. Certain virosomes have been developed around spherical empty influenza virus envelopes that may be used to port antigen stimulators on their surfaces, proteins, or perhaps engineered plasmid DNA for transfection applications. See Mymetics. Mymetics proposes anti-viral vaccines [Papers, Patents, Books] against HIV, influenza, RSV, and Herpes simplex virus (HSV, Index) based on virosome technology [Papers, Patents, Books].
Vitamin [Wikipedia, Links/Vitamins, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamins]. For optimal vitamin dosages & RDAs, plus other anti-aging supplement dosages, see [62s].
Vitamin A [Wikipedia, Links/Vitamins, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Retinol]. Vitamin A is usually converted into retinol in the small intestine, then taken up into the cell and oxidized into retinal, then further oxidized into retinoic acid.
Retinoic acid reduces P16INK4a expression
Retinoic acid [Images], a telomerase inhibitor on our list, extends cellular lifetimes by reducing p16INK4a expression. Retinoic acid is a dietary metabolite of retinal [Wikipedia/Retinal (sources)], one of the compounds of vitamin A. Vitamin A may be converted to retinol in the small intestine. "Retinol (sources) is produced in the body from the hydrolysis of retinyl esters, and from the reduction of retinal." - Wikipedia/Retinol. Once retinol [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] has been taken up by a cell, it can be oxidized to retinal and then retinal can be oxidized to retinoic acid. The conversion of retinal to retinoic acid is irreversible, such that the production of retinoic acid is tightly regulated, due to its activity as a ligand for nuclear receptors. 23,000 IU of vitamin A are contained in 1/2 cup serving of canned carrots. Retinal can be synthesized in the body from beta-carotene and other carotenes as a precursor of retinoic acid. Vegetables rich in retinoic acid and vitamin A include dark leafy greens such as spinach, kale, collard greens and broccoli.
 Yong-Ouk You, Gene Lee and Byung-Moo Min, (2000),
Retinoic Acid Extends the in Vitro Life Span of Normal Human Oral Keratinocytes by Decreasing p16INK4A Expression and Maintaining Telomerase Activity,
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 268, Issue 2, 16 February 2000, Pages 268-274.
 Maurelli, Zambruno, et al. (2006),
Inactivation of p16INK4a (inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4A) Immortalizes Primary Human Keratinocytes By Maintaining Cells in the Stem Cell Compartment, The FASEB Journal, 2006;20:1516-1518.
Vitamin B1 [Wikipedia, Links/Vitamin B1, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, AnyVitamins/Vitamin B1 (thiamine or benfotiamine), chemical description, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin B1]. Vitamin B1 prevents glucose from reacting with protein, and is available in fat-soluble and water-soluble forms as
____benfotiamine [Index, Books/Benfotiamine, LifeExtension, Links, Images, Video;
______Links/Nutritional Sources of Benfotiamine] and
____thiamine [Index, Books, Links, Images, Video, LifeExtension;
______Links/Nutritional Sources of Thiamine] and works against glucose toxicity in the formation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) (5). The lipid-soluble form of vitamin B1, benfotiamine, (found in onions) is also effective at preventing AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products) [Papers] and improves nerve conduction velocity in aging specimens [Links, Papers]. The B-vitamins B1, B3, B6, B9 (folic acid), and B12 are effective in treating oxidant stress, mitochondrial function, blocking homocysteine damage to the vascular endothelium, and in overcoming insulin resistance.
Vitamin B3, NAD, and NADH [Smart Drugs/Vitamin B3, NAD, and NADH, Wikipedia/Niacin, Links/Vitamin B3, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin B3]. Vitamin B3 is niacin, which is involved in DNA repair [Papers, LifeExtension, (10); Links/Nutritional Sources of Niacin] and in the production of steroid hormones [Papers] in the adrenal gland [Images, Video]. Niacin lowers triglycerides, LDL levels, and LDL/HDL ratios. It also reduces oxidative stress and levels of key cytokines involved in atherosclerosis, inhibiting vascular inflammatory genes associated with atherosclerosis. (See Robert Haas MS, Lower Cholesterol Safely, Life Extension Magazine, March 2010). See also nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, and NAD Synthesis. "Continuous treatment with nicotinamide, which led to lower ROS generation and changes in mitochondrial function, has been reported to extend lifespan (a remarkable 1.6-fold increase) and decelerate telomere shortening (Kang, et al., 2006)", from Telomeres and Telomerase in Ageing, Disease, and Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms of Adult Stem Cell Aging, ed. K. Lenhard Rudolph. See Kang HT, Lee HI, Hwang ES (2006), Nicotinamide extends replicative lifespan of Human Cells, Aging Cell, 5(5): 423-36. Niacinamide is another name for nicotinamide. See Links/Neutraceutical Sources of Nicotinamide, Links/Sources of Nicotinamide and Images/Nicotinamide Supplements. "Is there a way to increase NAD in the body? Fortunately, there is a direct precursor, the nutrient niacin (vitamin B3), in the form of either nicotinic acid or nicotinamide (niacinamide), which has a long history of use as a nutrient supplement. The result of one study showed that, although both of these compounds produce NAD, the rate of synthesis from nicotinamide is twice as great as that from nicotinic acid under physiological conditions." - New Gene Supplements. See NAD synthesis.
Note that NAD+ + 2e- + H+ <---> NADH .
NADH [Index] is an off-the-shelf supplement.
Nicotinamide riboside [Index, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] is a form of vitamin B3 boosting levels of NAD+. See Scott Rahway (2014), The Youth Restoring Benefits Of NAD+, Life Extension Magazine, November 2014.
Vitamin B5 [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin B5]. The biologically active form of vitamin B5 is termed pantothenic acid or Pantethine. Pantethine may enhance cognitive abilities and increase energy levels. Pantethine also lowers cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein), and LDL/HDL ratios. (See Robert Haas MS, Lower Cholesterol Safely, Life Extension Magazine, March 2010.) Note that high LDL levels can activate the transcription of caveolin-1 (gene CAV1), producing cellular senescence. Thus pantethine has application in a program for recovering from cellular senescence by lowering caveolin-1 (gene CAV1) expression originating in high LDL cholesterol.
Vitamin B6 [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin B6; Index/hTERT methylation; Index/Telomeric Chromatin]. Vitamin B6 is a methyl donor for gene silencing, although SAMe is the primary methyl donor for biological reactions, and the sole methyl donor for methyltransferases including the DNA methyltransferases.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), including vitamin B6 vitamers
___pryridoxine (Vitamin B6) [Images, Video, Papers, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension;
______Links/Nutritional Sources of pyridoxine],
___pyridoxamine [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension;
______Links/Nutritional Sources of Pyridoxamine], and
___pyridoxal-5'-phosphate [Index, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Wikipedia, LifeExtension;
______Links/Nutritional Sources of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate]
(produced from vitamin B6 pyridoxine in the intestines and called the metabolically actived form PLP) are valuable for inhibiting glycation of lipids, proteins, and DNA, say with sugars, to produce AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products). Pyridoxamine can be taken in high doses without concern for peripheral neuropathy (Life Extension, July 2009), and occurs naturally in fish, chicken, walnuts, carrots, eggs, and other foods. Pryidoxal-5'-phosphate, produced along with pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate from pyridoxamine in the intestines, is most effective at combating lipid glycation out of the class of B6 vitamers, including aminoquanidine. Lipid glycation effects [Images, Video] are visibly associated with aging effects [Images] as dramatized by type II diabetes [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; LifeExtension/glycation, Video]. PLP (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate) is a cofactor in many metabolic reactions. The Enzyme Commission has catalogued more than 140 PLP-dependent activities, corresponding to about 4% of all classified activities. PLP (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate) reduces 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a marker of oxidative DNA damage), and liver malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals (a marker of tissue lipid peroxidation). Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the active co-enzyme form of vitamin B6, increases the production of serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA, dopamine, and other neurotransmitters. The pyridoxine HCL form of vitamin B6 is inactive, though frequently given. Without adequate vitamin B6, the amino acids in dietary protein are not absorbed properly. Vitamin B6 controls amino acid absorption, metabolism and associated transformations. It also directly participates in carbohydrate and fat metabolism, as well as the formation of red blood cells and antibodies. It is necessary for the absorption & utilization of certain minerals. "Vitamin B6 may help reduce Parkinson's Disease risk by decreasing serum homocysteine, an amino acid that is potentially toxic to dopaminergic nerve cells." Inadequate dietary intake of vitamin B6 may increase the incidence of Parkinson's Disease by 50%. (See Julius Goepp, MD, Halt the Stealth Threat of Parkinson's Disease, Life Extension Magazine, July 2010.) Recently data suggest that vitamin B6 inhibits breast cancer. (In the News, Life Extension Magazine, Nov. 2012).
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) [Index/Folic Acid, Wikipedia/Folic acid, Links/Folic Acid, Images/Folic Acid supplements, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Folic Acid Toxicity; Index/Telomeric Chromatin, Index/hTERT methylation, Telomerase activators/(106) Folic Acid]. Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) is often used as a component in homocysteine screens, which also contain Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, and frequently TMG (Trimethylglycine), a methylating agent that may substitute for methionine. Eating strawberries elevates folate levels in the blood, improving measures of cardiovascular wellness. See dietary sources of folic acid and folate. Cancer feeds on folic acid because it is heavily used in DNA synthesis, so that folic acid may be traced in connection with cancer studies. Check out folic acid in telomeric DNA synthesis [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See Paul L, Cattaneo M, D'Angelo A, Sampietro F, Fermo I, Razzari C, Fontana G, Eugene N, Jacques PF, Selhub J. (2009), Telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is associated with folate status in men, Journal of Nutrition 2009 Jul;139(7):1273-8. Note that Nutrition and the Epigenome describes folic acid as methyl-donating and supportive of DNA methylation. "Familiar nutrients like folic acid, B vitamins and SAM-e (S-Adenosyl methionine, a popular over-the-counter supplement) are key components of this methyl-making pathway. Diets high in these methyl-donating nutrients can rapidly alter gene expression." Folic acid methylates DNA, opposing DNA hypomethylation. "Folic acid is an important donor of methyl groups for the DNA methylation of CpG dinucleotides." - Epigenie/Epigenetic News and Headlines. "Folate plays an essential role in one-carbon transfer involving remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, thereby insuring the provision of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the primary methyl group donor for most biological methylation reactions." - (Young-In Kim, 2005).
1 mg/day is the recommended upper limit for folic acid consumption in adults recommended by Wikipedia. "Folic acid toxicity is rare. High doses (above 15 mg) can cause stomach problems, sleep problems, skin reactions, and seizures..." - Vibrant Life. Note that vitamin C tends to demethylate DNA at the CpG shores of CpG islands (in embryonic stem cells and in fibroblasts when they are are reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells), which may promote telomere lengthening. See the
demethylation of DNA at CpG sites by Vitamin C [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See also Tung-Liang Chung, Romulo M. Brena, Gabriel Kolle, Sean M. Grimmond, Benjamin P. Berman, Peter W. Laird, Martin F. Pera, and Ernst Jurgen Wolvetang (2010), Vitamin C Promotes Widespread Yet Specific DNA Demethylation of the Epigenome in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Stem Cells, 26 OCT 2010. See supplements for controlling DNA methylation, nutrition for DNA methylation, and the index entries hTERT methylation and telomeric chromatin.
Note that folic acid supplements stimulate the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade, which is thought to activate telomerase by phosphorylating cytoplasmic hTERT and importing it into the cellular nucleus, where it becomes part of the telomerase holoenzyme and lengthens telomeres. In this it resembles resveratrol, which phosphorylates cytoplasmic hTERT using Akt kinase. However, this does not brake existing cancers, so that folic acid at 5 mg/day may tend to fuel existing cancers somewhat, rather than repressing them. Telomerase activators are sometimes classified as tumor promoters because they defeat the telomerase-inhibition cancer-defense mechanism while they are being used, allowing existing cancers to grow until telomerase inhibitors are applied or anticancer drugs taken. Two weeks of telomerase inhibitors and anticancer screening after two weeks of folic acid at 5 mg/day is probably safe and anticancer enough to be used in lengthening telomeres. Folic acid levels should probably return to about 0.4 mg/day to 1.6 mg/day during 2 weeks of telomerase inhibition. See C.E. Butterworth Jr. and T. Tamura (1989), Folic acid safety and toxicity: a brief review, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1989:50:353-8.
Vitamin B12 [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin B12; Index/hTERT methylation; Index/Telomeric Chromatin]. Vitamin B12 is a methyl donor for gene silencing, although SAMe is the primary methyl donor for biological reactions. Vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin B6, and trimethylglycine are often used together in homocysteine blockers [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Homocysteine screens, Images, Video, LifeExtension]. Vitamin B12 also improves nerve conduction velocity [Links, Images, Video, LifeExtension] in old people [Links, Video, Papers].
Vitamin C [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin C], [27,28,29,30,31]. Vitamin C is not made in the human body, but must be obtained from external sources. It is essential in synthesizing collagen, and lack of it leads to scurvy, which is associated with inability to maintain collagen synthesis for tissue maintenance. It also preserves telomeric DNA by lowering the telomere shortening rate (7) and helps defend DNA (10) against free radicals. Vitamin C demethylates DNA at the shores of CpG islands very widely in the genome, derepressing transcription. It can demethylate the hTERT promoter region -150 bp to +150 bp from the start of transcription, derepressing normal hTERT mRNA transcription. On the other hand, folic acid is a methyl donor contributing to widespread gene silencing methylation of DNA, which is however typically controlled by methyltransferases. (There are, however, offbeat cases in which some kinds of cancer cells experience hTERT transcriptional activity enhancement as a consequence of methylation.) Folic acid is a component of B-vitamin homocysteine shields, and I personally take it in the morning to block atherosclerotic plaque formation before taking vitamin C at night along with telomerase activators [Index] in a telomerase activation phase of cyclic treatment to lengthen telomeres.
Vitamin C has antiglycating properties. "...Researchers at the Ulleval University in Norway observed that increasing intakes of vitamin C rich foods, such as celery, led to less thickening of the carotid artery, thereby insuring optimal blood flow and preventing atherosclerosis and subsequent heart disease." (William Gamonski, 2012). Vitamin C may be boosted with dihydroquercetin, which inhibits the oxidation of Vitamin C, helping to maintain its concentration for recycling. 3000 mg/day, 500 mg at a time, is a popular dosage schedule. Linus Pauling experimented with doses on the order of 19000 mg/day, noting that this is about the quantity of Vitamin C that would be used by a wild gorilla of human dimensions. High levels of vitamin C associated with intravenous transfusion have been used for angiogenesis inhibition in cancer therapy. Vitamin C is associated with ascorbyl palmitate, which is soluble in both water and lipids.
Note that vitamin C tends to demethylate DNA at the shores of CpG islands (in embryonic stem cells and in fibroblasts when they are are reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells), which may promote telomere lengthening. See the demethylation of DNA at CpG sites by Vitamin C [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See also Tung-Liang Chung, Romulo M. Brena, Gabriel Kolle, Sean M. Grimmond, Benjamin P. Berman, Peter W. Laird, Martin F. Pera, and Ernst Jurgen Wolvetang (2010), Vitamin C Promotes Widespread Yet Specific DNA Demethylation of the Epigenome in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Stem Cells, 26 OCT 2010, DOI: 10.1002/stem.493. Vitamin C (ascorbate) "causes widespread, consistent, and remarkably specific DNA demethylation of 1,847 genes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), including important stem cell genes, with a clear bias to demethylation at CpG island boundaries". The usual result of demethylation at CpG island boundaries in the vicinity of promoters by vitamin C is to de-repress expression of the gene; for instance it de-represses hTERT mRNA transcription from the hTERT gene.
Effect on Stem Cells
Vitamin C supports normal mesenchymal cell growth, migration, and proliferation, as does pterostilbene. See Bickford PC, et al. (2006), Nutraceuticals synergystically promote proliferation of human stem cells, Stem Cells Dev. 2006 Feb;15(1):118-23. Vitamin C positively modulates mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and motility via hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which acts as a multifunctional cytokine on cells of epithelial origin. - (Joint, Tendon, Ligament Stem Cell Support)
Vitamin C as an Antihistamine [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Vitamin C may be used to counteract histamine from immune response generated by allergies in hives or watery eyes. Quercetin exhibits anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory effect by preventing histamine release from mast cells and basophils.
Bioavailable Vitamin C
Vitamin C can be made more bioavailable by mixing it with piperine [Images], from black pepper and dihydroquercetin [Images], which may be extracted from grape leaves. This elevates plasma levels of vitamin C, which is desirable in treating cancer, diabetes, and other disorders. See Steven Cortez (2013), A Better Form of Vitamin C, Life Extension Magazine, May 2013.
Ascorbyl Palmitate [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Ascorbyl Palmitate is soluble in both water and in lipids, making it plausibly more valuable than ordinary vitamin C for treating lipid membranes. However, alpha lipoic acid is a better choice.
Liposomal Vitamin C [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Liposomes].
See Dr. Mercola Liposomal Vitamin C and Arthur Doerksen's video How to Make Liposomal Vitamin C at Home.
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, an ascorbic acid phosphoric ester magnesium salt, is transformed by skin enzymes into Vitamin C, stimulating collagen synthesis in skin. It seems to work better than regular vitamin C. It seems to be soluble in water and in lipids (check). Studies show that Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate improves the Hayflick Limit of dermal fibroblasts [Images] and the Hayflick Limit of human vascular endothelial cells by reducing oxidative stress due to ROS resulting in stress-induced premature senescence. (Thomas von Zglinicki, Telomeric Damage in Aging, p.125, from Aging at the Molecular Level, Kluwer, 2003).
Asc2P (Asc-2-O-phosphate) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Asc2P (Asc-2-O-phosphate) is an oxidation-resistant derivative of vitamin C that is more effective at reducing telomere shortening than ordinary vitamin C. "In this study, it was shown that repetitive addition of Asc2P to human endothelial cells in vitro slowed telomere shortening by a dramatic 52-62%. Regular Vitamin C had no effect." - from Terraternal on Terraternal Telomere Guard.
Vitamin C (Linus Pauling Institute), enhances glutathione peroxidase activity, [see also Beyond C from IAAS] (1).
Vitamin C dose 500 mg, DNA damage on overdose feared, [47s].
Vitamin C shown to increase mouse life span 20%., .
Vitamin C missing in humans, synthesized in animals, .
Vitamin C., Foods rich in vitamin C, . Vitamin C slows telomere shortening by 52% to 62%. (paper by K.Furomoto), .
Vitamin C largely cleared in Kidney Stone formation investigations, (1).
Vitamin C, chewable, .
Vitamin C, microcrystals, .
Vitamin C, chewable, tasty, .
Vitamin C, liquid, .
Vitamin C, liquid, with bioflavonoids, .
Vitamin C with bioflavonoids, links, .
Vitamin D [Biocarta/Control of Gene Expression by Vitamin D Receptor, Links/Vitamin D, Images, Video; Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/vitamin D and telomere loss, Papers; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin D; Links/25-hydroxyvitamin D, Images, Video; Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Nutritional Sources]. Vitamin D is useful in treating inflammation and in overcoming insulin resistance. Vitamin D attenuates telomere loss rates [Papers, LifeExtension] in leukocytes and many other cells. This is thought to be due to the inhibitory effect of vitamin D on the inflammatory response (J. Brent Richards, et. al., 2007). However, Vitamin D3 is thought to act as a telomerase inhibitor (Satoru Kyo and Masaki Inoue, 2002), and has been applied to the treatment of cancers, including hematological malignancies. Note that c-Myc [List] promotes hTERT transcription, and that Vitamin D Inhibits the Production and Function of cMYC [Links, Papers, Patents, Books]. "We discovered that vitamin D controls both the rate of production and the degradation of c-Myc. More importantly, we found that vitamin D strongly stimulates the production of a natural antagonist of cMYC called MXD1 [Links, Papers, Patents, Books], essentially shutting down c-Myc function." - Dr. John White (McGill University), according to Natural News. According to William Falloon of Life Extension Magazine, men with low vitamin D levels suffer 2.47 x more heart attacks. He recommends 1000 IU per day. A 142% reduction in heart attacks was seen with vitamin D. Women deficient in vitamin D have a 253% increased risk of colon cancer, and women with the lowest level of vitamin D had a 222% increased risk of breast cancer. Men with higher levels of vitamin D have a 52% reduced incidence of prostate cancer. Vitamin D also helps prevent strokes. "In September 2006, a long-term study concluded that taking Vitamin D can substantially cut the risk of pancreatic cancer (as well as other cancers) by up to 50%." - Wiki/Pancreatic cancer. Recently Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cognitive decline (Archives of Internal Medicine 2010;170(13):1135-41) and Parkinson's Disease (Archives of Neurology, 20;67(7):808-11). Vitamin D and exercise both improve the expression of Klotho [gene KL], which increases intelligence, improves life span, and deflects coronary artery disease. Littlejohns TJ , Henley WE, Lang IA, et al. (2014), Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease, Neurology, 2014 Sep 2;83(10):920-8. See Maximum Telomere Support [Links, Video], which contains both 40 mg astragaloside IV and 2000 IU of vitamin D per tablet. (dose: 2/day, 60 Capsules $89.95). See J. Brent Richards, et al, (2007) "Higher serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in women". By April 2010, LEF promotes achieving 25-hydroxyvitamin D blood levels of 30 ng/mL or higher, and recommends 3100 IU per day of Vitamin D, about 15 times the current 200 IU RDA recommendation. Experiments with Vitamin D binding protein (Gc macrophage activating factor, or Gc-MAF) have resulted in complete remission of breast cancer and prostate cancer in initial studies. A clinical study of Gc-MAF will be described in a future issue of Life Extension Magazine. Vitamin D is unique in that it can be synthesized in the skin as vitamin D3 by the action of sunlight. Vitamin D acquires the hormonal form calcitriol (after processing in the epidermis) that can activate over 2000 different genes in the human genome. Vitamin D controls cell division rates and cellular differentiation in the skin, so that insufficient vitamin D can result in thinner, more fragile skin. Vitamin D and its receptors promote the response of the innate immune system, promoting the expression of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin from keratinocytes surrounding wounds and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. However, between the ages of 20 and 70 your body loses about 75% of its ability to produce vitamin D3, the precursor of calcitriol. (LEF, Gary Goldfaden MD & Robert Goldfaden, Optimal Sun Protection with Vitamin D, June 2010). Perhaps this is due to replicative senescence. Topical application of vitamin D may be beneficial to the skin [Images/Vitamin D skin cream, Links/Cholecalciferol]. Note that "...1,25(OH)2-16-ene-5,6-trans-D3 almost completely inhibited telomerase activity, as measured by telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay and human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA. For each of the growth-related parameters that were examined, the vitamin D3 analogue was more active than 1,25(OH)2D3.", and that Vitamin D3 is a telomerase inhibitor, although women's leukocytes have longer telomeres when levels of Vitamin D3 are high. Perhaps vitamin D exhibits its telomerase-inhibiting properties only when applied to cancer cells, as is true for some other telomerase inhibitors.
Vitamin D is an antimicrobial agent [Links], originating in its ability to promote skin expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in response to the detection of a bacterial pathogen. The active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, can be focused by epidermal keratinocytes gathering around a fresh wound in response to injury until vitamin D receptors are activated that promote the expression of genes CD14 and TLR2 coding for proteins that detect bacterial pathogens. "Catholicidin works by disrupting the integrity of bacterial cell membranes, and studies have shown it to be a very efficient killer of offending microbes, even at very low concentrations." - Gary Goldfaden, MD, and Robert Goldfaden, Heal Traumatic and Degenerative Skin Lesions Naturally, Life Extension Magazine, September 2010, pp.75-80.
Vitamin D and Vascular Disease
It was found in 1993 that endothelial cells lining arteries can turn into osteoblasts when vitamin D and vitamin K are insufficient. This leads to calcification of tissue and hardening of the arteries due to systemic calcification.
Vitamin D and Elderly Hip Fractures
"In Minnesota, 82 adult minimum trauma fractures were examined, 97% of which were hip fractures [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Of those hip fractures, all but two had vitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL. In a large British study, 95% of patients with hip fractures were found to have low vitamin D serum levels. In a separate Boston study, 78% of hip fracture patients had low vitamin D." - The Bone Architect (2010/01) p.3.
Vitamin D Overdose
Note that 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in excess of 100 ng/mg in the blood are associated with an increased risk of atrial filibration. 50-80 ng/mg of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in the blood is considered optimal. Excess vitamin D intake is relatively rare, and will usually not be seen at 5,000 IU of vitamin D per day. Some individuals presenting challenging cases can take 10,000 IU of vitamin D per day and not exceed 50 ng/mg of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in the blood.
 William Faloon (2012), New Study Warns of Excessive Vitamin D Intake, Life Extension Magazine, May 2012.
 Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Drechsler C, Dekker JM, Marz W (2010),
Vitamin D deficiency and myocardial diseases, Mol Nutr Food Res 2010 Aug;54(8):1103-13.
Vitamin E [Ohio State/Vitamin E (i.e., alpha, beta, delta and gamma tocopherols), Ben Best/Vitamin E, Links/Vitamin E, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin E, variants, (5)]. Vitamin E is a lipid-soluble antioxidant and a small molecule telomerase inhibitor. There are eight different structural isomers of tocopherol. Vitamin E is able to protect against membrane peroxidation [Images] by reacting with both lipid peroxyl radicals and lipid alkoxyl radicals.
Vitamin E Suppression of Microglial Activation [Index/Microglial Activation].
Vitamin E suppression of microglial activation is neuroprotective [Links/suppressing microglial activation, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Vitamin E suppresses microglial activation caused by amyloids that leads to the production of TNF-alpha and Interleukin 6, so that Vitamin E is neuroprotective and an element in defense against Alzheimers Disease. Further defense against Alzheimer's amyloidosis from amyloid beta may be mounting using amyloid inhibitors.
Vitamin E Skin Oil [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension]. Vitamin E Skin Oil probably has application in treating some skin cancers because of its property of being a telomerase inhibitor. If it turns out to also be an interferon activator, then it will be more effective against lesions having a viral origin. Otherwise, it might be applied mixed with an interferon-alpha activator for better general utility against skin lesions.
Vitamin E Lowers Risk of Amylotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) The risk of Amylotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a progressive, fatal neurological disease, can be lowered by supplementing with vitamin E. See LEF News, June 2011.
Vitamin E Lowers High Cholesterol Risks See Catalgol B. Ozner NK (2012), Protective effects of vitamin E against hypercholesterolemia-induced age-related diseases, Genes and Nutrition Jan 2012; 7(1):91-8.
Vitamin E tocotrienols [Wikipedia, Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong/tocotrienols, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin E tocotrienols].
Vitamin K [Wikipedia/Vitamin K, LifeExtension, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin K; Eat Healthy First/Vitamin K]. "Gut flora generates about 74% of vitamin K found in the body, the other 25% coming from dietary sources... It is not stored in the body, underscoring the need for daily intake." - Julius Goepp, MD. Vitamin K "protects against arterial calcification, bone loss, cancer, and aging" Life Extension Magazine, Jan 2009). Note that calcium-supplemented diets reduce calcification of arteries, preventing calcium from accumulating in soft tissues. Vitamin K helps regulate calcium balance in the body. Endothelial collagen caps around atherosclerotic plaques attract calcium, producing "hardening of the arteries", increasing heart attack risk. Supplementing Vitamin K2 can reverse arterial calcification. Vitamin K2 deflects rheumatoid arthritis. With vitamin D, vitamin K2 protects against osteoporosis and improves fracture healing rates. Vitamin K2 reduces prostate cancer risk. Vitamin K is a cofactor required in converting glutamate into gamma-carboxyglutamate, or Gla proteins that regulate physiological processes controlled by calcium, including blood coagulation and bone mineralization. Gla proteins must be modified by Vitamin K to properly form the matrix in which calcium and phosphorus bind to make well-mineralized bone. Vitamin K stimulates new bone formation. Modification of Gla proteins by Vitamin K also helps insure arterial flexibility. Vitamin K2 promotes migration of artery-stiffening arterial plaque calcium caps [Images] back into the bones. Vitamin K2 induces autophagy and apoptosis in leukemia cells, and reduces the probability of liver cancer, inhibiting the proinflammatory nuclear transcription factor NFkB. Vitamin K2 is used to treat and cure liver cancer and prevent its recurrence. (Vitamin K2 inhibits NFkappaB.) Note vitamin K2 is more readily absorbed than vitamin K1. There are two forms of vitamin K2, the MK-4 form of Vitamin K2 being the most rapidly absorbed, the MK-7 form (menaquinone-7 [Links, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, LifeExtension]) being the most bioavailable in the body over a period of over 24 hours, up to many days. The MK-7 form is 3x more effective at promoting activated osteocalcin for the bone. Keeping vitamin K high defends against old-age systemic calcification, preventing old soft tissues from turning to stone-like consistency, and reducing all-cause mortality. Vitamin K keeps calcium in the bones and out of the arteries. See Life Extension Super K. The best sources of vitamin K are spinach [Index], Brussels sprouts, Swiss chard, green beans, asparagus, broccoli [Index], kale and mustard greens; good sources include green peas and carrots. Buttermilk, a fermented, cultured milk, contains more substantial amounts of vitamin K2 that can be used to stimulate bone formation. Swiss cheese and other hard cheeses are also superior sources of vitamin K2, although natto [Images] is much better.
Vitamin K1 [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin K1]. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is used in Vitamin K1 skin creams to treat purpura, senile purpura, bruises, post-plastic surgery subcutaneous bleeding, and dark circles under the eyes. Vitamin K1 promotes clotting where subcutaneous bleeding [Images] exists. Furthermore, vitamin K1 improves verbal episodic memory [LEF News, Jan 2014: Health Aff (Millwood) 2013 Oct;32(10):1698-705].
Vitamin K2 [Wikipedia/Vitamin_K, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon, LifeExtension; Dr. Mercola, Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamin K2]. Vitamin K2 (menaquinone, menaquinone-7) provides better vitamin K function, making osteocalcin from small amounts. Vitamin K2 includes several menaquinones (MK-n, with the ‘n’ determined by the number of prenyl side chains), such as MK-4 found in meats, MK-7, MK-8, and MK-9 found in fermented food products like cheese and natto. Osteocalcin directs calcium into bones instead of leaving it in the blood in the blood to calcify arteries. See The Menaquinone Content of Cheeses [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], The Menaquinone-7 Content of Cheeses [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]; Vitamin K2 supplements [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] and MK-7 supplements [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Dr. Mercola/Heart Healthy Cheese]. Most vitamin K2 casually eaten is the MK-4 from meats which does not confer the same heart benefits as MK-7 or MK-9 from
Swiss Cheese is the best conventional cheese source of the preferred MK-7 version of vitamin K2, which is often sourced from natto for MK-7 supplements. Gouda cheese is also very high in vitamin K2. "Natto contains about 1000 mcg of MK-7, 84 mcg MK-8, and no MK-4 per 3 1/2 oz serving". The MK-4 is short-lived, lasting 3-4 hours in the body, while MK-7, the form in natto, lasts several days. Bacillus subtilis natto [Images] is the Bacillus bacterium that creates MK-7 in fermenting natto. Bacillus subtilis [Images] is used as a probiotic bacterium in humans. Adding glycerol to fermenting batches of natto increases MK-7 production. Propionibacteria [Images] in fermenting Swiss Emmental cheese or Norwegian Jarlsberg cheese produce MK-9 (4H) as a vitamin K2 major metaquinone. See Takashi Morishita, Natsuko Tamura, Takashi Makino, Satoshi Kudo (1999), Production of Menaquinones by Lactic Acid Bacteria, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 82, Issue 9, September 1999, Pages 1897–1903. See also Lara Pizzorno, Vitamin K2: Optimal Levels Essential for the Prevention of Age-Associated Chronic Disease, Longevity Medicine Review. Check the vitamin K2 content of buttermilk, a cultured cheese-like milk that can make bones bigger and stronger. See also
Vitamin K2 and Arterial Calcification
[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Aortic sclerosis, Aortic Stenosis]. It was found in 1993 that endothelial cells lining arteries can turn into osteoblasts when vitamin D and vitamin K are insufficient. This leads to calcification of tissue and hardening of the arteries due to systemic calcification. Vitamin K2 can prevent aortic sclerosis symptomatic of the calcification of aortic vascular tissues and consequent aortic stenosis that calcifies the aortic valve of the heart so that it cannot open fully. See William Davis, MD (2008), Protecting Bone and Arterial Health with Vitamin K2 [Online], Life Extension Magazine, March 2008.
Vitamin K2 and Cancer
The highest vitamin K2 intake group in a recent cancer study of prostate cancer and lung cancer victims had a 28% lower risk of dying from cancer, the reduction occuring mainly in men. - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010, March 24; after Dayna Dye, Reduced Vitamin K Intake Associated with Greater Cancer Mortality, Life Extension Magazine, July 2010. See Felix DiFara, The Remarkable Anticancer Properties of Vitamin K, Life Extension Magazine, Nov. 2010. Vitamin K2 has also been observed to promote the cellular differentiation of leukemia cells into normal white blood cells. Vitamin K2 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer).
Restocking Vitamin K2-producing Bacteria in the Stomach
After using antibiotics such as garlic, it may be necessary to restock the stomach with vitamin K2-producing bacteria in the stomach, as they are a major source of supply for vitamin K2 in human beings. Probiotic yogurt or cheeses may be used to restock these bacteria.
Vitamin K3 (Menadione) [Wikipedia/Menadione, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Vitamin K3 (Menadione) has been applied in anticancer research. Menadione is a precursor of Vitamin K2 utilizing alkylation to produce menaquinones (MK-n, n=1-13; K2 vitamers). It is not used much, except to treat livestock and hypoprothrombinemia, a deficiency of prothrombin (Factor II) resulting in impaired blood clotting. This can lead to increased bleeding, for instance in the gastrointestinal system or cranial vault. It also helps block the formation of acid in saliva, so that it is anticariogenic.
Vitamin K5 [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension]. Vitamin K5 has been applied in anticancer research. It also helps block the formation of acid in saliva, so that it is anticariogenic (defends teeth against cavities). Vitamin K5 is used as an antifungual agent.
Vitamins [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension; Links/Nutritional Sources of Vitamins], optimal dosages & RDAs, plus other anti-aging supplement dosages, [62s].
Vitis Vinefera (Grapes) [Wikipedia/Vitis Vinefera (grape), Links/grapes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension], (0).
Topics | Am | An | B | Ca | Cb | D | E | F | G | Hs | Ht | I | J | K | L | Mc | Md | N | O | Pq | Pr | Q | R | Sl | Sm | Te | Tf | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Topics | Index Change Log | Dental
Home | Google | Books | Papers | Patents | Wikipedia | Wikigenes | iHOP | Merriam-Webster | NIH | LibWeb
Longevity 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 || Labs | Foots | Refs | Sup Notes 1 | 2 | 3a | 3b1 | 3b2 | 3b4 | 3b5 | 3b6 | 4 | 5 | Vendors | Biblio | Change Log | Mortality Charts | Age Transformation | Special || Springer
Amazon | Powells | LibCong | WSU | LifeExtension | IAS | A4M | QC | Ray | Barron || Mechanisms of Aging | IN | SENS | MEME | METHUS
TOP || Home || All That Jazz - Bye, Bye Life "I sure am blue, I sure am blue, I sure am blue..."
Music || Email: JimGreenHimself@gmail.com. Thanks for sending your pointers, insights, and remarks.