Galaxy Formation Spiral Galaxy NGC 1365. Our equations predict the size and mass of barred spiral galaxies based on the Jeans length in the cooling Big Bang fireball at the time of the He++ to He+ phase transition. The sword handle width of a spiral arm here should be 4000 light-years.
1st edition, by James A. Green, Greenwood Research.
[ ] Large Hardback, ISBN-13: 978-1-890121-13-6 (ISBN 1-890121-13-4), 39.79 dollars
[ ] Small hardback, ISBN-13: 978-1-890121-34-1 (ISBN 1-890121-34-7), 27.04 dollars.

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Galaxy formation based on the He++ to He+ phase change pressure jog at the time of the formation of the first single-electron helium atoms, the first bound atoms that could form in mass. The formation of the first bound atoms depressurized the Big Bang fireball, so that it billowed as wind were suddenly taken out of its sails and collapsed into smaller objects which drew apart as the expansion of the universe continued. The pressure P = nkT suddenly declined when the number density of free particles n dropped as bound atoms He+ formed from free electrons and He++ helium nuclei. Galactic masses and dimensions are computed via the gravitational binding energy of ellipsoidal clouds at the transition temperature for the ionization of singly-ionized helium, with structure theory via the Jeans Length criterion for standing waves in a hot plasma disturbed by a pressure jog. The model assumes that galaxy formation took place when the Big Bang fireball had the average density of the present Milky Way galaxy. This theory explains structural characteristics of spiral, barred spiral, and elliptical galaxies.

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List of Illustrations


I. Galaxy Formation V.
_Material Dynamics.
_The Galactic Potential Field.
_Fireball Pressure Drop.
_Galaxies of the Same Shape: Examples.

II. Jeans Criterion Waves and the Galactic Atom.
_Jeans Theory of Density Perturbations
___and Galactic Standing Waves.
_Theory of the Barred Spiral Galaxies.
_Supplemental Note on Jeans Criterion.
_Forbidden and Allowed Galactic Radii.

III. Star Formation in Protogalaxies.

About the Author.

Other Books by James A. Green.

Supplemental Notes
_Derivation of the Galaxy Form-Laws.
_Measurements from Photographic Plates.

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Cover Photo - Galaxy Centaurus-A: the magic shadow show.
1. Galaxy Mass and Radius vs. Disk Shape.
2. Alpha Grav Coupling - The potential shape factor.
3. Disk Galaxy Shapes and Masses.
4. Elliptical Galaxy Mass and Radius vs. Flattening.
5. Ellipsoidal Flattening and the Potential Shape Factor.
6. Ellipsoidal Galaxy Shapes and Masses.
7. Galaxy M51 - The Whirlpool Galaxy & Elliptical.
8. Field of a Circular Plate.
9. Pressure Drop at Galaxy Formation.
10. Pressure Drop in the Fireball.
11. A Company of 3 Tilted Spirals.
12. A Virgo Cluster.
13. The Coma Cluster.
14. The Centaurus Cluster.
15. The Cluster CA 0340-538.
16. The Coma Berenices Cluster of Galaxies.
17. Galaxy M51 in Canes Venatici.
18. The Hercules Cluster of Galaxies.
19. M60 and NGC 4647.
20. NGC 2992 and NGC 2993.
21. NGC 6027.
22. Spherical Galaxies & Standing Jeans Criterion Waves.
23. Barred Spiral Structure & Jeans Criterion Waves.
24. The Location of the Swordsmen of Fornax.
25. Jenas Length Quantization of Galaxy Parameters.
26. The Cutting Edge of 4 in NGC 1365 in Fornax.

Table 1. Radii & Masses of Disk Galaxies.
Table 2. Masses & Radii of Elliptical Galaxies.
Table 3. Phase Change Pressure Ratios at Galaxy Formation.
Table 4. Jeans-Length Quantization of Galaxies I.
Table 5. Jeans-Length Quantization of Galaxies II.
Table 6. Table of Standing-Wave Ratios: Forbidden & Allowed Galaxies.

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Internet Galaxy Formation Links
Press for Galaxy M51 detail and Red Limit 2.
Galaxy M51: Whirlpool Galaxy NGC 5194 and Elliptical NGC 5195.

Video: Galaxy Formation Rap. (May 19, 2007)