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Yellow Leader [Index/Astragalus Membraceus; Links/Yellow Leader, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Astragalus Membraceus, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Index/Astragalosides, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Toxicity, Side Effects]. Yellow Leader is "Huang qi", or Astragalus Membranaceus Root (Radix Astragali), which contains astragalosides including astragaloside IV (Telomerase Activators/Astragaloside IV) and cycloastragenol (Telomerase Activators/Cycloastragenol), which activate the hTERT gene to produce hTERT mRNA for the production of the hTERT protein, the catalytic component of the telomere DNA repair enzyme telomerase that can lengthen cellular telomeres to close the telomere t-loop at the end of a senescent chromosome, restoring the youthful phenotype and youthful pattern of gene expression [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] in the cell by preventing the DNA damage signal [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] due to the dangling loose end of the DNA strand associated with the opened telomere t-loop of the senescent cell [Images]. Lengthening telomeres causes more youthful patterns of gene expression via the telomere position effect, if replicative senescence can be prevented by treatment. Replicative senescence is often apparently irrecoverable. To recover from cellular senescence (Refs 9) may require restoring cell membrane communications by lowering cell membrane gatekeeper molecule caveolin-1 levels until signaling with telomerase activating growth factors such as EGF and PDGF can be restored and used to eliminate growth arrest and recover the youthful phenotype of the cell. Cyclic AMP from forskolin or exercise with creatine monohydrate to boost ATP levels for the hormone adenylate cyclase is useful in lowering caveolin-1 levels. P16INK4A levels can be reduced using retinol from carrots, exercise, resveratrol, Id-1 helix-loop-helix transcription factor from nerve growth factor, and other measures to make recovery from the senescent state possible. Yellow Leader is perhaps the foremost popular telomerase activator (7). It is typically taken at 16-33 grams/day in a cyclic program of application in parallel with other telomerase activators [List] before switching to a telomerase inhibitor [List] phase of treatment in the (monthly) cycle. However, astragalus seems to work best of all on natural killer cells (NK cells), and its performance on every kind of human cell remains to be quantified. Astragalus and a few other supplements lead to increased NK cell activity that consumes dangerously inflammatory senescent cells, giving us a method to remove senescent cells from the body.
Some cells, such as mesenchymal-derived connective tissue cells, require a histone deacetylase inhibitor to expand chromatin for transcription before hTERT mRNA can transcribed. Such HDAC inhibitors can be used to assist astragalus.
Yohimbine [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; Index/Caloric Restriction, Toxicity, Side Effects]. Yohimbine is the primary alkaloid of the bark of the West African tree pausinystalia yohimbe [Images], used to enhance male libido with aphrodisiac effect and to increase fat-burning by stimulating adipocyte alpha receptors [Images] to keep them from limiting the amount of fatty acids released by fat cells to be burned as fuel. Yohimbine mobilizes fat by blocking alpha-2, enabling the release of fat from cells. Yohimbine is a vasodilator [Index], like nitric oxide, histamine, vinpocetine, and hydergine. It is described as most effective at increasing the number of alpha receptors in overweight people just beginning a program of exercise. Yohimbine is taken 2-10 mg/dose, 3 times/day with 1 dose 30 minutes prior to a workout. - (after Muscle and Fitness Magazine). Note that yohimbine (a selective α2-adrenergic blocker) is an alpha-blocker useful in the treatment of hypertension that is popularly available. Tribulus is another aphrodisiac. Yohimbine's vasodilator property makes it valuable for supporting blood flow in bodybuilding and physical therapy. Yohimbine is used in bodybuilding to produce vascularity and improve the flow of blood to the muscles.
Young Serum [Links/Young Serum, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Young Serum treatment for sarcopenia, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Aging Blood Serum, Books/Aging Blood Serum]. Young serum activates muscle satellite stem cells, reviving old muscle. It is effective in the treatment of sarcopenia. See Links/activating muscle satellite cells with young serum and Links/Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment. Also see activating muscle satellite stem cells [Links/Activating muscle satellite stem cells, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Anabolics, Bodybuilding].
 Conboy IM, Conboy MJ, Wagers AJ, Givma ER, Weissman IL, Rando TA (2005),
Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment, Nature 433, 760–764.
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