October 18, 2013
Greenwood Research is being revamped.
April 17, 2012
The 1Gb online system for
Jim Green's Hyperlink Space has been compressed
to 20 Mb on Tripod, and remains as a remnant. The system will be restored
with expanded memory sometime in May, 2012.
January 26, 2012
Greenwood Research will be selling for a discount to distributors, so
distributors will handle sales taxes.
March 20, 2006
Greenwood Research software will now be sourced on CDrom or via Internet.
October 26, 2005
Greenwood Research is still taking orders for books, though few are stocked at dealers at the present time. Some are available at premium prices as used books: I advise ordering new ones direct, rather than paying extra for older used volumes.
Feb. 24, 2005
Free ZIP file downloads are available now for some programs, including
CHANDRA for collapsed objects and white dwarfs,
STAREXP for basic stellar structure, and
CALCULATE PI programs, in
addition to more advanced packages for thermonuclear fusion in stars.
Jan.4, 2005
Greenwood Research books and software have been rescanned and edited
to eliminate all minor spelling and typographical errors that crept
into previous editions. This has been approached as a change
in the state of the art, and is not supported by a new ISBN edition number.
Minor changes in the state of the art are dated
State: month/day/year.
Online sample plates and software will be similarly upgraded in the next few days.
Recompiled software for spellingcorrected output will become available online later
this week.
Feb 24, 2004
The
STAR8 2ndorder
structure stellar evolution investigator is now available
free
online to supplement the 2nd edition of
Thermonuclear
Fusion in Stars by
James A. Green.
Press here for the solar star8.txt printout.
Jan 29, 2004
By now 43 pages of the
160page
Gravitation & the Electroform Model were
placed online to supplement summary and book review material, but were recently destroyed by AngelFire.
August 6, 2003
The 2nd edition of
Thermonuclear Fusion in
Stars by James A. Green, ISBN 1890121819, list $50.00, is ready for delivery now.
The 2nd edition features reduced price and size,
improved software,
and better typography.
Ahem!
The
Lagrangian density for our unified field theory of forces is given below with all the
constants included in MKSC units for ease of comprehension and application.
This generalized Lagrangian density includes the electromagnetic, gravitational, and shortrange
nuclear fields and applies in local coordinates. Furthermore, it includes the results propounded
in
Classical Electricity and Magnetism by PanofskyPhillips and carried forward in such
notable classics as
Quarks and Leptons by Halzen & Martin!
The generalized Lagrangian density I have investigated for the vectorboson force fields is
L = (1/4)F
_{kn}F
^{kn} + (mu)*j
^{n}A
_{n} + (1/2)(Mc/hbar)
^{2}A
_{n}A
^{n},
where the indices k and n run over 0 through 3 as if they were Greek indices.
In the case of gravitation, the positive sign in the plusminus formula applies,
and for electromagnetism, the negative sign applies.
M is the mass of the field quantum (0 for photons and gravitons),
hbar is the Planck constant h divided by 2 pi,
c is the speed of light,
and F
^{kn} is the usual contravariant field tensor defined by
F
^{kn} = D
^{k}A
^{n}  D
^{n}A
^{k},
where D
^{n} is the partial derivative with respect to the coordinate of index n,
running through indices 03 like a Greek index in typical tensor calculus.
We have defined the contravariant 4vectors
A = (phi/c, A
^{1},A
^{2},A
^{3}),
j = (rho*c, j
^{1},j
^{2},j
^{3}).
Here phi = the static field potential, rho = the source density.
In the gravitational case, mu = 4*pi*G/c
^{2},
where G is the gravitational constant of Newton, and otherwise
mu = 1/(epsilon*c
^{2}), epsilon being close to the electromagnetic value for the shortrange forces.
For our proof, see future work from Greenwood Research.
REFS on getting the Lagrangian density right:
1) PanofskyPhillips,
Classical Electricity & Magnetism, chapter 24, pg.371.
2) Halzen & Martin,
Quarks & Leptons pages 312313.
3) Green, James A.,
Gravitation & the Electroform Model, 11th edition, Dec.2002 state.
Otherwise, I've discovered Fractal Knockers with corresponding phenomena in
Real Visionary Chaos.
The 2nd edition of
Electromagnetic Radiation: Fundamentals & Applications is now available for the old first edition price. It incorporates a few corrections and minor
additions.
Early July, 2002
The 2nd edition of
Medical Image Processing:
The Mathematics of Medical Imaging is now available for the old 1st edition price of $49.20. The 2nd edition corrects some spelling and typo errors. In addition, some other improvements have been introduced.
Late June, 2002
Research into stellar fusion processes produced software that could determine the age of a star if its exterior dimensions and initial chemistry were known. Higherorder structural analysis determined the most likely distribution of abundances inside the Sun. The associated software for stellar astrophysics will be available this Summer with the 2nd edition of
Thermonuclear Fusion in Stars.
The Sun

Sirius_A

ZAMS Sun Problem

Reeves carbon cycle
June 28, 2002
The STAR8 series is being developed for doing selfconsistent structural modeling with successive approximations to obtain more detailed stellar models. The initial
pass produces a star with an Hburning core of molecular weight differing from the stellar mantle unless the star is Zero Age. Subsequent
passes use reaction rate analysis and perturbations to produce more detailed abundance mapping,
and then further 2ndorder maps for opacity, convection, and so forth based on the superior representation of interior structure in shells. For an initial listing, see
the
STAR8 structure investigator.
June 26, 2002
STARMAN has been modified to fix the energytransmission partition calculations for stars including the carbon cycle. FUSION is now set up to explore collapsors without fusion
sources in addition to stars steady on the main sequence with its MRmodeler separate from its usual starcalculation system. Opacity representation has been improved in both STARMAN and FUSION.
June 21, 2002
FUSION (starz7 series) was developed, featuring carbon cycle formulae from Hubert Reeves that I have electrostatically screened, along with a userselectable choice of nuclear
reaction mixes, and a selection of massluminosity formulae optimal for different sections of the Main Sequence. It includes many modeler options for investigating stellar evolution and stellar structure, with easily modified element abundances for the first 29 elements and a lumped abundance for elements with Z=29 > Nickel. Recent results include limits for the size of the Sun at Zero Age (about 1.1 x the present size, type G8) and for the size of the Sun just prior to the collapse of the Hburning core (0.74928 x the present radius, type F5). These are the results for the Sun at constant luminosity as the abundances of hydrogen goes from X = 0.6 to X = 0.005, setting everything up so that L_nuclear = L_sun at M = M_sun. I am working on deriving a theoretical massluminosity law from ZAMS data on the underbottom of the local HertzsprungRussell chart with help from the stellar modeling software to find masses for observed luminosities and surface temperatures such that L_nuclear = L_star. Opacity options including factors in the opacity equations associated with Gaunt and Guillotine factors may be modified from the main menu of FUSION.
STARMODL (starz6 series) was developed at earlier with 8 modules and 14 supporting
data files for astrophysical investigations. STARMODL includes many extra features that would not fit in STARMAN. For instance, abundances of the elements
are saved on disk in parts by weight for the first 30 elements and Z > Ni and applied
to nuclear reactions, opacity, and electrostatic screening calculations. These abundances may be interactively edited with immediate calculation of fractional abundances. Also, nuclear
reactions may be mixed from the master menu to obtain the total nuclear luminosity as a blend of select reactions due to select astrophysicists. The master menu features 18 options instead of 3 or 4. Opacity options may be programmed from the master menu, and the user can select more
fundamental information for investigations, including properties of the main sequence,
giant stars, white dwarfs, brightest stars, nearest stars, and supergiants. An astrophysical calculator is included together with a software to calculate bolometric quantities from stellar measurements made at different angles through the atmosphere. Polytropic quick sketches with nuclear luminosity and Hdepleted cores are also possible in STARMODL on a separate basis, operating from M,R, and chemistry with input to advanced stellar modeling with stellar crosssections and model star properties.
DEPTHSTA June 18, 20028:45AM: Stellar Depth Ranging  Free depthsta.exe download.279Kb
Early June, 2002
We are presently developing a
DEPTHSTA(275Kb) stellar ranging program that uses nuclear astrophysics to find the distance of a star by checking L_nuclear vs. L_observed. At the Zero Age Main
Sequence distance, the two are equal, barring a 2% drop in L_observed due to neutrino radiation. We also list the ages in which L_nuclear > L_observed prior to normalizing by
adjusting abundances deep within the star to account for the burning of nuclear fuels,
hydrogen on the Main Sequence. This allows us to improve the accuracy of stellar distance
measurements, as a star comes into nuclear astrophysical focus. There is a depth associated with a stellar lifetime of 4.5 billion years, for instance, if this is less than its maximum Main Sequence Lifetime. We can also identify giant stars with L_nuclear << L_observed as new stars contracting to the Main Sequence. It turns out that the
nuclear energy generation per unit volume is 10 times as sensitive to distance variation
as the stellar radius, so that using nuclear astrophysics to pinpoint stellar position is useful. We just scan around the nominal parallax distance until L_nuclear is within the realistic range, then map the realistic range area by star age and distance. The ZAMS distance associated with a new star turns out to be the distance upper limit, unless we are witnessing stellar condensation with KelvinHelmholtz contraction or a red giant. However, we are still doing comparative carbon cycle studies to be sure we have the best carbon cycle model for this application, as stars heavier than 2 solar masses obtain much of their energy via the carbon cycle. We are presently using Martin Schwarzschild carbon cycle models from the 1950s, and gearing up for Clayton carbon cycles. We find Fomalhaut at 22 LY rather than at 23 LY at this time, for instance. The DEPTHSTA program will be offered with the 2nd edition of
Thermonuclear Fusion in Stars by James A. Green, to be available this Summer from Greenwood Research, along with some other advanced astrophysics applications not available from our free downloads section.
DEPTHSTA June 18, 20028:45AM: Stellar Depth Ranging  Free depthsta.exe download.279Kb
Our more careful core mass integrations for the Sun give a solar age of 5.49 billion years if Clayton fusion formulae are used and 4.52 billion years if Chiu fusion formulae are used. The age of the meteorites is 4.5 billion years based on the decays of U235, U238, and Thorium232 to different isotopes of lead. (Patterson, 1950s).