Index to Anti-Aging Medicine
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Walford, Roy L. [Links/Walford on Aging, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Roy Walford, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], [7], [8]. Roy L. Walford worked on diets for caloric restriction and the autoimmune theory of aging [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. See aging and the immune system [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] and autoimmune diseases [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] such as arthritis. Note that both small molecule and endogenous large-molecule telomerase activators [Index] often improve the performance of the immune system. Medicine that improved immune system performance often turned out to contain telomerase activators that extended the cell division capacity of immune system cells. Thus one of the first places to check for telomerase activators turned out to be among drugs improving immune system performance. Based on analysis of exercise-induced telomerase activators, I might add that exercise (9) should also improve immune system performance. See Immunological Theory of Aging and The Immune System.
Wakami [Links/Wakami, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Wakami is a source of fucoxanthin, which promotes the expression of fat-burn-protein UCP1 [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Wakami is a component in an Immortality Diet proposal. See Li Ching-Yuen.
Walnuts [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
Walnuts may be used to treat brain injuries and enhance cognitive function due to their high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid from walnuts is a contributor to heart health by thinning the blood; reducing risks of clots or heart attacks. Walnuts reduce LDL cholesterol, increase the elasticity of the arteries, and reduce levels of vascular cell adhesion, a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. In addition, walnuts reduce levels of endothelin, which increases blood vessel inflammation and is found in prostate cancer. Finally, walnuts contain gamma-tocopherol, which helps fight breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer.
[1] Carley Eder (2011),
A Wealth of Health Found in Walnuts, Life Extension Magazine, August 2011.
Eating a handful of walnuts contains almost twice as many antioxidants as an equivalent amount of any other commonly consumed nut.” Almost 90% of walnut phenols are found in the skin. Walnut vitamins, phenolic acids, tannins, flavonoids, and omega-3 fatty acids contribute to heart health, work to prevent cancer, help fight diabetes, improve cognitive function, "and may even help with a better night’s sleep."
[2] Banel DK, Hu FB (2009),
Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis and systematic review, Am J Clin Nutr 2009 Jul;90(1):56-63.
[3] Hardman WE, Ion G (2006),
Suppression of implanted MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer growth in nude mice by dietary walnut, Nutr Cancer 2008;60(5):666-74.
[4] Ma Y, Njike VY, Millet J, et al (2010),
Effects of walnut consumption on endothelial function in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized controlled crossover trial, Diabetes Care 2010 Feb;33(2):227-32.
Wasabi [LEF/Wasabi, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Wasabi is a SOD-booster or SOD substitute, a SOD-mimetic [Links/SOD mimetics, Images, Papers, Books, LifeExtension, Amazon]. Wasabi is DNA-protective [Links/DNA protective supplements, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Books/DNA protective agents, LifeExtension]. Note that wasabi is anticancer [Index].
Watercress Extract [Wikipedia/Watercress, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension]. Watercress extract was recommended by Suzanne Somers in her book "Bombshell" at 50-100 mg/day for targeted DNA protection and repair (10), along with several other substances:
(1) Watercress extract: 50-100 mg/day.
(2) Chlorophyllin: 100-300 mg/day.
(3) Curcumin: 400-800 mg/day.
(4) Broccoli extract: 400-800 mg/day.
(5) Rosemary extract: 50-100 mg/day.
(6) Apigenin: 25-50 mg/day.
Watercress contains the glucosinolate gluconasturtiin derivative phenethyl-isothiocyanate (PEITC), which defends against DNA damage, inhibits carcinogen-activating enzymes, and induces cancer detoxification enzymes. "Watercress has a positive effect on lung, corectal, and prostate cancers." - Steve Frankel (2013), Shield Yourself from Environmental Cancer Risks, Life Extension Magazine, 2013 April.
Watson, James D. [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; DNA, Video/The Double Helix; Video/The Discovery of DNA; Video/DNA; Video/DNA Structure and Function; Video/The DNA End Replication Problem; Video/Telomere Repair and the end replication problem]. James D. Watson discovered DNA with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin from Maurice Wilkin's Lab in 1953 at Cambridge University. He is the author of The Double Helix, The Molecular Biology of the Gene, and many papers and books on DNA Science and genetics. Also see papers on telomere shortening [Links, Papers] by James D. Watson (1972). For historical perspective, see Alexey M. Olovnikov, Telomeres, telomerase, and aging: Origin of the theory, Experimental Gerontology, Volume 31, Issue 4, July-August 1996, Pages 443-448. See also Olovnikov, AM and the end replication problem.
Press for James D. Watson (b. April 6, 1928) at Random House Speakers.Press for The Double Helix at Google Books.

Weibull Distribution [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Books]. Technical parts fail according to the Weibull distribution. Also see the cumulative Weibull Distribution [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers]. A Weibull distribution with a failure rate k > 1 for failures increasing over time somewhat resembles the mortality charts of human death rate after age 38, when the death rate begins to rise as cellular senescence makes hairs turn grey [74s] and forces diseases of old age [Images, Papers, Patents, Books, [103]] to become manifest, resulting in Gompertz-Makeham Laws of Mortality.
Werner Syndrome (WS) [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong, Amazon]. Werner Syndrome is a premature aging syndrome less severe than Hutchinson-Guilford Progeria. Werner Syndrome is due to mutations in the gene for WRNp, a DNA helicase with an exonuclease domain used in DNA unwinding that is localized to the telomere. Note that magnesium is a cofactor for the WRNp DNA helicase. Since WS cells have been observed to thrive in in vitro cell cultures when hTERT is activated, it may be that small molecule telomerase activators (7) will provide effective therapy for alleviating symptoms of Werner Syndrome. [Junko Oshima, Werner Syndrome, in Chromosomal Instability and Aging, Hisama et al., 2003.] Magnesium insuffiency is associated with hypertension and increased incidence of sudden death. Lack of sufficient magnesium to function as a cofactor of the WRNp DNA helicase might lead to premature cellular senescence resembling premature stress-induced senescence. Note that magnesium is also required as a cofactor for DNA synthesis during DNA replication and as a cofactor for RNA synthesis to produce mRNA during transcription [Index] from genes. See Baird DM, Davis T, Rowson J, Jones CJ, Kipling D (2004), Normal telomere erosion rates at the single cell level in Werner syndrome fibroblast cells, Human Molecular Genetics, 13: 115-24. See also Chang S, Multani AS, Cabrera NG, Naylor ML, Laud P, Lombard D, Pathak S, Guarente L, DePinho RA (2004), Essential Role of Limiting Telomeres in the pathogenesis of Werner Syndrome, Nature Genetics, 36: 877-82, also Crabbe L, Jauch A., Naeger CM, Holtgreve-Grez H, Karlsreder J (2007), Telomere dysfunction as a cause of genomic instability in Werner Syndrome, Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences USA, 104: 2205-10 and Crabbe L, Verdun RE, Haggblom CI, Karlsreder J (2004), Defective telomere lagging strand synthesis in cells lacking WRN helicase activity, Science 306: 1951-53, and also Wyllie FS, Jones CJ, Skinner JW, Haughton MF, Wallis C, Wynford-Thomas D, Faragher RG, Kipling D (2000), Telomerase prevents the accelerated cell ageing of Werner Syndrome fibroblasts, Nature Genetics 24: 16-17. Ectopic hTERT expression can immortalize Werner Syndrome fibroblasts (Ouellette et al. 2000, Wyllie et al. 2000, Choi et al. 2001). Accelerated senescence seems to be premature stress-related senescence in Werner Syndrome (WS), as low oxygen conditions and antioxidant treatment reduce WS senescence and associated genomic instability. Oxidative stress and genetic instability activate stress kinase such as p38, so that the p38 inhibitor SB2035880 prevents the premature stress-related senescence seen in WS fibroblasts. More p38 inhibitors have been developed, and other stress kinase inhibitors have been developed for JNK and MK2. (Terence Davis and David Kipling, Werner Syndrome, Telomeres and Stress Signaling: Implications for Future Therapies? in K.Lenhard Rudolph, 2008, p.285).
SIRT6 depletion Mimics Werner Syndrome
SIRT6 depletion [Article] can induce symptoms similar to Werner Syndrome, causing telomere dysfunction and interferring with the stable association of the WRN helicase. SIRT6 expression may be boosted to prevent depletion by fasting. Rosiglitazone (RGZ, trade name Avandia, GlaxoSmithKline) treatment ameliorates hepatic lipid accumulation and increases the expression of SIRT6 (21). SIRT1 improves the expression of SIRT6, so that a number of sirtuin activators may be useful for this.
West, Michael D. [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Video/Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells]. Michael D. West founded Geron Corporation, and is a pioneer in telomere biology (7), life extension therapies, and stem cell techniques. He is now CEO of BioTime, Inc, which specializes in stem cell research.
Wheatgrass and Wheatgrass Juice [Wikipedia/Wheatgrass, Links/Wheatgrass, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF; Links/Wheatgrass Juice, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LEF]. Wheatgrass supplements elevate SOD and catalase, so that they oppose hair greying, which some experts think is due primarily to a failure of catalase to neutralize hydrogen peroxide that bleaches the hair white. Ann Wigmore [Images, Video], who discovered valuable medicinal propeties of wheatgrass, was able to transform her already gray hair to its colored state in several years with wheatgrass as it boosts SOD and catalase. Earlier, wheatgrass was promoted in the 1930s as a component of superior chicken feed.
Wheat Sprouts [Wikipedia/Sprouting, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; LifeExtension/Sprouts]. Wheat sprouts are a bioavailable SOD source [Links/bioavailable SOD, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. [64s].
Whey Protein [Index/Protein, Wikipedia, Links/Whey protein, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Ben Best, LifeExtension]. Whey protein from skim milk, (cottage cheese is casein protein curd), or micronized whey protein supplements is probably best for life extension, less risky than mercury-contaminated fish. Tests show that it extends lifetime nearly 10% in experimental animals (Will Brink, 2013). Whey protein improves levels of neuroprotective HGH [Links, Papers, Books]. Whey isolates are available, and whey hydrolysates are pre-digested, thus rapidly absorbed, especially if the anabolic hormone insulin has been boosted with Gymnema Sylvestre, Fenugreek Extract, or 4-hydroxyisoleucine. Note that sugar-boosting insulin with dextrose (glucose) causes glycation damage that may lead to Alzheimer's Disease. BCAA Branched Chain Amino Acids [Index, Links, Images, Video] - isoleucine, leucine, and valine are thought to turn on muscle synthesis, according to Jim Stoppani PhD of Muscle and Fitness magazine (Fall 2009) in Elements of a Stack. In particular, extra leucine is used with whey protein, together with Fenugreek extract, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, or Gymnema Sylvestre to drive insulin levels up and transport amino acids into cells. Whey protein isolates, possibly micronized, at 20-30 grams may be taken with 5-10 grams of extra leucine, possibly with an artifical sweetener and Gymnema Sylvestre (250-500 mg) to implement a post-workout bodybuilding shake. Formerly 40-100 grams of dextrose or Vitargo was used to drive up insulin levels, which is dangerous, and may have led to some premature deaths by Alzheimer's Disease, such as Larry Scott's death at 75. Whey protein by itself can boost HGH levels, as can bodybuilding exercises in the presence of an adequate diet. The HGH is turned by the liver into IGF-1, which is a telomerase activator (7) (via Akt) for which an IGF-1 receptor exists in almost every human cell. HGH is thought to activate the transcription of hTERT mRNA, while IGF-1 merely phosphorylates hTERT protein in the cytoplasm via Akt kinase for transport into the nucleus, optimizing the use of existing hTERT catalytic component of telomerase molecules. Thus most bodybuilding activity is inherently life extending. See Anabolics, Bodybuilding and Sports Medicine.
Jerry Brainum (Iron Man, July 2010, "Whey Ahead") notes that whey protein taken before a workout takes about 90 minutes to peak in the blood, and that it inhibits myostatin better than a workout without whey protein taken before the workout. Mysostatin inhibits muscle growth, so by inhibiting myostatin, whey protein can assist with muscle growth as a myostatin inhibitor. However, if taken after a workout, a whey protein shake can interfere with myostatin inhibition, so that whey protein should probably always be taken prior to a workout for best effect. (The usual school of thought maintains that whey protein after a workout produces higher levels of amino acids in the blood that are experimentally shown to result in superior gains.) Perhaps casein protein, egg protein, tuna, or some other protein can be taken after a workout without interfering with myostatin inhibition. Fertilized hen's eggs contain a myostatin inhibitor [Images], for instance, and may be used to induce myostatin inhibition, probably even after a workout.
Whey protein is often described as boosting the immune system and decreasing body fat as a whole food CR-mimetic. Milk is 87% water and 13% solids. Brainum notes many other interesting facts about whey protein and milk. Casein protein makes up about 80% of the protein in cow's milk, whey 20%. Whey contains about 26% Branched Chain Amino Acids metabolized in muscles rather than in the liver (such as leucine) that favor fast-acting muscle synthesis, although by opposing muscle catabolism, a slow supply of amino acids from casein protein lasting 7 hours also assists with bodybuilding goals. The BCAAs leucine, isoleucine, and valine exhibit the CR-mimetic property of whey protein all by themselves and induce mitochondrial biogenesis.
Brainum dissects whey peptides in the same article:
(1) Beta-Lactoglobulin, making up 50% of the whey content in cow's milk and 12% of its total protein, is not found in human, rat, mouse, or guinea pig milk. The ratio of whey/casein = 20/80 in cow's milk, but whey/casein = 60/40 in human milk. Beta-Lactogloblulin (BLG) is a major allergen in cow's milk, although probiotics are available to block BLG allergenic effects. BLG provides peptides such as lactokinen, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor which lowers blood pressure. Another BLG peptide, beta lactotensin, increases blood pressure, but has antistress effect and reduces sensitivity to pain, improving memory and possibly reducing cholesterol when given as an injection.
(2) Alpha Lactalbumin (ALB), a "potent immune stimulator" having a rich tryptophan content, inhibits breast cancer and colon cancer, and is contained in human milk at 25% and in cow's milk at 5%. Taking ALB improves sleep and helps generate more serotonin to prevent depression and the desire to eat sweets.
(3) Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is rich in Branched Chain Amino Acids, although it lacks phenylanaline, tryptophan, and tyrosine. GMP increases the absorption of zinc, which is required for the proper functioning of the endogenous anabolic hormones testosterone, IGF-1, and insulin.
(4) Proteose Peptone-3 (PP3), found in cow's whey but not in human whey, is an immune system enhancer.
(5) Lactoferrin destroys bacteria by blocking bacterial use of iron, and enhances immunity to cancer, increases bone formation, and inhibits the hepatitis virus. Lactoferrin induces apoptosis in cancer cells, inhibits angiogenesis, and modulates carcinogen-inducing enzymes.
(6) Cysteine, an amino acid containing sulfur and the direct precursor of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), is also abundant in whey, increasing muscle endurance, reducing fatigue, and improving recovery time. The glutathione-boosting feature of whey protein endows it with anticancer properties, as glutathione destroys ROS, detoxifies carcinogens, and boosts the immune system.
Whey helps suppress appetite, but boosts insulin concentrations via its Branced Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs). Whey is thought to help reduce bodyfat and help retain lean mass. It is now considered to be CR-mimetic.
According to Brainum, whey hydrolysates [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] release amino acids faster and are superior to ordinary whey protein, more swifty enhancing recovery from intense exercise. According to Muscle & Fitness Magazine, whey peptides promote blood flow to muscles. Note that human whey protein [Images] is now available. The primary disadvantage of whey protein is flatulence: it can generate quite a bit of whistling gas at the nether end of the critter. See
(1) Will Brink (2013), New Longevity Benefits of Whey Protein [On-Line],
Life Extension Magazine, September 2013.

(2) Valerio A, D’Antona G, Nisoli E. (2011), Branched-chain amino acids, mitochondrial biogenesis, and healthspan: an evolutionary perspective, Aging (Albany NY)
2011 May;3(5):464-78.

(3) D’Antona G, Ragni M, Cardile A, et al. (2010), Branched-chain amino acid supplementation promotes survival and supports cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in middle-aged mice, Cell Metabolism 2010 October;12(4):362-72.

(4) Krissansen G (2007), Emerging health properties of whey proteins and their clinical implications [PDF], The Journal of the American College of Nutrition,
Dec. 2007;26(6):713S-23S.

(5) Bounous G, Gervais F, Amer V, Batist G, Gold P. (1989), The influence of dietary whey protein on tissue glutathione and the diseases of aging [PDF], Clinical & Investigative Medicine 1989;12:343-9.

(6) Currais A, Maher P. (2013), Functional consequences of age-dependent changes in glutathione status in the brain, Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 2013 Feb 5.
"Brain glutathione (GSH) decreases with age in humans, and a loss of GSH can impact cognitive function. Decreases in GSH are also associated with microglial activation and endothelial dysfunction, both of which can contribute to impairments in brain function. Changes in redox homeostasis can also potentiate the accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts, resulting in defects in protein processing and function as well as a further increase in inflammation."

(7) Paddon-Jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Katsanos CS, Zhang XJ, Wolfe RR (2006), Differential stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in elderly humans following isocaloric ingestion of amino acids or whey protein, Experimental Gerontology 2006 Feb;41(2):215-9.

(8) Paddon-Jones D, Short KR, Campbell WW, Volpi E, Wolfe RR (2008), Role of dietary protein in the sarcopenia of aging [PDF], American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 May;87(5):1562S-6S.

(9) Fujita S, Dreyer HC, Drummond MJ, et al. (2008), Nutrient signalling in the regulation of human muscle protein synthesis [PDF], Journal of Physiology 2007 Jul 15;582(Pt 2):813-23.

(10) Clare DA, Swaisgood HE (2000), Bioactive milk peptides: A prospectus [PDF], Journal of Dairy Science 2000;83:1187-95.

(11) Bounous G, Kongshavn PA, Gold P (1988), The immunoenhancing property of dietary whey protein concentrate [PDF], Clinical and Investigative Medicine 1988 August;11(4):271-8.

White Kidney Bean Extract [Links, Images/white kidney bean extract supplements, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Kidney Beans]. White Kidney Bean Extract (Phaseolus Vulgaris) is an alpha-amylase inhibitor [Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] used in caloric restriction to block the digestion of starch molecules into simple sugars and oligosacchaides that can be absorbed in the small intestine. It is safe and effective, and also boosts the levels of the sateity hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), reducing the urge to continue eating. It can easily introduce a three-fold reduction in serum triglycerides. (See Julius Goepp MD, Block Absorption of Killer Carbohydrates, Life Extension Magazine, Feb 2010.) See also Pusztai A, Grant G, et al., Lipid accumulation in obese Zucker rats is reduced by inclusion of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the diet, British Journal of Nutrition, 1998, Feb;79(2):213-21. About 2-3 grams are recommended 30 minutes prior to high-carbohydrate meals. - (dosage after Muscle and Fitness Magazine, 2010). Check kidney beans inhibit alpha-amylase [Papers, Patents, Books]. See also kidney beans [Index, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Red kidney beans also work, both white and red beans using alpha-AI1 as the alpha-amylase inhibitor. Pinto beans are also Phaseolus Vulgaris type.
White Tea (Camellia sinensis) [Links/White Tea Extract, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; sources, White Tea brands, toxicity, side effects, dosage; Black Tea, Green Tea, Tea Polyphenols, Theaflavins; Coffee]. "Green, black and white tea are all processed from the same bush called Camellia Sinensis. White tea only uses the finest leaves from each bush and is picked early. The tea leaves and white colored buds are slightly steamed and then mostly sun dried using a minimal amount of processing. Because the tea has been hardly processed it contains high levels of antioxidants.... white tea is 10% more effective than green tea..." [2]. White tea fights cancer somewhat better than green tea. White tea effectively inhibits elastase [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, [1]], and also inhibits collagenase [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, [1]]. White tea is a lipase inhibitor. See also anti-collagenase, anti-elastase plant extracts and phytoceramides.
[1] 1.Thring et al. (2009),
Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants,
BMC Complement Altern Med 2009, 9:27. See Anti-Elastase, Anti-Collagenase Nutraceuticals. White Tea had the highest anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activity of any extract tested.
[2] Kayla Fioravanti (2011),
A Closer Look at White Tea Extract, Posted online January 13, 2011.
Why Do We Age?, [Links, Video, Books/Causes of Aging, Amazon] from Senescence Info.
Who's Who in Gerontology [Links/Whos Who in Gerontology, Video; Links/Who's Who in Life Extension, Video; Links/ Biogerontology, Video; Links/ Molecular Gerontology, Video] [4].
Wigs [Links, Images, Video, Books, Amazon], Wigs, TV Wigs, Movie Star Wig, Wow Wigs, L-Wig, Ace Wigs, Wilshire Wigs, Visionary Wig. Wigs can reconstruct hair in a way that seems to restore youth and beauty. See Makeup Technique.
Withania Somnifera [Index/Ashwagandha; Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) is used to lower serum cortisol levels at about 250 mg/dose. It is used in post-workout growth accelerators [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], when it is desired to lower cortisol to allow muscle growth to proceed in physical therapy. Cortisol is catabolic and destroys muscle tissue protein to produce energy fuels. Thus withania somnifera and other cortisol inhibitors are tools of anabolic therapy. Note that "Withania Somnifera" sounds less oriental and Indian in origin than "Ashwagandha", so that ashwagandha is often described as withania somnifera in western formulations.
Withanolides [Links, Images/Withanolides Supplements, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension, LibCong]. Withanolides are found in Ashwagandha [Links, Images/Ashwagandha supplements, Video, LifeExtension, LibCong], and boost levels of endogenous antioxidants, including SOD, catalase, and glutathione. Ashwagandha withanolides are also believed to reduce cortisol levels, quietening anxiety and producing states of relative tranquility. A dose of 250 mg twice a day of Ashwagandha is recommended. Ashwagandha is useful in treating old age dementia and in recovery from brain conditions. See Mulabagal V, Subbaraju GV, Rao CV, et al. (2009), Withanolide sulfoxide from Ashwagandha roots inhibits nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B, cyclooxygenase, and tumor cell proliferation, Phytotherapy Research 2009 July; 23(7):987-92.
Wolfberry (Goji Berry) Shangri-la's Chinese Wolfberry (Index, GoJi Berry) [LifeExtension, Wikipedia, Links/Wolfberries, Video, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Ray/Goji, Ray/Wolfberry]. Wolfberries are said to "elevate SOD". Li Ching-Yuen, said to have lived to the age of 252 years (1678-1930), consumed Goji berries daily.
Wolf, Dennis [Links/Dennis Wolf, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Dennis Wolf sometimes works out with Dennis James in Phoenix. Dennis Wolf photos (Muscular Development, Vol. 50, No. 2, Feb 2013, pg. 164, pg. 168, pg. 170, $6.99 US shelved until Jan 28th) show mythically imaging muscle tissue detail that seems to be impressed with mission imagery from the inside out by the fine structure, as one sees in The Foundation Stone of the Dome of the Rock or carved into the surfaces of mythic planetary bodies such Mars, the Moon, and Miranda. Perhaps if a champion gets suitably starved from special training, the body begins to project sex star psychedelic miracles from its surface, similar to the alertness signals and warning visions associated with LSD, prepared as signals for his comrades that The End is Near, as the Wolf's at the Door in startling muscle-limb revelations. It shows Dennis as a Soviet Hero of Russia with little Napoleon stuck between two dongs on one leg on pg.164. Winged Vic as Rocky and his Friends majoring in French. Music[2]: Pumping Iron (theme song). Everybody Wants to Live Forever.
Wound Healing [Cope/Wound Healing, Wikipedia/Wound_healing, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LibCong, LifeExtension; Regenerative Medicine, Retinol]. Wound healing is managed by endogenous human growth factors such as epiregulin, TGF-alpha, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and other cytokines, many of which are found in colostrum or mitogenic bovine whey [1]. Wound healing is promoted by the topical application of pomegranate, vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin C, copper, CuZnSOD (cytoplasmic SOD = SOD1), and other supplements. Extra iron is detrimental to wound healing. Geron Corporation determined that small molecule telomerase activators in astragalus root extract improve wound healing. Note that most human growth factors, many of which are involved in wound healing, are also endogenous telomerase activators via activation of the MAP kinase pathway, often via the epidermal growth factor receptor. Also note that cryosurgery to remove a keratosis or a wart relies on wound healing to replace frozen tissue with new skin. See also Links/Wound Healing Assays, Books/Wound Healing Assays, European patent on Astralagus Extracts with Wound Healing Studies(for Hong Kong U.), and the Geron 2005 patent Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity. See also Books/ischemic wound, and the observation that human telomerase improves ischemic would healing [2]. Gotu Kola contains triterpenoids observed to accelerate wound healing. Gotu Kola is also applied to varicose veins.
Vitamin D is useful for wound healing treatment. Vitamin D is an antimicrobial agent [Links], originating in its ability to promote skin expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in response to the detection of a bacterial pathogen. The active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, can be focused by epidermal keratinocytes gathering around a fresh wound in response to injury until vitamin D receptors are activated that promote the expression of genes CD14 and TLR2 coding for proteins that detect bacterial pathogens. "Catholicidin works by disrupting the integrity of bacterial cell membranes, and studies have shown it to be a very efficient killer of offending microbes, even at very low concentrations." [3]. See also senile purpura and skin lesions in connection with wound healing. Vitamin C skin cream can help restore collagen in wounded tissue, and vitamin K1 skin cream promotes blood clotting to stop subcutaneous bleeding associated with bruises, senile purpura, and dark circles under the eyes. New cosmetic creams using Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF1 or aFGF) help restore telomere length in epidermal keratinocytes [Images, Video], dermal fibroblasts [Images, Video], and fibroblast-like veil cells surrounding dermal blood vessels, opposing replicative senescence in dermal fibroblasts that maintain the extracellular matrix with collagen and elastin until cellular senescence forces them to attack the extracellular matrix with matrix metalloproteinases such as collagenase and stromelysin, simultaneously inhibiting factors such as TIMP1 and TIMP3 that oppose the matrix metalloproteinase attack on the extracellular matrix. Colostrum skin creams contain TGF-beta, a telomerase inhibitor that may be isolated in TGF-beta skin creams which reconstructs both collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix. In addition, colostrum skin cream contains many telomerase activators characterisic of growth factor skin creams. Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is also involved in wound healing. Telomerase inhibitor [List] GRN163 retards the wound healing activity of PDGF.
"Vitamin K, Arnica montana extract, oats, and vitamin D have been shown to help speed the recovery time for bruises, accelerate wound healing, reduce swelling and inflammation, combat infection (via Vitamin D), and relieve pain" [3].
"By manipulating the actions of growth factors and cytokines, it may be possible to accelerate or modify wound healing. Animal experiments and also clinical experience have demonstrated that the topical administration of various cytokines, including bFGF (FGF2), EGF, KGF (FGF7), PDGF, TGF-beta, either alone or in combination (see also: MBWE, mitogenic bovine whey extract), considerably accelerates wound healing by stimulating granulation tissue formation and enhancing epithelialization." - Cope/Wound Healing.
Note that Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and nerve growth factor expression, promoting healing and regeneration of nerve cells in the wake of neural injuries from Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and other sources [4]. Plantain Leaf Extract, which improves wound healing, is useful in treating kidney problems.
Wound Healing in Old Age and Cancer
There are some reports of old age wound healing resulting in cancerous tumors [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. For instance, a puncture wound to a pectoral muscle in an old man might produce symptoms of breast cancer due to inflammation and stem cells or fibroblasts close to replicative senescence. See also cancer-associated wound healing impairment [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], impaired wound healing [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], and chronic wounds [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
[1] Draper BK, Komurasaki T, Davidson MK, Nanney LB (2003),
Epiregulin is more potent than EGF or TGFalpha in promoting in vitro wound closure due to enhanced ERK/MAPK activation, Journal of Cell Biochemistry, 89 (6): 1126–37.
[2] Jon E. Mogford, et al. (2006),
Adenoviral Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Dramatically Improves Ischemic Wound Healing Without Detrimental Immune Response in an Aged Rabbit Model,
Human Gene Therapy, June 1, 2006.
[3] Gary Goldfaden, MD, and Robert Goldfaden (2010),
Heal Traumatic and Degenerative Skin Lesions Naturally,
Life Extension Magazine, Sept 2010, pp.75-80.
[4] Michelle Flag (2011),
Reverse Brain Cell Death by Growing New Mitochondria,
Life Extension Magazine, Nov, 2011.
[5] Chen WY, Abatangelo G (1999),
Functions of hyaluronan in wound repair, Wound Repair Regen 1999 9. Mar-Apr;7(2):79-89.
Wound Management [Links, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books, LibCong, Amazon].
World's Healthiest Foods, [Books/Food Properties, LibCong, Links/Food Properties, Books/Health Properties of Foods, Links/Health Properties of Foods, Videos, Amazon/Health Properties of Foods], [55].
Wright, Woodring E. [Shay-Wright Lab, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, CV, born June 21, 1949].
Dr. Woodring E. Wright (Images)Woodring E. Wright (MD, PhD, has worked very extensively with Jerry W. Shay and other scientists on telomeres, telomerase, telomere loops, replicative senescence, telomere therapies, and cancer. Dr. Wright worked with Leonard Hayflick and used cytoplast technology to prove in 1975 with Audrey-Muggleton Harris that the the cellular clock associated with replicative senescence is located in the nucleus of the cell via experiments involving nuclear transfer. In 1989, Woodring E. Wright published his landmark paper on cellular immortalization or reversible senescence [Images, Video, Papers, Patents] with O M Pereira-Smith and Jerry W. Shay. Dr. Wright was on the team that first demonstrated cell division limit extension in human cells using hTERT transfection with a viral vector published by Andrea G. Bodnar, Michel Ouellette, Maria Frolkis, Shawn E. Holt, Choy-Pik Chiu, Gregg B. Morin, Calvin B. Harley, Jerry W. Shay, Serge Lichtsteiner, and Woodring E. Wright (1998), Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells, Science 16 January 1998, pp. 349 - 352. See Hayflick, His Limit, and Cellular Aging, which contains a time table for discovery and development in the field. Also see the 2010 video lecture "Telomere Biology in Aging and Cancer", Woodring E. Wright, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Introduction by Gerald Weissmann, 08/13/10 - Lillie Auditorium, 8:00 PM.
Woodring E. Wright - Press for Shay and Wright Labs.
Wrinkle Treatments [Wrinkle Treatment Reviews, Links/Wrinkle treatments, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension; Index/Growth Factor Skin Creams; LibCong; Index/Neck Rejuvenation, Refs11/Hexapeptide-10; Oral Phytoceramides]. (See Energo, see Skin.), Peptide Age-Defying Wrinkle Creams, [54].
Orally bioavailable phytoceramides inhibiting elastase and making up for lost skin ceramide production as aging proceeds are associated with dramatic facial rejuvenations including wrinkle reduction.
Carnosine skin cream [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] may extend the Hayflick Limit for skin cell division in vivo, as it does for cells in culture by perhaps 10% to 20%. Better results may be available with Terraternal Astragaloside IV Skin Cream, which can surpass the Hayflick Limit more dramatically, although the astragalosides seem to rejuvenate slowly with daily application at rates of -5 to -9 years per year. I have been using astragalus root extract on my scalp and hair follicles. See Matrixyl 3000 [LifeExtension, Links] , which increases collagen synthesis by up to 117% and collagen IV synthesis by up to 267%, so that younger skin with wrinkles half as deep is obtained in just two weeks. I have been using colostrum solution containing many telomerase-activating growth factors (including the telomerase activators IGF-1, IGF-2, EGF, TNF-alpha, FGF as FGF-2 and FGF-4, PDGF, VEGF, and TGF-alpha) together with separate applications of extra virgin olive oil containing oleuropein, which improves proteasome performance and protein cycling in old skin.
Hexapeptide-10 [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; supplements, skin creams] restores the dermo-epidermal junction connectivity, reviving elasticity and firmness, stimulating expression of laminin-5, alpha6-integrin, and hemidesmosomes to restore dermal-epidermal connectivity. See Serilesine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; skin cream; Tech Data, Tech Data2; Lipotec: The Scientific Response to Different Types of Wrinkles].
Hexapeptide-10 for neck rejuvenation (Refs11) is available from:
____Lotion Crafter: Serilesine Solution GC (0.5% hexapeptide-10) $9.35.
____See SKN complex FACE LIFT with serilesine, $59.00.
____Hexapeptide-10 is in LEF's Cosmesis Tightening and Firming Night Cream $39.00.
____Included in Dermedicine's Tightening Neck Therapy Cream $70.00.
____Included in Calori Neck Cessity Cream 30ml $34.50.
____Included in CSI Rejuvenating Neck Cream - 1 oz $16.00.
See also Kiehls Wrinkle-Filler and Deep Wrinkle Relaxer Facial Serum and Best Wrinkle Creams. See also [Links/Wrinkles in skin, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension] and Dermatology [Wikipedia/Dermatology, Links/Dermatology, Books, Amazon, Books/Aging Skin, Books/Skin Blemish Removal, Books/skin lesions, Index/Lesions, Links/skin lesions, LibCong/dermatology] See Index/Skin. Also see links for Wrinkle Dermatology [Wikipedia/Wrinkles, Links/Wrinkle Dermatology, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/Wrinkles, Amazon]. Note that collagenase (which attacks skin collagen) is typical of substances emitted by senescent cells, especially by dermal fibroblasts, so that replicative senescence itself is no doubt a major source of wrinkling. Most human growth factors are telomerase-activating. Note that FGF2 (bFGF, or Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor), is a telomerase activator acting on dermal fibroblasts that may be promoted using turmeric skin creams such as VICCO Vanishing Cream [Images]. Note that turmeric includes a ligand of progesterone receptor. Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (aFGF) is quite effective in rejuvenating skin when applied in FGF1 skin creams [Images]. Epidermal Growth Factor skin cream is also telomerase activating and rejuvenating. Growth factor skin creams based on combinations of
(1) bFGF (List/FGF2, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, FGF2) - bFGF skin cream,
(2) aFGF (List/FGF1, acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor, FGF1) - aFGF skin cream,
(3) EGF (List/EGF, Epidermal Growth Factor) - EGF skin cream,
(4) KGF, (List/KGF (FGF-7), Keratinocyte Growth Factor) - KGF skin cream,
(5) PDGF (List/PDGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor) - PDGF skin cream,
(6) TGF (List/TGF, TGF Growth Factor) - TGF skin cream,
(7) IGF-1 (List/IGF-1, Insulin-like Growth Factor 1) - IGF-1 skin cream,
(8) VEGF2 (List/VEGF2, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 2) - VEGF2 skin cream, and
(9) VEGFA (List/VEGFA, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A) - VEGFA skin cream
or mixtures of these are described on Internet and have their special domains of application.
Skin Cream TypeBrandGrowth Factor LinksCost
EGF skin creamNature's Gift Colostrum Renewal Skin CreamEGF (Epithelial Growth Factor)$19.95
EGF skin creamPursue Epidermal Growth Factor CreamEGF (Epidermal Growth Factor)$85.00
EGF skin creamLux Life EGF CreamEGF (Epidermal Growth Factor)$89.00
EGF skin creamReVive Skin Care CreamsEGF (Epidermal Growth Factor)$165.00
Growth factors skin creamRegeniskinEGF, PDGF, TGF, FGF$29.95
KGF skin creamReVive Skin Care CreamsKGF (Keratinocyte Growth Factor)$600.00
IGF-1 skin cream.IGF-1.
FGF2 skin creamVICCO Turmeric Vanishing CreamFGF2 (Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor)$16.04
aFGF skin creamaFGF Skin Softening Essence LotionaFGF (acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor)$69.35
VEGF skin creamJan Marini's Transformation CreamVEGF (Vascular Epithelial Growth Factor)$115.00
Platelet Derived Growth Factor skin cream [Images]Chanel Sublimage La CremePDGF, TGFß, HBEGF, ET1, VEGF$390.00
Growth Factor skin cream [Images]Jeunesse Luminesce Skin Rejuvenation LotionTGF-beta, KGF, TGF, IL3/IL6 IL, PDGF, aFGF, VEGF, NGF$134.95
TGF-beta 1 skin cream [Images]SyprexTGF-beta 1$39.50
TGF-beta 1 skin cream [Images]Reviva LabsTGF-beta 1$18.00
Colostrum skin cream [Images]SequelRich in growth factors:
TGF-beta; TGF-alpha, EGF, IGF-1, IGF-2, VEGF, FGF, PDGF.
Note that although most human growth factors are telomerase activators, TGF-beta, which restores the extracellular matrix proteins including both collagen and elastin, is a telomerase inhibitor. This makes TGF-beta skin cream [Images] attractive for application to cycles of telomerase activation followed by telomerase inhibition. Palmitoyl tripeptide 3 [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] (Syn-coll), a small peptide which removes wrinkles and increases collagen production by 119%, is related to TGF-beta, featuring a unique sequence to mimic the human body’s own mechanism to produce collagen via TGF-beta. TGF-beta (1-3) controls additional cell functions such as growth and proliferation and also regulates cell death. In studies at Cornell, Vanderbilt and Jefferson showed that TGF-beta stimulates the expression of both collagen and elastin. TGF-beta is taken from human cells and used in products by Jan Marini, A&G and ReLuma. TGF-beta is a component of colostrum [Images] and colostrum skin creams [Images]. Note that permeation enhancing substances for transdermal administration include aliphatic alcohols (such as ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol) or glycerol (glycerine, glycerin). Milk lipid liposomes made with a blender and an ultrasonic cleaner are also most effective for transdermal administration.
Bioflavonoid Skin Creams for Younger Skin [Index, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Bioflavonoids can neutralize ROS by donating an electron, breaking an oxidative chain, resulting in healthier skin. A combination of quercetin and rutin (a blood-thinning antiplatelet glycoside of quercetin) was shown to rejuvenate drying skin cells that refused to replicate, so that they began to reproduce again. (Chondrogianni, Kapeta, Chinou, Vassilatou, and Papassideri, 2010), referenced by Gary Goldfaden MD and Robert Goldfaden (2012), How Bioflavonoids Create Youthful Skin Tone, Life Extension Magazine, November 2012. Quercetin also improves the synthesis of collagen in skin. (Ref). Three bioflavonoids for skin creams, quercetin, rutin, and hesperidin, can be used in topical skin creams to "prevent and reverse wrinkles, reduce the appearance of age spots, and even fight spider veins and varicose veins".
(1) Robert Goldfaden and Gary Goldfaden (2014),
Target Wrinkle Formation with Novel Peptides, Life Extension Magazine, April 2014.
Advanced Triple-Peptide Serum.
___See acetyl hexapeptide-51 [Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
___acetyl-tetrapeptide-2 [Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Youth Serum], and
___palmitoyl tripeptide-5 [Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Tripeptide-5].
"One of the main reasons elastin production decreases as we age is due to diminishing levels of the enzymes lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) and glycoprotein fibulin-5 (FBLN5)."
(2) Rossetti D, Kielmanowicz MG, Vigodman S, et al. (2011),
A novel anti-ageing mechanism for retinol: induction of dermal elastin synthesis and elastin fibre formation, Int J Cosmet Sci 2011 Feb;33(1):62-9. Retinol [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(3) Cenizo V, Andre V, Reymermier C, et al. (2006),
LOXL as a target to increase the elastin content in adult skin: a dill extract induces the LOXL gene expression, Exp Dermatol 2006;15:574-81. Dill extract [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(4) Tran H, Brunet A, Greiner JM, et al. (2002),
DNA repair pathways stimulated by the forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a through the Gadd45 protein, Science 2002;296(5567):530-4.
___FOXO3A gene [Links, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Gadd45 protein [Links, Papers, Patents, Books].
(5) Product monograph: JuvefoxoTM [Links, Images, Papers, Patents]. Lipotec. May 2013.
(6) Varani J, Dame MK, Rittie L, et al. (2006),
Decreased collagen production in chronologically aged skin: roles of age-dependent alteration in fibroblast function and defective mechanical stimulation, Am J Pathol 2006 Jun;168(6):1861-8. See collagen
(7) Thring et al. (2009),
Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants,
BMC Complement Altern Med 2009, 9:27.
___See Anti-Aging Supplements: Plant Extracts That Inhibit Elastase and Collagenase
___Nine plant extracts exhibited anti-elastase activity, with the highest six being:
______white tea (~89%), for elastase inhibition, white tea brands, Index/White Tea,
______cleavers (~58%), for elastase inhibition,
______burdock root (~51%), for elastase inhibition,
______bladderwrack (~50%), for elastase inhibition,
______anise (~32%) and for elastase inhibition,
______engelica (~32%) for elastase inhibition.
___Sixteen plant extracts showed anti-collagenase activity,
_____with the highest inhibition being exhibited by
______white tea (~87%), for collagenase inhibition, white tea brands, Index/White Tea,
______green tea (~47%), for collagenase inhibition, green tea brands, Index/Green Tea,
______rose tincture (~41%) for collagenase inhibition, and
______lavender (~31%), for collagenase inhibition.
___Nine extracts had activity against both elastase and collagenase:
______white tea (E:89%,C:87%)
______bladderwrack (E:50%,C:25%)
______cleavers (E:58%,C:7%)
______rose tincture (E:22%,C:41%)
______green tea (E:10%,C:47%), followed by
______rose aqueous >
______angelica >
______anise >
______pomegranate (E:15%,C:11%).
(8) Downey, Michael (2014),
Phytoceramides Skin Rejuvenation From The Inside Out
[OnLine, Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Phytoceramides],
Life Extension Magazine, November 2014.

Above: Before and After Wheat Phytoceramides.

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