Anti-Aging Medicine Footnotes 1: General Material [1, 2]
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Footnotes Page 1: General Material | Footnotes Page 2: Chronic Diseases of Old Age
[1] Melatonin
[2] Scientific American Articles
[3] Geron Corporation
[4] Who's Who in Gerontology & Life Extension
[5] Stem Cell Information
[25] Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods
[26] Jim Green's Best Lifts, ect.
[27-31] Vitamin C Links
[32] Telomeres and Cancer
[33-35] Brocolli and Cancer
[36] Grape Seed Extract
[47] Sugar Damage
[48] Greying Hair
[49] Carcinogens and Teratogens
[50-51] Free Radical Theory of Aging
[52] Superoxide Dismutase
[53] Cellular Senescence
[54] Skin Biology and Skin Treatments
[55] Healthiest Foods and Food Tips
[56] Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
[57] References and Links on Anti-Aging Medicine
[58] Acetyl L-Carnitine and Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate
[59] CoQ10
[60] Centrophenoxine
[61] Idebenone
[62] Cholesterol
[63] The Telomere
[64] Cellular Biology and Microarray Technology
[65] Metformin
[66] Telomerase Gene Insertion
[67] Hormones and Telomerase Activation
[68] Liposome Delivery Systems
[69] L-Carnosine
[70] Alpha Lipoic Acid
[71] Causes of Cancer
[72] Alzheimer's Disease
[73] Heart Attack
[74] Stroke
[75] Leading Causes of Death
[76] Longevity Salad Dressings and Benefits of Olive Oil
[79] Neygeront
[80] Anti-Aging Medicine References and Cross-References
[81] Anti-Aging Glossaries
[82] Anti-Aging Conferences
[83] Longevity Genes
[84] Exercise and Longevity
[85] Fluorescence Microscopy and FISH
[86] Progeria and Lamin A
[87] Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate
[88] Pregnenolone
[89] Metal Ions in the Drinking Water and Preventive Chelation
[90] Anti-Aging Clinics
[91] Acarbose
[92] Deprenyl (Selegiline)
[93] Pain Medicines
[94] Castration and Life Extension
[95] Drugs for treating neurodegeneration
[96] The Human Brain
[97] Dopamine and Parkinson's Disease
[98] Stress and Nervous Breakdowns
[99] Ben Best Links
[100] Resveratrol and resveratrol sources
[101] Macular Degeneration
[102] Height Loss and Osteoporosis
[103] Chronic Diseases of Old Age 1
[103b] Chronic Diseases of Old Age 2
[104] Dark Circles under the Eyes and Treatment
[105] Echinacea
[106] Bristlecone Pine long lifespan links
[107] Antioxidants
[108] Shark Liver Oil and Cancer
[109] Treating old age cognitive decline
[110] Hydergine
[111] Glutathione
[112] Mitochondrial Biogenesis and NO
[113] Quercetin

[1] Melatonin [Index, Links/Melatonin, Images/Metatonin supplements, Video, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension/Melatonin and aging, Wikipedia/Melatonin, Amazon/Melatonin]. Melatonin can cause drowsiness, but I note that this effect seems to recede after the first day. Finally, I decided it dimmed my mental brilliancy unacceptably if used during the day and confined its use to just before bedtime, initially using 1 to 3 mg of melatonin 1 hour before bedtime. Life Extension Magazine recommended 20 mg before bedtime for optimum effect, so I switched to that. Sundown Melatonin (Rexall-Sundown Melatonin) $3.69 per 120 tablets, 300 MCG/tablet. Sometimes melatonin is associated with hormonal carcinogenesis [Links/hormonal carcinogenesis, Index/Cancer] in experimental rats, so use as directed by the manufacturer. I presently take 21 mg of melatonin, a telomerase inhibitor, every night during the last two weeks of the month. During the first two weeks of the month I take astragalus extract for telomerase activation, as described in Telomere Remodeling with Cyclic Telomerase Activation.
Melatonin - A Review | International Anti-Aging Systems: Melatonin helps to reset the aging clock.
___Note: Melatonin boosts HGH [List], a telomerase-activating growth hormone.
___Melatonin also boosts IL-2 [List], a telomerase activator.
___Melatonin may be a telomerase inhibitor for cancer cells only.
"Chromium compounds are known to cause cancers in humans through oxidative damage to DNA. In cell cultures, calf tissue was exposed to chromium and then treated with vitamin C, vitamin E or melatonin. Melatonin was 60 times more likely to prevent oxidative damage to the calf cell DNA than either vitamin." See books on Melatonin and DNA Damage. Melatonin is found in tart cherries.

[2] Millenium Falcon: See the June 2000 special supplemental issue of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN on AGING for millenial longevity research, including the discovery of the telomere DNA repair enzyme telomerase (7) for defeating the cell division clock controlling replicative senescence, stem cell techniques for replacing old cells, and other promising advanced techniques. It predicted that telomerase activators [Index] would be identified and announced by sometime in 2005, the year Geron published Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity and Formulations Containing Astragalus and Uses Thereof. I missed prior announcements beginning with Tricostatin A (2000), and at first read about TA-65 and the astragalus extract TA-41 from TA Sciences in March 2007. I found the the relevant 2005 Geron patents in 2007 based on tips from The Immortality Institute in Cambridge, England, where the structure of DNA was first discovered in 1953 by Watson and Crick. This Scientific American article that prompted me to research my first web page on longevity. One sub-article promotes melatonin as a longevity pill. I note that this special issue looks like a response to the classic paper of 1998 on human life extension via telomerase activation.

[3] Geron Corporation [Index, Links, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]: Anti-aging medicine, telomerase, stem cell research.
Press for GeronGeron
[Geron patents, Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity, Formulations Containing Astragalus and Uses Thereof]. Also see affiliate TA Sciences, now-defunct competitor Telomolecular Nanotechnologies, and competitor Sierra Sciences.
Telomere Forum bulletin | Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells. (1998 classic)
Links to the complete article and related articles. | The Green Spot: Geron Press Releases
See books on Telomerase and longevity, Telomeres and Longevity, Telomeres and Life Extension.
Also see LifeExtension articles on Telomerase Therapy and my essay Telomere Remodeling with Cyclic Telomerase Activation with Age Transformation.

[4] Who's Who in Gerontology : Scientists in the field, email addresses, web sites. [Academic Sites, Labome].
Videos of Anti-Aging Experts: Exploring Life Extension from The Immortality Institute (1 hr, 46 min).
Ageing and the Pharmaceutical Industry | Cross-Reference List of Anti-Aging Medicines | IAAMS cross-ref
Profiles of the Men of International Anti-Aging Systems | Anti-Aging Conference 2002
Anti-Ageing Conference London 2006.
A4M - American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine | NIH: Lab for Experimental Gerontology
Life Extension: Medical Advisory Board | Scientific Advisory Board
The American Federation for Aging Research, which produces InfoAging.
Links/Gerontology | Links/Experimental Gerontology | Links/Who's Who in Gerontology
Articles on Life Extension by Ben Best. || Beeson Scholars
Danish Center for Molecular Gerontology | IRCHAL International Advisory Council
Links/Biogerontology | Society of Biogerontology | Links/Molecular Gerontology
The Buck Institute for Age Research | Links/Experimental Gerontology || gov group tips & env. aging

[5] Stem Cell Information [Index/Stem Cell Technology, Index/Stem Cells]
Stem Cells (a journal) | Stem Cells Grown from Human Skin
For more stem cell and regenerative medicine links, see [6,10,56].
Books: Stem Cells and Aging | Stem Cells | Stem Cell Therapeutics.
See LifeExtension articles on Stem Cell Therapy.

[6] NIH Stem Cell Primer | Wikipedia on Stem Cells. See [5,10,56].

[7] Walford's Links to Anti-Aging Medicine. | Cross-Reference List of Anti-Aging Medicines
IAAMS cross-reference of anti-aging medicines | Anti-Aging Therapies Walford, an expert in caloric restriction methods, died in 2004 in his late 70s.

[8] Anti-Aging Diets, Gerontology

[9] Advanced Cell Technology

[10] Aastrom Biosciences: Hardware to support stem cell culturing. | Links/Regenerative Medicine
Advanced Cell Technology | Links/Stem Cell Culturing | Biocompare: Stem Cell Culturing Hardware.

[11] American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine. | 101 Anti-Aging Tips.

[12] Clark, William R., A Means to an End: The Biological Basis of Aging and Death, Oxford University Press, 1999.

[13] Institute for Longevity Research: Links.

[14] The Aging Research Centre (ARC): Great Links.

[15] The Anti-Aging Hormone Shop.

[16] Hayflick, Leonard, How and Why We Age, 1996.

[17] The Life Expectancy Calculator | The Death Clock

[17b] The Sociology of Death and Dying

[18] Austad, Steve N., Why We Age, John Wiley & Sons.

[19] The Links of IMMORTALITY,INC..

[20] Muscle & Fitness: Bodybuilding. Champion Nights | Ronnie Coleman, Mr.Olympia | Lee Priest.

[21] FLEX: More Bodybuilding.

[22] Arnold Schwarzenegger Links. Star of PUMPING IRON. Everybody wants to live forever...

[23] A1 Vitamins: HGH source.

[24] Anti-Aging HGH.

[25] Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods - TIME recently profiled foods useful in longevity applications:

___a) Blueberries, [Index, Books, Books/in_Aging, LifeExtension/blueberries] pint-for-pint more antioxidants than any other food or vegetable. Anthocyanins [Index, Books, Books/in_medicine, LifeExtension/anthocyanins] may boost brain power in old people, as tested in aging rats. "When the brain tissue from the blueberry-supplemented rats was subjected to various in-vitro tests, it was discovered that it showed the greatest dopamine [97] release..." For the importance of dopamine in anti-aging treatments, see Deprenyl [92, Books, Books/in_aging]. Also see Links/blueberry supplements. I note that blueberries also contain resveratrol, but less than 10% as much per gram as red grape skins, which contain 50-100 micrograms per gram resveratrol. Remember the old sloganeering signal: he who eats the berries .... buried 'em. Rats pre-disposed genetically to Alzheimer's disease [Images/Alzheimer's Brains] blocked amyloid deposits if supplemented with blueberries. Senescent rats fed blueberries showed reversal of the effects of aging on motor behavior and neural signaling.
Mark A. Wilson, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, et al. (2006). Blueberry polyphenols increase lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans., Aging Cell: 5 (1), 59-68.

___b) Green tea [Index, Books, Books/in_aging, LifeExtension] - loaded with polyphenols, phytochemical antioxidants with 100x the punch of vitamin C and 25x the strength of vitamin E. Contains catechin polyphenols that prevent DNA damage, lower risk of stomach, esophageal and liver cancers, inhibits COX-2 enzymes associated with inflammation. Black tea may be equally effective. However, oxalates may be formed, and an increased danger of kidney stones exists that can be reduced by taking more calcium to form calcium oxalate in the digestive tract, rather than in the kidneys. This is done by taking milk with tea. See Tea Polyphenols. Note that tea can upset your stomach if not taken with low-fat yogurt, milk, or other food. | Links/Green Tea Polyphenols [Index]. Tea has recently been shown to substantially reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in women. 1 cup of green tea may provide 10-40 mg of polyphenols, the most powerful of which is EGCG (epigallocatechin-3 gallate [Links, Books, LifeExtension]).

___c) Garlic [Index, Links, Books/in_aging, LifeExtension] - contains allyl sulfides [LifeExtension] - these may make blood less sticky, and protect the heart. Blocks tumors in the Petri dish. | Links/Health Benefits of Garlic. According to James F. Balch, (The Super Anti-Oxidants) aged garlic is preferred. Many garlic supplements are based on non-odiferous garlic oil.

___d) Red Wine & Red Grape Juice - the skins of red grapes contain polyphenol antioxidants (supercharged) that inhibit peptide endothelin 1, which hardens arteries. Boosts good HDL cholesterol. | Links/red grape skin polyphenols | Links/Resveratrol | See [36] on grape seed extract.
Life Extension on resveratrol: "Recently resveratrol became the first-ever supplement known to activate a longevity gene." Jeanne Calment, 122 year-old age record holder, was a daily drinker of red wine. Humorously, the resveratrol molecule resembles a pair of old man's spectacles. The bio-availability of resveratrol improves when it is taken with quercetin [Index] [113]. See Longevinex resveratrol, featuring quercetin additive and an air-tight nitrogen bubble encapsulation process in a light-tight capsule to protect the valuable trans-resveratrol from degradation into cis-resveratrol [Images/trans- and cis-resveratrol]. "...Studies conducted at the Medical School in Pisa, Italy, reveal that while resveratrol [Index] undergoes metabolic processes called sulphation and glucuronidation in the liver and duodenum which limits its availability in living tissues, quercetin [Index] [113], a companion antioxidant to resveratrol in red wine, inhibits sulphation and glucuronidation and significantly improves the bioavailability of resveratrol. [Xenobiotica 30: 609-17, 857-66, 1047-54, 2000] " This probably means that resveratrol pills do better if taken with regular red grapes, which are rich in quercetin.

___e) Nuts [Books, LifeExtension] - when eaten instead of junk foods, lower blood levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. Pecans & walnuts contain anticancer ellagic acid [Index] [Books], also found in strawberries, cranberries, pomegranates and red raspberry seeds, the best source. See the Linus Pauling Institute on Nuts | Links/Nuts & health
Links/Ellagic acid [Index].

___f) Broccoli [Index, 34,35] - Includes phytochemicals sulforaphane [Index] and indole-3-carbinol [Index], defying cancer-causing substances [Index/Cancer] in breast cancer, colon cancer, and stomach cancer. Cook light and chew hard. Contains beta-carotene, fiber, and vitamin-C. | Links/sulphoraphane [Books, LifeExtension] | Links/indole-3-carbinol [Books, LifeExtension]
World's Healthiest: Broccoli Sprouts even better than Broccoli, Links/Preparing broccoli sprouts | [Books/cruciferous vegetables and anti-aging medicine, LifeExtension].
Broccoli Sprouts [Index, LifeExtension, Links, Books, Papers, Wikipedia/Broccoli] They taste like radishes, and boost of endogenous antioxidants like glutathione S-transferase, produced from the anticancer chemical sulforaphane [Wikipedia, Books, Links, LifeExtension]. Broccoli sprouts also protect against oxidative stress and contain "large amounts af the glucosinolate glucoraphanin which in vitro and in animal models has been shown to have a positive effect on the endothelium as measured by Nitric Oxide release." Sulforaphane "induces enzymes, including quinone reductase and the antioxidant glutathione S-transferase, that can detoxify carcinogens and prevent toxic electrophiles from damaging DNA." Broccoli sprouts are sometimes said to boost SOD levels, though this is less well documented than antioxidant effect via sulforaphane's production of glutathione S-transferase.

___g) Salmon, Herring, Mackerel, and Bluefish contain Omega-3 fatty acids to protect the circulatory system from arterial plaques and protect brain cells from aging. Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory. Lately, I have been taking mainly Jack Mackerel.(Jumpin Jack Flash...its a gas,gas,gas...) Also see the Linus Pauling Institute on Omega-3 fatty acids [Books].
Links/Fatty Acids [Index/Oils] | Links/Fish oil [Index].

___h) Tomatoes contain lycopene [Index, Books, LifeExtension], which outperforms other antioxidants. | Links/lycopene.

___i) Spinach contains lutein [Index, Books, LifeExtension] and zeaxanthin [Index, Books], which ward off macular degeneration [101]. However, it is dangerous for its oxalates [Books], which are involved in kidney stone formation. Milk is mixed into tea to neutralize oxalates with calcium, so that they are excreted through the bowel, rather than through the urinary tract. Perhaps spinach could be prepared with calcium or milk with similar effect.

___j) Bilberries [Index] | Life Extension: Blueberries and Bilberries | [Links/Bilberry, LifeExtension].

___k) Dark chocolates [Books/in_medicine, Books/Antioxidant_Chocolate] - Contain polyphenol antioxidants [LifeExtension] stronger than found in tea. Jeanne Calment's long lifetime featured red wine, olive oil, and chocolates (cocoa) as life-extending substances. The saturated fat in dark chocolate is primarily stearic acid, which is less objectionable than other kinds of saturated fats. I note that aging world record holder Jeanne Calment [Index] used to "eat more than two pounds of chocolate a week, treat her skin with olive oil, drank port wine and rode a bicycle until she was 100.".
See Health Benefits of Dark Chocolate and A Chocolate a Day Keeps the Doctor Away.
Also see WebMD: Dark Chocolate is Healthy Chocolate. I note that cocoa powder [Index] contains far more PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) than any other common food. [PQQ links, Books] || Longevity & Chocolate
CocoaVia | Dark Chocolate consumption increases "good" HDL cholesterol... | Anti-aging chocolates

____L) The Hull Thornless blackberry is rated as the best antioxidant berry [Books, LifeExtension, 107].

For more, see Dr. Linus Pauling on Micronutrients and The World's Healthiest Foods.
Also see Phytochemicals as Nutraceuticals by Ben Best.
Also see LifeExtension on Phytochemicals.

[26] Jim Green All-Time Best Lifts, ect:
In high school, I could do a pull-up with one hand. My record is 210 pull-ups, no weight, (toe-down, 1989-1990) more recently 30 reps with 100 lb. chained on (Nov.16,2002, toe-down reps). That's what it took to get 19 inch arms at 5'10.5". My best bench press was 345 lb, best overhead press 300 lb, best curl 220 lb in a curl machine. I have done tricep pressdowns using 145lb. with one hand. In 1988, I could do 52 consecutive handstand presses. Also 135 push-ups, max, March 24, 2015. I never did squats with more than 350 lb., still do situps with a 35lb plate or 50lb plate. Arms 18.5 inches in Sept.2002, 50 inch chest, pumped up. Could jerk 185lb with one hand at one time. Max ever arm measurement was 19 inches at 5 feet, 10.5 inches in height. Average by 2002 bodybuilding standards, but it makes you feel tougher, more disease-resistant, more likely to enjoy long life. For longevity music to accompany bodybuilding, see the Schwarzenegger film Pumping Iron, Pumping Iron musical theme (video), [Arnold Web Site]. See Books & Papers: Exercise Physiology, Bodybuilding with a blender, Bodybuilding & bioavailability
The Physiology of Bodybuilding | Amino Acids in Bodybuilding | Bodybuilding History | Sandow Museum | Supplements
Books/Bodybuilding Physiology | Books/Bodybuilding supplements, Magazines: FLEX, Iron Man, Muscle & Fitness.
Sly Magazine #1 | Sylvester Stallone's great SLY magazine #1 should always be in print.
Books & Papers: Bodybuilding Nutrition & Bodybuilding & Bodybuilding Physiology.

[27] Vitamin C [Index]: Linus Pauling and Vitamin C. | "Better" Vitamin C | The Linus Pauling Institute
Vitamin C and Kidney Stones? | Chewable Vitamin C | Vitamin C Micro-Crystals | Tasty Vitamin C
Liquid Vitamin C | Liquid Vitamin C with Bioflavonoids || Linus Pauling Institute on Micronutrients

[28] Foods Rich in Vitamin C. (C measurably increases the life span of flies, ect.)

[29] 1984 Vitamin C shown to increase the life span of mice up to 20%.

[30] Furumoto K, et al, Age-dependent telomere shortening [Books] is slowed down by enrichment of intracellular vitamin C via suppression of oxidative stress, Life Sciences 63: 935-48, 1998. It was found that raising the level of vitamin C in the cells could slow down the loss of telomeres up to 62%.

[31] Vitamin C works best with bioflavonoids included. [29] Find vitamin C with Bioflavinoids.

[32] The quest for immortality and the gene telomeres governing cell division. Telomere role in cancer [Books]. See Senescence and Senescence Pathway. Telomeres, Telomerase, and Cancer | Telomere Forum Bulletin Board.

[33] Chili Peppers and Broccoli potent cancer fighters.

[34] Beating cancer with broccoli sprouts. Reduce cancer risk up to 80% with daily intakes of sulforaphane from broccoli sprouts. | Links/Broccoli Sprouts | Links/Broccoli sprout supplements

[35] Broccoli Sprout Pills

[36] Grape seed extract [Index] helps Vitamin C penetrate cell membranes better. | Grape Seed Extract.
Typically prescribed at 100 mg to 300 mg per day. | Grape Seed extract (bodybuilding)
Links/Grape Seed Extract | Procyanidolic Oligomers/Grape Seed Extract/Resveratrol

[37] Wikipedia on Longevity of 1st, 2nd and 3rd worlds, with links.

[38] Wikipedia on Life Extension and Wikipedia/Engineered negligible senescence of cells.
Mechanisms of Aging by Ben Best. | Articles on Life Extension by Ben Best.

[39] Ubiquinone (See Ubiquinone, Ubiquinol) controls lipofuscin (waste build-up in the cell), a cellular senescence mechanism distinct from telomere shortening. Ubiquinone is widely available as the health food store supplement CoQ10, or coenzyme Q.

[40] Rejuvenation Research, a British Journal on curing cellular senescence.

[41] Life Extension products from iHerb. An extensive catalog of life extension supplements.

[42] Life Extension Foundation with Life Extension Magazine and free 2005 product guide with supplements.

[43] Bodnar AG, Ovellette M, Frolkis M, Holt SE, Chiu C-P, et. al. (1998), Extension of Life-Span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells, Science, 1998; 279: 349-353.

[44] Immortalism and Life Extension. Links.

[45] LE interview: Turning on Telomerase to Stop Cell Aging: The Quest for Immortality.

[46] The Life Extension Manual - Table of Contents

[47] 76 Ways Sugar can ruin your health. | Essential Information about Blood Sugar and Insulin.

[48] Hair Greying [Refs6, Index/Grey Hair, Index/Hair Greying & Hair Themes]: Why? [Books, Preventing grey hair, LifeExtension] | Wise Geek Reply | Scientists find Bcl 2 melanocyte gene | Melancor. Perhaps lengthening the telomeres will prevent the early death of cells responsible for producing melanin for hair, so that telomerase activation therapy with Terraternal Astragaloside IV Skin Cream, concentrated astragalus root extract, or carnosine skin cream therapy will prevent grey hair. Results in restoring hair with telomerase activators applied directly to the scalp at Artandi Labs encourage this point of view. Otherwise, perhaps the Melancor pill, which generates melanin throughout the body, is the best solution. Tribulus promotes melanocyte-stimulating hormone to darken hair. The theoretical model here is somewhat different. I note that some hair dyes were implicated in lymphoma, or cancer of the lymphatic system, the disease that killed Steve Reeves.
For hair loss treatment, see [74s].
Note that M.S.Kanungo, in Genes and Aging, claims that the greying of hair in mammals is due to a decrease in the enzyme tyrosinase [Links, Papers, Patents, Books]. "The formation of tyrosinase in melanocytes or its enzyme activity can be reduced, activated, or inhibited". - from The Science of Hair Care By Charles (EDT) Zviak.
In hair greying loss of pigment is associated with loss of tyrosinase activity [Books, LifeExtension/tyrosinase] and production of imperfect melanin granules [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] in the hair shaft. (Orentreich & Orentreich, 1994, quoted in R.Arking, p.63.) "Hair follicles undergo cyclic periods of growth and hair production followed by resting periods of little activity. It is the hair melanocytes [Links, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension] within the hair follicle that provide the pigmentation and their cellular activity is also under cellular control. Hair follicles contain a reservoir of melanocyte stem cells [Books] which can replace the undifferentiated pigment cells as they die." "In the mouse, 2 regulatory proteins, Pax3 and Mitf, modulate the balance between stem cell maintenance and differentiation... We may view hair greying as one of the first visible signs of stem cell dysfunction [Links, Papers, Books] and impending loss of function in vital tissues." "Hair greying is due to a failure in melanocyte stem cell maintenance [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] and may arise due to changes in the hair follicle microenvironment [Links, Papers, Patents, Books] that indirectly alter the expression of the signaling proteins that guide the migration of melanocyte stem cells [Images] to the appropriate region of the follicle cell where they may be incorporated into the growing hair. Hair greying is indicative of a tissue specific failure of the growth signals that support stem cell amplification and incorporation into our self-renewing tissues." (Robert Arking, The Biology of Aging, p.63) Note that not all mouse strains gray with age. [Finch, 1990].
I have also seen suggestions to the effect that hair greying in humans is ultimately due to the telomere positioning effect [Links, Books/telomere positioning effect] modifying gene expression [Books]. See telomerase expression in human follicles [Links, Papers, Patents, Books]. "Intuition suggests that telomerase intervention might effectively restore hair growth in elderly males." (M.Fossel, p.160). On the average, 50% of persons have 50% grey hair by age 50 [Hisama, Chromosomal Instability and Aging, p.565].
Recently (2011), hydrogen peroxide in the hair follicle from lack of catalase has been blamed for bleaching out hair, so that vendors have been offering hair greying cures including catalase. This would mean that supplements elevating endogenous antioxidants including catalase such as ashwagandha and bacopa can help reverse hair greying [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. Note that the Chinese supplement fo-ti (He shou wu) can reverse hair greying with anthraquinones, but is sometimes associated with liver disorders.

[49] Carcinogens [Index]: Known and Suspected Carcinogens | What causes cancer?
Teratogens dangerous to the developing human. | See [71]. Cancer Death - Causes and Prevention by Ben Best.
A low-sugar (antiglycating), low-in-saturated-fats diet, low in red meat diet (prefer fish and white meat), with zero burned meat (to eliminate heterocyclic amines and benzopyrene from charbroiled cooking or smoking) and zero browned food (to eliminate Advanced Glycation End products, or AGEs) are useful in avoiding carcinogens and inflammation leading to cancer or cancer metastasis. Exercise [Index], broccoli sprouts, broccoli, vitamin C, selenium, coenzyme Q10, curcumin (from turmeric or curry), melatonin, NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine), milk thistle, DHA/EPA in fish oil, and folic acid are all excellent anticancer safeguards in preventing cancer. See anticancer nutraceuticals. In avoiding cancer metastasis [Index], it is useful to chelate copper with resveratrol, quercetin, or curcumin. Inflammatory factors involved in focal remodeling of cancerous tissue that promote tumor formation include TNF-alpha and NFκB, so inhibitors for TNF-alpha (Index, luteolin, Enbrel) and NFκB (Index, curcumin) are useful in controlling cancer. Note that telomerase activators are (weakly) tumor promoters because they somewhat counteract telomerase inhibition as a cancer defense. Coincidentally, both TNF-alpha and NFκB are telomerase activating. This is why telomerase activators to lengthen telomeres are applied in cyclic fashion followed by treatment with telomerase inhibitors, so that any cancer cells slipping through can be stopped with telomerase inhibitors (which cause cancer cell apoptosis) and/or other anticancer supplements before it is too late.
Avoid dying hair to the roots frequently, as this might cause lymphoma [Index]. See also [71].
Cancer is found in mitotic, dividing-cell tissues, and is partly due to the genomic instability associated with replicative or cellular senescence (including premature stress-induced senescence) caused by short telomeres unbinding t-loops at the ends of cellular chromosomes. If the senescent cell suffers further cell divisions (from carcinogenic alcohol, estrogens, or pathogen side-effects) because tumor suppressor proteins such as p53 have been inhibited, telomeres may become critially short. When the length of the telomere becomes sufficiently short and the t-loop opens, telomeres may fuse, leading to anueploid cells after further cell division and carcinomas or adenocarcinomas in epithelial tissues as we find in breast cancers. This sort of cancer can be prevented with small molecule telomerase activators such as astragalosides, astragalus extracts, astragaloside IV, cycloastragenol, epithalamin (epithalon peptide, Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), or tricostatin A. Since vitamin C preserves telomere length somewhat, it also tends to prevent cancer, as do other anti-aging stategies that lower oxidative stress and inflammation leading to DNA damage (10) and premature stress-induced senescence.

[50] The Free Radical Theory of Aging [(1), Index, Links, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension; ROS, Oxidative Stress; Index/Antioxidants: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Curcumin, Cocoa, CoQ10 (Ubiquinol, Ubiquinone), Lycopene, Olive Oil (Hydroxytyrosol, Oleuropien), Pomegranate, Luteolin, Rosemary (Aroma Therapy), Melatonin, Resveratrol; Index/Glycation, Index/AGEs, Index/Inflammation] | The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging [Books, LifeExtension] NowFoods on the Free Radical Theory of Aging | The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging (James South) | The Free Radical Theory of Aging (Ben Best).

[51] Antioxidants and the prevention of cancer. [Books, LifeExtension].

[52] Superoxide Dismutase [Index, Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] | Superoxide Dismutase and Oxidative Stress, Life Extension Magazine on SOD. Superoxide Dismutase | Image of the week | SOD | Links/superoxide dismutase | [48s] | [49s]. Superoxide dismutase is coded for in mitochondrial DNA [Links, Images, Books]. "Humans produce 80 mcg/ml of SOD and live nearly 80 years. Chimpanzees produce 40 mcg/ml and live an average of 40 years... Fruit flies bred to produce twice as much SOD as normal live nearly twice as long as ordinary fruit flies." - from Life Extension Magazine, August 2005, "Super Oxide Dismutase", by John Colman. For a SOD boost, see SODzyme and GliSODin, which raises SOD blood levels 89% in mice. One of the mechanisms by which deprenyl extends life-span is by boosting SOD levels. SOD levels match species life spans (like carnosine). The manganese-containing mitochondrial form of SOD, MnSOD (SOD2), is only 8% of the total SOD in rodents, but 50% of the total SOD in man. - pg. 59, Modulations of the Aging Process by Schneider in Handbook of the Biology of Aging, 2nd ed., Finch & Schneider.
Extra-cellular SOD (ecSOD, SOD3) defends collagen against old-age wrinkling [Books, LifeExtension]. See the SOD sources wheat grass, Wheat Sprouts [64s], Ashwagandha [63s], a herb which increases SOD and endogenous antioxidant levels, Super GliSODin, cut-rate GliSODin from VitaCost, and Links/Melons and SOD. Cantaloupe bred for long shelf life is rich in SOD. Huperzine A [65s] has been shown to boost SOD levels, and to protect the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain rather like ashwagandha [63s]. SOD-boosting supplements have been shown to protect against sunburn. See Links/SOD supplements. Judging from GliSODin, we might test cantaloupe sandwiches on whole wheat bread. In 2007 I experimented with inexpensive KAL enteric-coated S.O.D., which is extracted from beef liver. However, web sources state that the enteric coating only gets the SOD past the stomach into the small intestine, where it is destroyed by enzymes. Evidently, the SOD must be encased in gliadin like GliSODin to be properly assimilated.

[53] Aging, Life span, and Senescence | Cellular Senescence [Index, Books, LifeExtension] | Senescence Info.
Aging and Cancer: Are Telomeres and Telomerase the Key? [Index/Cancer] | Telomere Forum
Links/Senescence [Index] | Links/Telomeres [Index] | Links/Telomerase [Index].

[54] Skin Biology: Skin Health and Aging Skin | Skin Care Forum | Histology of Aging Skin
[Index/Skin, Books/Aging Skin, LifeExtension] [Books/Wrinkle Treatments, LifeExtension]
Anti-Aging Skin Care || Wrinkle Treatments | Collagen | Peptide Age-Defying Wrinkle Creams | Hexapeptide 10
Anti-Aging Skin Care Products | Anti-Aging Skin Care products from Folica | Hydroderm | IQ Derma | EnergoTM
Age Defying Complexes | CoQ10 skin cream | L-Carnosine skin cream | Resilience Rescue
| Links/anti-aging skin creams | Links/skin rejuvenation | Links/Facial rejuvenation
Links/Dermatology [Index] | Links/Gerontological Dermatology | Aging Skin Dermatology.
Make Me Heal: Anti-aging skin care products || Anti-Aging Clinics | Anti-Aging Doctors
Derm Net: Aging Skin. Also see [104] on dark circles under the eyes. || Aging Skin Net
Epidermal cells [Images] slough off after 28 days following initial divisions of underlying keratinocytes [Images], hilariously synchronizing with the lunar period and the moon's mythic image associated with "shedding your skin" like the leaves of a book. Keratinocytes are greater than 90%, melanocytes 2% - 4%, Langerhans cells 1% - 2% of cells in the epidermis above the deeper dermal layer of fibroblasts. The keratinocytes originate from stem cells that transiently express telomerase to allow the typically 12 x 75 > 50 cell divisions exhibited to let the skin refresh its outer layer. The keratinocyte lifespan decreases as the epidermis thins and ages, however. "Skin that was once thick and resistant now permits easy transmission of forces to underlying vessels, resulting in eccymosis as vessels tear and bleed. Melanocytes [Images] decrease, increasing UV damage. The dermal-epidermal junction [Images] lacks interdigitation, microbullae [Images] become more common, and trivial force will separate the two layers...", as a smaller capillary bed decreases immune cell access, and keratinocytes show more mitochondrial dysfunction with variably senescent cells. Note that among progeric children, whose dermal fibroblasts exhibit short telomeres, baldness is almost universal. In treatment with telomerase activators [81s], skin constitution is restored to young skin after about 20 population doublings are added. (Fossel, p.156). Note that TA Science's TA-65 (probably cycloastragenol) can add 230 base pairs to blood granulocyte telomeres in vivo in just 3 months. For typical cells on the average, 20 doubling x 50(bp/doubling) = 1000 base pairs, so that a couple of years would be typically required, since telomerase is turned on for just two 3-month periods in a year using the TA Sciences Patton Protocol. That is, they get 460 bp/year, so that 1000/460 = 2.174 > 2 years should be required to thoroughly rejuvenate typical cells with TA-65.
Note that lowered telomerase expression seems to be a problem in scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. (M.Fossel, p.145-151.).
Senescent skin cells transformed with an hTERT-expressing retrovirus show young skin characteristics after 20 population doublings, when gene expression is reset and youthful. (M.Fossel, Cells, Aging, and Human Disease, p.156). An actively dividing subset of hTERT-positive stem cells in the basal layer of the epithelium may transiently express telomerase at cell division to support the large > 50 number of cell divisions (say 75 x 12) used to maintain the epidermis [Images] over a lifetime. This telomerase expression seems to be impacted by epidermal growth factor EGF [Telomerase Activators/EGF] as a telomerase activator [Links, Books] and by retinoic acid as a telomerase inhibitor [Links, Papers, Patents, Books].

[55] The World's Healthiest Foods | Low Cholesterol Diet No-Nos [Index/Cholesterol] || Linus Pauling Institute on Micronutrients [Index/Anticancer] | Links/fats [Index/fat, Index/Oils] | American Heart Association: Know your fats [Index/Heart Attack] Olive Oil is a monounsaturated fat that does not raise blood cholesterol. [Index/Olive Oil] | Monounsaturated fats.
Polyunsaturated fats such as soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, and fish oil, also do not raise blood cholesterol levels. [Index/Oils] | Chocolate is about 50% saturated fat [Index/Cocoa, Index/Chocolate] | Links/Saturated Fat Content of Foods

[56] Stem Cells [Index, (8)]: "The Power to Divide - Stem Cells", National Geographic, July 2005, pg.2. NIH Stem Cell Information | Stem Cell Basics | Stem-Cell Research: Where Does It Go From Here?
Stem Cells Journal | Stem Cell Research Foundation | TIME on stem cells | Regenerative Medicine Links
McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine | California Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Morphogenesis and Regenerative Medicine Institute || Links/Regenerative Medicine
Wikipedia on Stem Cells (Stem Cells as Green Gems.)
Embryonic Stem Cells at the University of Madison, Wisconsin

[57] Anti-Aging Bibliography & Journals. For the molecular biology of anti-aging medicine, see Mechanisms of Aging by Ben Best and Aging at the Molecular Level edited by Thomas von Zglinicki, 2003. Life Extension Magazine, with its many on-line articles, and International Anti-Aging Systems with the Journal of Longevity and its archives seem to be tops, featuring excellent articles on anti-aging medicine and great product solutions. See also InfoAging from The American Federation for Aging Research (and its web links to other organizations), The American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine, and The Aging Research Center. Also see Anti-Aging Guide 2006 and Innovita Research Corportation's Aging News and their on-line treatise Aging: The Molecular Concepts. Vitamin Research Products also publishes many useful articles in the anti-aging domain, as do Dr. Ray Sahelian and Jon Barron. These are all great sources of insight into anti-aging medicine and most offer supplements and medicine to prevent or treat old-age effects. See also The Longevity Meme. Quality Counts offers a voluminous selection of articles on anti-aging compounds & anti-aging recommendations and many connections to anti-aging & related web sites. Don't miss the new site, which I thought particularly good for hair problems.
The Journal of Experimental Gerontology contains a great deal of on-line material.
Also see the SpringerLink journal of Biogerontology, also full of relevant on-line material.
Also see Rejuvenation Research, formerly the Journal of Anti-Aging Medicine.
Free archived abstracts are available from the Journals of Gerontology, Series A.
SpringerLink publishes relevant on-line articles in Age.
And don't miss elder care practitioner articles from The Gerontologist. | Archive.
For regenerative medicine, see SpringerLink Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology.
For surgical facial rejuvination see SpringerLink Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.
See also SpringerLink Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology.
For gene therapy see SpringerLink Gene Therapy and Regulation. Also see SNPs.
For elderly patient problems, see SpringerLink Geriatric Nephrology and Urology.
and the German & English language SpringerLink Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie.
For general background reading and reference, I recommend In Search of the Secrets of Aging:
James F. Balch, The Super Antioxidants, Evans and Company, 1998.
James D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Gene, 3rd edition, W.A.Benjamin, Inc., 1976, 5th edition available, 2004; Linus Pauling, College Chemistry, 3rd edition. An old classic (Dover); and Lodish, Berk, et al., Molecular Cell Biology, W. H. Freeman & Co., 4th edition, 2000. (Includes CD multi-media simulations, ect.). For molecular biology also see Geoffrey M. Cooper and Robert E. Hauseman, The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 4th edition, 2007 and The Molecular Biology of the Cell. Incidentally, Linus Pauling, in his classic textbook, draws the Vitamin C molecule so that it resembles the constellation Casseopeia, which marks the zero hour of sidereal time on the celestial sphere. It is another year coming around because you took your 4000-20000 mg of Vitamin C daily.
Also see Seeley, Stephens, and Tate, Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill, 2002, with an on-line site, and 2 CD-ROMS.
Also see Wikipedia on Life Extension and The Immortality Institute.

[58] Acetyl L-Carnitine (bodybuilding) [Index] | Acetyl L-Carnitine (anti-aging).
Acetyl L-Carnitine (Life Extension) || Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate [Index] (Life Extension Foundation, acetyl L-carnitine with an extra molecule of arginine). Neuroprotective acetyl L-carnitine stimulates the release of neurotransmitters acetylcholine and dopamine, stimulating healthy brain function, and assists with the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria, improving neural cellular energy. It stimulates neurite growth (most of all with arginine) and defends against Alzheimer's Disease [Images/Alzheimer's Brains]. Acetyl L-Carnitine works well with alpha lipoic acid (or R-dihydro lipoic acid) to restore and protect youthful neural function. Note that propionyl L-carnitine is useful for treating cardiac [Heart Attack], muscle [(9), Bodybuilding, Anabolics], and endothelium [Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension] problems.

[59] CoQ10 [Index (Ubiquinone, Ubiquinol)]: CoQ10 (in anti-wrinkle cream) | CoQ10 (bodybuilding) | CoQ10 (Ray Sahelion, MD) | Ubiquinone (CoQ10) as an essential anti-aging supplement. | CoQ10, miracle anti-oxidant., Links/CoQ10, Links/ubiquinol CoQ10.

[60] Centrophenoxine [Index] | "The real eye-opener is a study by Imre Zs.-Nagy, M.D., of the Hungarian-Italian Verzar Laboratory for Experimental Gerontology, in which centrophenoxine (DMAE + auxin) extended life span in lab rats by as much as 33 percent." | Links/Centrophenoxine

[61] Idebenone [Index/Idebenone, CoQ10 (Ubiquinone, Ubiquinol)] See [59,39]. Co-enzyme Q = ubiquinone = CoQ10, similar to Idebenone.

[62] Eat foods low in saturated fats and cholesterol. | Low-Cholesterol Diet Advice
Low Cholesterol Diet No-Nos | Zoccor to reduce LDL and increase HDL cholesterol

[63] David Kipling, The Telomere, Oxford University Press, 1995. | Wikipedia on Telomeres
Telomere links | TelDB national telomere archive | Telomeres, Telomerase, & Cancer (History) [Index/Telomeres, (7)].

[64] Cellular Biology [Links, Papers, Books, Index/Bioinformatics] | Virtual Library of Cellular Biology | Wikipedia/Cell Biology
Wikipedia/DNA | RNA | DNA links at Elmhurst | DNA Interactive | Cell Biology Glossary
DNA microarray technology | DNA microarray technology animation | Intro to DNA microarray technique Karyotype & Spectral Karyotype with Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) | Plasmids | Genes & Longevity [Index/Gene, Index/Genomic Stability].
The Universe : Molecules, Unicellular Organisms, Multicellular Organisms.

[65] Metformin [Index] | Questions & Answers on Metformin | Biomarker Pharmaceuticals on Metformin

[66] From Can We Cure Aging by Michael Fossel: "The current question is; what is the best way to reset gene expression to that of normal young cells? We could replace the telomerase gene [hTERT, hTR and Dyskerin], which would then express normal telomerase, reset the genes, and rejuvenate normal cell function. Even better, however, would be to control the existing telomerase gene in each of your cells, turning it on and off as needed. This is the role of a telomerase inducer [List], currently under development. Either of these techniques - inserting another copy of the normal telomerase gene or using a telomerase inducer - should do the trick.
Gene insertion has already been used in other contexts and human trials using telomerase are not far off. Using this technique, a gene gun [Images] can be used to fire millions of copies of the human telomerase gene (hTERT) into human skin. While the "take" for this technique is normally fairly low, it would be sufficient. Dermal and epidermal cells would take up the hTERT gene and begin expressing it, resetting gene expression, and returning to normal young adult cell function.
Since those days, small molecule telomerase activators [Index, List] (7) such as tricostatin A, cycloastragenol, and astragaloside IV have been introduced that look more promising than gene insertion for this application.

[67] From Theories of Aging "Further recent research by Don Kleinsek Ph.D., of GeriGene Inc. (one of the few genealogists looking for the genes involved with aging), indicates that telomeres can be repaired by the introduction of the relevant hormone. In other words telomeres and their subsequent processes affect each other. It may be possible, (once we know what each telomere is responsible for), to precisely introduce the necessary hormone and aid genetic repair, as well as the hormonal balance etc."
Hormones can enter the cell, bind to a protein, and modify gene expression.
Key anti-aging hormones include DHEA, Pregnenolone, IGF-1, and the sex steroids such as Estrogen, Progesterone, and the androgens such as testosterone. These are all telomerase activators [Index]! However, the pathways are DHEA -> IGF-1,
Pregnenolone -> DHEA -> IGF-1, HGH -> IGF-1, and Testosterone -> Estrogen via aromatase.
See DHEA (TA/DHEA), pregnenolone (TA/Pregnenolone), IGF-1 (TA/IGF-1), HGH (TA/HGH), Estrogen (TA/Estrogen), Progesterone (TA/Progesterone), and Testosterone (TA/Androgens). Note that testosterone is converted to estrogen by aromatase, and it is this estrogen which interacts with the hTERT promoter.
The telomere growth speed and suitability of these medicines for rejuvenation-oriented telomerase therapy has not been quite adequately resolved. Note that improperly applied steroids may cause cancer.
DHEA and pregnenolone may be obtained through Life Enhancement. By 2009, IGF-1 (TA/IGF-1) turned out to be a telomerase activator, and since it can be obtained by conversion from HGH (TA/HGH) in the liver, both IGF-1 and HGH play this role. Note that IGF-1 phosphorylates cytoplasmic hTERT for import to the nucleus to activate telomerase, whereas HGH produces more hTERT mRNA via interactions with the hTERT promoter to produce more hTERT protein, the catalytic component of telomerase. However, IGF-1 is sometimes taken with antiinflammatory Vitamin D to ward off possible cancer problems, rather like Maximum Telomere Support from Medicinal Nutraceutics, which combines Astragaloside IV with Vitamin D. However, vitamin D3 is a telomerase inhibitor, so that I prefer not to mix vitamin D3 and astragaloside IV in cyclic treatment, but to confine them to telomerase inhibitor and telomerase activator phases of treatment, not mixing activators and inhibitors. IGF-1 levels usually go up following elevation of HGH with exercise.
I note that DHEA is widely available at this time and increases levels of IGF-1, a known telomerase activator, so that DHEA must also be one. DHEA | Skeptic on DHEA, with links | Pregnenolone is a memory & mood enhancer. | IGF-1 | IGF family
See Carnosine [69]. | Links/Pregnenolone | LinksDHEA | Links/Telomerase inducers

[68] Liposome delivery systems [Index/Liposome, Books/Liposomes, Books/Liposomal delivery, Papers, Links].
Laboratory for Liposome Research | Liposome delivery. Liposomes: A Practical Approach | Links/liposome delivery systems
Liposomal Delivery Product Examples: IQ Derma, Bodyshape by Hydroderm.
See Liposome Kit for Pharmaceutical Liposome delivery systems from NDF Corporation and liposome delivery specialists Encapsula Nanosciences. Also see The International Liposome Society and the TimeLine for Liposome Evolution.

[69] L-Carnosine - The Super Peptide, L-Carnosine, super anti-oxidant | Dr. Ray Sahelion on L-Carnosine | Links/Carnosine
Index/Carnosine | International Anti-Aging Systems on Carnosine | Carnosine - Fountain of Youth & Anti-Cataract Carnosine
Marios Kriazis on Carnosine | Life Extension on Carnosine | Carnosine and Cellular Senescence
Health Marketplace on Carnosine | Carnosine & Books on Carnosine | Carnosine & Rejuvenation
Carnosine supreme! with Benfothiamine | Kirkman Labs Carnosine | Carnosine Eyedrops
Jarrow Carnosine | NutraSanus on Carnosine | Wikipedia on Carnosine | Carnosine & Bodybuilding
Bodybuilding Carnosine | Tallon on Carnosine | Synthesis of Carnosine | Enzymatic Synthesis of Carnosine
Carnosine on Sale - 50 500 mg Vcaps for $15.95. | Carnosine Information with References
Carnosine: Nature's Pluripotent Life Extension Agent The Carnosine level in muscle tissue correlates with animal species life span. | Carnosine Skin Creams | Topical Carnosine
Carnosine doses of 50 mg-100 mg/day show no side effects, but higher doses of 1000 mg to 1500 mg a day sometimes report histamine-related allergic reactions (Marios Kyriazis, MD).
Carnosine: The Latest Anti-Aging Supplement - In addition to extending the Hayflick limit for cell division and being a fine antioxidant, carnosine chelates metal ions, flushing them as toxins from the body. It also blocks the formation of amyloid beta deposits associated with Alzheimer's Disease and inactivates existing amyloid beta. Finally, it prevents cross-linking damage caused by glycation cross-linking of proteins and DNA.
Recent studies suggest than carnosine may suppress Alzheimer's Disease, and tests have been proposed involving the nasal administration of carnosine in this connection.
Carnosine in Metal Chelation Therapy - "Carnosine has an ability to chelate prooxidative metal ions, such as copper, zinc and toxic heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel)." See [89] on the effect of heavy metal ions in drinking water and in food on mitochondria in the hippocampus.
Life Extension search on Carnosine. | The Aging Brain & Carnosine for anti-glycation.

[70] Alpha Lipoic Acid (Berkeley essay) [Index/Alpha Lipoic Acid] | Jarrow's Alpha-lipoic acid.
Alpha Lipoic acid benefits and side-effects (bodybuilding) | Nutrition Reporter on Alpha Lipoic acid.
Whole Health MD on Alpha-Lipoic Acid | Book: The Alpha-Lipoic Acid Breakthrough
See Links/Alpha-Lipoic Acid. Alpha lipoic acid is sometimes said to work better in neurons than Vitamin C because of it's fat solubility and a neural tissue prevalence of fats. However, Vitamin C produces carnitine, which is good for mitochondrial function generally, therefore also for neural cell energy.
(R) --Lipoic acid-supplemented old rats have improved mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and increased metabolic rate.
Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R--lipoic acid.
R-dihydro-lipoic acid: optimal form of lipoic acid. | Links/R-dihydro lipoic acid.
R-Lipoic acid believed superior to R-dihydro-lipoic acid | PQQ and lipoic acid
See also sodium-R-Lipoic acid [Links], Life Extension's "Super R-Lipoic Acid" that is now the most bioavailable form of lipoic acid.

[71] Index/Cancer | Index/Carcinogens | What Causes Cancer? | Cancer - Causes and Effects | Cancer causes & risk factors, See also [49]. Heterocyclic Amines in Cooked Meats
"...Researchers found that those who ate their beef medium-well or well-done had more than three times the risk of stomach cancer than those who ate their beef rare or medium-rare. They also found that people who ate beef four or more times a week had more than twice the risk of stomach cancer than those consuming beef less frequently." | Links/Heterocyclic Amines | Dangers of overcooking food | What you need to know about Cancer: An Overview. | Known and Suspected Carcinogens
Some hair dyes were implicated in lymphoma. | What Causes Lymphoma? Agent Orange.
See Ames,B.N., H.O.Kommen, and E.Yamsaki, " Hair Dyes are Mutagenic: Identification of a Variety of Mutagenic Ingredients", Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci., 72, 2423 (1975).
Links/What causes cancer? | Cancer Death - Causes and Prevention by Ben Best.
Anti-Cancer Graviola | Anti-Cancer Resveratrol | Anti-cancer sulforaphane | Cancer Prevention
Anticancer broccoli sprouts | Anticancer substances selenium, vitamin E, green tea, folic acid, ect.
Anti-Cancer Drugs (Univ. of Maryland) | Anti-Cancer Drugs (Purdue)
Eliminating saturated fats and continuing to exercise both combat cancer.
(See Links/Foods rich in saturated fats.) According to Molecular Biology of the Gene 3rd edition, by James D. Watson, nitrates found in pastrami, frankfurters, bacon, ect. are converted in vivo into the powerfully carcinogenic nitrosamines. Also benzopyrene, which is present in charcoal-broiled foods, is converted by liver enzymes into carcinogenic epoxide derivatives. The same is true of Aflatoxin B1, which is found in moldy peanuts and pistachio nuts. "Ingestion of significant amounts of benzopyrene ... invariably leads to the emergence of hepatomas [Images] (liver tumors)." pg.646, James D. Watson, 3rd edition, Molecular Biology of the Gene.
Pancreatic Cancer, the 5th leading cause of death in the USA, has been linked to tobacco [Essay/Smoking], diabetes, obesity, and lack of physical activity. Less than 5% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer survive more than 5 years. (M. Fossel).

[72] Alzheimer's Disease [Index, Books, LifeExtension, LifeExtension/amyloid] | NIH on Alzheimers Disease | Links/Alzheimer's | Alzheimer's Disease: Molecular Mechanisms by Ben Best. | Alzheimers Treatment & Prevention. Half of all survivors to age 90 suffer from Alzheimer's Disease. (Best) Recent studies suggest than carnosine may suppress Alzheimer's, and tests have been proposed involving the nasal administration of carnosine in this connection. It has also been shown that reseveratrol acts to prevent the accumulation of amyloid beta peptides, and curcumin has also been shown to be an amyloid-beta blocker. Huperzine A [65s] improves memory and is used to treat Alzheimer's. Research suggests that regular exercise tends to prevent Alzheimer's Disease.

[73] Index/Heart Attack: Medicine Net: Causes of Heart Attack. | Medford: Diseases and Their Medicines
American Heart Association: Causes of Heart Attack
Heart Health (UK) | NIH: Causes of Heart Attack | Sudden Cardiovascular Death by Ben Best.
Prevention of Cardiac Disease by Ben Best.

[74] Index/Stroke: Medicine Net: Causes of Stroke. | Medford: Diseases and Their Medicines
What causes a stroke? | American Heart Association: Causes of Stroke
"Rats given blueberry or spinach along with their chow, however, were protected: the size of the area of their brains damaged by the stroke was half that seen in the brains of the control rats. " from The World's Healthiest Foods/Blueberries

[75] Leading causes of death [Encyclopedia, Mortality Charts, Wikipedia, Links, Books, LEF, Amazon]. In New York:

In 2002:
"Heart Disease - 696,947. [/Heart Attack, Books, Links, Wikipedia, LEF, Amazon].
___Use a homocysteine shield [Links] of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to circumvent atherosclerosis.
___For 65% of men and 47% of women,
______the 1st symptom of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is heart attack or sudden death within 1 hour.
___Supplement with magnesium to reduce sudden death.
___Use CoQ10, alpha lipoic acid, centrophenoxine, or DMAE to remove lipofuscin [Links] and ceroid deposits.
___Use a low-fat CR diet, fish oil to emphasize HDL over LDL cholesterol,
___Use monosaturated fats like olive oil, avoid other salad dressings, exercise regularly (9).
___The primary characteristic changes in myocardial cells are in lipofuscin accumulation (take CoQ10)
___and increased expression of COX2 (take ginger, turmeric, curcumin.)
___Take Vitamin K2 to decalcify arteriosclerosis.
___Vitamin D supplementation cuts heart attack rates.
___Avoid smoking. 25% of smokers live to 80, vs. 57% of non-smokers.
___Avoid sugary & ice cream glycation that can stiffen collagen in arterial walls.
Cancer - 557,271. [Index/Cancer, Books, Links, Wikipedia, LEF, Amazon].
___Typically due to genomic instability in senescent cells preventable with cyclic telomerase activation.
___Avoid carcinogens such as cigarette smoke, benzopyrene in barbequed meats.
___Pancreatic Cancer is linked to tobacco, diabetes, obesity, and lack of physical activity. (M. Fossel).
___Keep inflammation from TNF-alpha and NFκB low.
___Take Vitamin D.
___Keep fats and sugars low. Use olive oil, omega-3, and fish oils.
Stroke: 162,672. [Index/Stroke, pics, Books, Links, Wikipedia, LEF, Amazon, Images].
___Typically due to high blood pressure. Avoid salt, lower cortisol with HGH and/or Ashwagandha.
___from moderate exercise and/or DHEA (dihydroepiandrosterone). Lower stress and cortisol.
___Avoid associated artherosclerosis by not eating red meat, use homocysteine screen.
___Keep HDL/LDL cholesterol ratios high and triglycerides from fats low.
Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 124,816. [Books, Links, Wikipedia, LEF, Amazon].
Accidents (unintentional injuries): 106,742. [Books, Links, Wikipedia, LEF, Amazon].
Diabetes: 73,249. [Index, Books, Links, Wikipedia, LEF, Amazon].
___Avoid a high-calorie, high-sugar diet leading to type-2 diabetes.
___Keep stress low to lower sugar-elevating cortisol levels.
Influenza/Pneumonia: 65,681. [Books, Links, Wikipedia/influenza, Wikipedia/Pneumonia, LEF, Amazon].
___Keep the immune system strong with vitamin C and small molecule telomerase activators
_____such as TA-65, astragalus extract, astragaloside IV, or cycloastragenol.
Alzheimer's disease: 58,866. [Index/Alzheimers, Books, Links, Wikipedia, LEF, Amazon].
___Use alpha lipoic acid with acetyl L-carnitine and extra arginine,
___plus resveratrol to block formation of amyloid beta sheets.
___Use carnosine to inactivate existing beta-amyloid and block further amyloid beta deposits.
___Avoid excess iron in beef and other factors that can boost inflammation.
___Chelate iron, copper, and metal deposits that can become inflammatory with curcumin.
___Curcumin chelates aluminum associated with neuro-fibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's Disease.
___TNF-alpha inhibitors like Enbrel can halt cascades of inflammation and amyloid formation.
___Avoid Advanced Glycation End Products from excessive sugar consumption.
Nephritis, nephritic syndrome, and nephrosis: 40,974. [Books, Links, Amazon, Wikipedia, LEF].
Septicemia: 33,865". [Books, Links, Wikipedia/Sepsis, LEF, Amazon].
Life expectancies vary between nations. American life expectancy is 77 years in 2005, whereas a French man's average life span is 74.1 years. See Mortality Charts and Causes of Death by Ben Best.
Also see Chronic Diseases of Old Age.

[76] Olive Oil & Salad Dressings: Index/Olive Oil, Longevity Salad Dressing | Fats in Salad Dressings | Fats and Oils | Healthy Olive Oil | Vinegar and Water Salad Dressings | Olive Oil Polyphenols: Best Salad Oil Choice? | Hydroxytyrosol.
Press for the Life and Times of Louis Pasteur.The Health Benefits of Olive Oil Since olive oil (See Wikipedia) raises HDL cholesterol and lowers LDL cholesterol levels so that HDL scavenges LDL from the vascular endothelium to prevent atherosclerosis, it seems clear that olive oil-based vinegar-and-oil salad dressings are the ones to use. Otherwise, this may be the best erection oil for applying antioxidant protection to cells of the colon mucosa, slowing telomere shrinkage in these troublesome and actively dividing cells. One might include carnosine [69] (extends the Hayflick Limit for the number of times a cell can divide) in olive oil preparations for additional protection. Olive oil includes hydroxytyrosol, "the polyphenol with the highest free radical protection ever reported for an antioxidant compound". I note that fecal impaction is dangerous, and that a douche should probably be applied before and after this kind of session, perhaps one enriched with an antioxidant. Be religious about it. Go into the mount of olives! Probably plenty of systematic tests remain to done in this domain. Perhaps personal lubricants should be based on olive oil for every frictional rub-a-dub-dub. Regular swabbing of colon mucosa cells with olive oil, carnosine, and possibly vitamin C might be relatively life extending compared to treatment with other substances. This could be as important as the Pasteurization of milk! Affectionate souls may thus enjoy preserving enthrallments of life extension. Some constituents of olive oil, such as flavonoids, squalene and polyphenols, may help to protect against cancer. Thus olive oil beats dying of a canker in your soul. It is sold at Dillons in Wichita for $9.00 a bottle like Love Potion #9 (MP3, #6).
Human papilloma virus HPV is another troublesome threat in this connection, so perhaps the olive oil might be modified by the addition of an anti-mycotic agent, or used together with anti-mycotics applied to the rod side. Topical preparations used for HPV blocking include Imiquimod cream, a 20 percent podophyllin antimitotic solution, a 0.5 percent podofilox solution, 5 percent 5-fluorouracil cream, and Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or equivalent. Prophylactic protection may be useful in this regard. Possible health threats from long-term use of HPV-blockers mixed in olive oil might be assessed. Also see The Sugar Fallout: How It Threatens Your Colon.
Also, I note that "olive polyphenols improve endothelial function and blood flow in people with high cholesterol. Blood vessel dilation increases, and indicators of oxidative stress decrease." (LE, June 2006).
Oleuropein, the major constituent of Olea europea leaf extract, olive oil and olives, enhances the proteasome activities in vitro stronger than other known chemical activators, possibly through conformational changes of the proteasome. Moreover, continuous treatment of early passage human embryonic fibroblasts with oleuropein decreases the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduces the amount of oxidized proteins through increased proteasome-mediated degradation rates and retains proteasome function during replicative senescence. Importantly, oleuropein-treated cultures exhibit a delay in the appearance of senescence morphology and their life span is extended by approximately 15%. [Magda Katsiki, Niki Chondrogianni, Ioanna Chinou, A. Jennifer Rivett, Efstathios S. Gonos, 2007. The Olive Constituent Oleuropein Exhibits Proteasome Stimulatory Properties In Vitro and Confers Life Span Extension of Human Embryonic Fibroblasts, Rejuvenation Research. 2007, 10(2): 157-172.]

[77] Longevity Institute International: Monitoring crucial longevity biomarkers in a systematic program for life extension. | Biomarker Pharmaceuticals | Biomarker Facility Core at the Univ. of N.C.

[78] Anti-Aging Recommendations

[79] Neygeront | Biogenesis Labs Neygeront | Neygeront | Google: Neygeront links

[80] Cross-Reference List of Anti-Aging Medicines. | Life Extension Foundation products
The International Anti-Aging Medicine Systems Cross-Reference List of Anti-Aging Medicines

[81] Glossaries:
Glossary of Anti-Aging Terms | Anti-Aging Glossary | Anti-Aging Conference Glossary of Terms

[82] Anti-Aging Conferences, Life Extension Conferences,
Aging Cell Bioscience Conferences, Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence Conferences,
Suggested Readings for the Conference on Integrative Medicine for Anti-Aging
The International Anti-Aging Conference in London (2005) | Exhibitor Links
The Ellison Medical Foundation Colloquium on the Biology of Aging August 18, 2005.
Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence - SENS2 conference, Sept 7-11 2005 Cambridge,UK.
The Conference Calendar of The British Society for Research on Aging,
Academic Labs and Programs in Life Extension Medicine.

[83] Longevity Genes: Find & Identify [Index]. | MIT Technology Review on Longevity Genes
Centagenetics Searches for Longevity Gene | CNN on Longevity Genetics research
UCSF Researchers identify about 200 longevity-impacting genes using DNA microarray techniques.
Longevity gene research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine | Why Do We Age? gene testing info.
Life Extension on resveratrol: "Recently resveratrol became the first-ever supplement known to activate a longevity gene." | Resveratrol activates SIRT1 longevity gene.
Jeanne Calment, 122.45 year-old age record holder, was a daily drinker of red wine. Humorously, the resveratrol molecule resembles a pair of old man's spectacles. | The SIRT1 gene: Gene silencing in Aging
Report indicates 500 yr-old humans possible. | Life extension genes in Drosophila.
By late 2009 we are optimistic that hTERT, hTR, and Dyskerin can function like longevity genes (especially hTERT) to reverse cellular senescence by producing the telomerase complex to reconstruct telomeres at the ends of chromosomes, and feel that it is essential to use telomerase activators to restore the youthful phenotype of senescent cells. Statin drugs may also be useful in closing telomere t-loops and ending the senescent state of the cell by restoring the youthful phenotype, although statins require supplemental CoQ10. Subsequent cell division, however, may shorten telomeres still further, until the statin-drug treated cell finally reaches telomeric crisis. Furthermore, the telomerase complex can probably only work on cells with open t-loops, so that telomerase activation will probably not help senescent cells with t-loops closed by statin drugs. Thus, the statin drug probably restores the youthful cellular phenotype only on a temporary basis, while treatment with telomerase activators is likely to provide comparatively open-ended cellular lifetimes.

[84] Body Trends on the role of exercise in longevity. (9) [Index].
World Health: How exercise improves longevity prospects.
Longevity: Exercise helps you to live longer, but how important is intensity?
Health Gazette: Results of studies on exercise and longevity.
Life Extension: Can exercise extend life span?
Links/Exercise & longevity | Links/Exercise & life extension

[85] FISH & Telomere Measurement: [Telomeasures]
Fluorescence microscopy PhD thesis | Quantitative FISH image analysis (try Google & Adir)
MetaSystems on Telomere Analysis | Telomere Length Measurement via FISH & Flow Cytometry
Karyotype & Spectral Karyotype with Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)
Telomere Length Measurement by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization & Flow Cytometry: Tips & Pitfalls
Telomere Length Measurement with Q-Fish | TeloQuant Telomere Length Measurement Kit
Google search: telomere length measurement methods

[86] Progeria & Lamin A - Scientists Shed New Light on Aging Process
Date: 6/30/2005 By: Tan Ee Lyn Reuters Health Information
HONG KONG (Reuters) - Scientists in Hong Kong have shed new light on why cell repair is less efficient in older people after a breakthrough discovery on premature aging, a rare genetic disease that affects one in four million babies. Premature aging, or Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (progeria), is obvious in the appearance of a child before it is a year old. Although their mental faculties are normal, they stop growing, lose body fat and suffer from wrinkled skin and hair loss. Like old people, they suffer stiff joints and a buildup of plaque in arteries that can lead to heart disease and stroke. Most die of cardiovascular diseases before they are 20. In 2003, a team of scientists in the United States found that progeria was caused by mutation in a protein called Lamin A, which lines the nucleus in human cells. A team at the University of Hong Kong, led by Zhou Zhongjun [in his own words], took the research a step further in 2004 and found that mutated Lamin A actually disrupted the repair process in cells, thus resulting in accelerated aging. The study was published in the July issue of the Nature Medicine journal. Zhou said the team came by their findings after comparing skin cells taken from two progeria sufferers, normal humans, progeria mice and normal mice. While damaged DNA was quickly repaired in the healthy human and mice cell samples, the samples taken from the progeria humans and mice had difficulty repairing damaged DNA. "Mutation in this protein (Lamin A) can cause defects in repair and thus lead to progeria," Zhou, a research assistant professor with the biochemistry department at the University of Hong Kong, said in an interview. "DNA damage is not effectively repaired in cells with defective Lamin A but very efficiently repaired in normal cells." The study highlights the importance of Lamin A to the repair process, and any mutation to Lamin A that disrupts repair will bring about aging, Zhou said. Having established the link between Lamin A and repair, Zhou is using major findings from other research he did in 2002 to work on his next project, a product which he hopes could kill cancer cells. Zhou, Professor Karl Tryggvason in Sweden's Karolinska Institute and a Spanish research group found in 2002 that the enzyme Zmpste 24 was responsible in converting prelamin A to functional Lamin A. Zhou's laboratory is now developing inhibitors to Zmpste 24, which he hopes to apply to tumors. These inhibitors should theoretically disrupt Lamin A production, thwart the repair function in cancer cells, and bring on their premature aging and death. "We're now trying to develop inhibitors to Zmpste 24 and apply it to tumor cells," he said.
See also "DNA Damage Theory" in Why Do We Age? from Senescence Info.

[87] Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate: [Index, Source]. | EMD Biosciences sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate Source
Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate used to treat cystic fibrosis. | LInks/Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate
Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate shown to increase lifespan of Drosophila 40% (Kang et al., 2002).
I note that the chromatin sheath histone proteins are primarily composed of the amino acids L-lysine and L-arginine. Perhaps a chromatin remodeling factor program would supplement the diet with these amino acids. Chromatin remodeling factor studies appear in the recent literature: see "The emerging role of epigenetics in cellular and organismal aging", from Exp. Geron, vol 38, no.11. "Drosophila fed the histone deacetylase inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate showed up to 52% longer maximum life span." [87]. Note that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors) expand chromatin, enabling gene transcription. Gene silencing via HDACs (or via SIRT1) that silence chromatin by contracting it to disable transcription has also been used for life extension benefits in other species. Some HDAC inhibitors such as Tricostatin A also activate hTERT to produce the catalytic component of telomerase, extending cell life span by extending telomeres to enable more cell divisions in mitotically competent cells. Sources: See [BIOMOL/HDAC Inhibitors, Links/Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate].

[88] Pregnenolone precautions (DHEA precursor) [Index] | Pregnenolone Side-Effects
Pregnenolone - Basics (Understanding Adrenal Function) || Links
Vitacost Pregnenolone 60 caps, 30mg/cap $6.29/bottle | BioSynergy Pregnenolone memory enhancer
International Anti-Aging Systems on Pregnenolone | Pregnenolone benefits

[89] Health Effects of Metal Ions in Drinking Water | There are indications that the aluminum ion is particularly bad for us. Injections of the aluminum ion into rabbit brains produce neural tangles sometimes seen in Alzheimer's Disease. Curcumin chelates aluminum. Mercury, copper, iron and zinc appear with elevated concentration in Alzheimer patient brains. (See Ben Best on Alzheimers & metal ions.)
LinksHealth effects of impurities in water | Health Effects of Metal Ions in water. | Carnosine: The Latest Anti-Aging Supplement
In addition to extending the Hayflick Limit for cell division and being a fine antioxidant, carnosine chelates metal ions, flushing them as toxins from the body. Aluminum ion is an Alzheimer's trigger: See SpringerLink's "Aluminum-triggered structural modifications and aggregation of β-amyloids". "The mechanisms responsible for the pathological deposition of iron and other redox-active metals in the aging and degenerating mammalian CNS remain poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that normal aging and pharmacological (oxidative) stressors promote the transformation of astroglial mitochondria to iron-laden, diaminobenzidine (DAB)-positive cytoplasmic inclusions in sub-cortical regions of the rat brain. In the current study, we demonstrate that
(1) numbers of DAB-positive glial granules in the rat dorsal hippocampus, an area implicated in learning and memory, progressively increase between 3, 12 and 22 months of age;
(2) dietary restriction (40%), a manipulation that attenuates many mammalian aging processes, has no effect on the age-related accumulation of these gliosomes in the rat hippocampus; and
(3) the latter can be accelerated by dietary supplementation of iron and copper.
Our data support the view that dietary exposure to iron and/or copper in adult life can impact the sequestration of redox-active metals in aging hippocampal astroglia." from Springer's Biogerontology, Vol.5, No.2, pp 81-88. - "Effects of Dietary Restriction and Metal Supplementation on the Accumulation of Iron-Laden Glial Inclusions in the Aging Rat Hippocampus".
Carnosine in Metal Chelation Therapy - "Carnosine has an ability to chelate prooxidative metals, such as copper, zinc and toxic heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel)." See Carnosine, [69].
Metal Chelation Therapy eases Alheimers | Links/EDTA - Undesirably chelates calcium, too.
EDTA for metal chelation therapy | Metal Chelation Therapy for Alzheimers | Links/Clioquinol.

[90] Anti-Aging Doctors: The Anti-Aging Doctor. | Anti-Aging Doctor Directory | Anti-Aging Doctors & Clinics
Your doctor can prescribe a few things that you can't buy and use yourself, including injectable drugs like HGH. On the other hand, he may have a tendency to ignore prescribing things you can readily obtain, so study up! | Links/anti-aging clinics | Links/anti-aging doctors

[91] Acarbose - Index, Links/Acarbose | Acarbose (Precose) | NIH: Medline on Acarbose
NIH: Acarbose (Systemic) | CR-mimetic Acarbose (Precose) is only available via a doctor's prescription. Simulates caloric restriction (CR), used in diabetes treatment, has some side-effects, including excess gas.

[92] Deprenyl Index, | Approved uses | Can Deprenyl extend human life span? | Links/Deprenyl | Selegiline | Deprenyl: A Universal Anti-Aging Strategy? Deprenyl has shown to be highly rejuvenating for sexual function in aged rats, and has aphrodisiac and anti-depressive effects, especially in men. | Deprenyl $57.00 | Deprenyl for better sex. | Deprenyl links and quotes. | Deprenyl & Longevity
Deprenyl (selegiline), Links/Deprenyl, has extended the maximum life span of a number of mammals, doubling remaining life spans, [11s]. Deprenyl - the liquid deprenyl citrate is considered to be superior. (testimony) One of the mechanisms by which deprenyl extends life span is by boosting SOD [52] levels.
Deprenyl (selegiline) [Books, Books/in_aging], Google links.
Deprenyl - Deprenyl elevates SOD and catalase levels, and improves longevity, antibody response, and cognitive function in geriatric dogs. It is a Mao-B inhibitor, inhibiting re-uptake of dopamine, and is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and for life extension.

[93] Pain Medicine: [Index/Pain] Links/Pain Medicine |'s Pain Links | | NIH: Medline on Pain
American Society of Anesthesiologists on Managing Pain | Ziconotide Pain Links | Links of Interest
"Anti-inflammatory drugs - Aspirin (Anacin, Bayer), coated or buffered aspirin (Ascripton, Bufferin) and aspirin with acetaminophen (Excedrin) may be used to reduce swelling and irritation as well as to relieve pain. There also are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, commonly called "N-sayeds") such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve). Anti-inflammatory drugs and nutraceuticals are used to relieve pain, inflammation and fever. There also are steroidal drugs (like cortisone and prednisone), available only by prescription, that are used to treat more serious inflammatory conditions such as chronic arthritis. Morphine-like drugs called opioids are available for cancer pain and other severe pain problems." - Medline See Index/Inflammation, Index/Pain, and Dental.
I put the pain section in after a dream featuring 8-week lymphoma victim Steve Reeve's ghost [photo] pushing for it. || Wikipedia on Euthanasia | Links/Human Euthanasia || Linus Pauling dies at 93.

[94] Life Extension by Testes Removal | Ask Jeeves: Can life be extended by testes removal?
Links/Benefits of Castration "Most older dogs will develop prostate disease or testicular tumors if they survive to an old enough age. Castration can also reduce the risk of perianal tumors and perineal hernias. " If you do have them off, try to have them cryopreserved (8). Probably testes removal is usually done to prevent male pregnancy, as the testes are the male source of haploid gametes that may be somehow transformed into eggs under certain circumstances involving modified hormone concentrations. If this is true, she males without their testicles do not get pregnant, in addition of being incapable of inseminating their husbands in a way that makes their husbands pregnant, although rubbers may be the preferred solution in many cases. Note that DHEA may be required to improve testosterone levels in she males minus their testicles to improve perkiness and muscle tone, or to improve one's chances on the operating table.

It may also be possible to move the testicles into the scrotum with one's fingers so that the testicles are not at the right temperature to produce sperm. Then one can get the she male effect by merely pressing the testicles up into a position from which they may be eventually lowered again later on, making castration temporary. I am unclear about whether supplementation with DHEA is useful in a case like this to blockade tired and weak side effects.

I can't quite put my finger on it, but I get the impression that many supercentenarians > 100 are in fact men who were castrated to get away from some deleterious old age effects tending to kill off males. "Eunuchs reportedly live longer, although there have been no controlled clinical trials to prove this observation. Sterilization of a dog or cat (male or female) adds a couple of years to its life span. Any reduction in sex hormones would be expected to reduce cell proliferation and hence reduce the probability of cancer. " - Ben Best, Mechanisms of Aging. Certainly pregnancy prevention would tend to lengthen life span by reducing the likelihood of death in childbirth. I got the impression that Russian she males proud of their racial features who wanted to reproduce were careful not to remove their testicles. On the other hand, testicle removal might be part of a systematic program to suppress undesired racial features stemming from (worrisome) she male pregnancy in some cases. Castration has also been associated with recovery of the thymus gland. [See Links/Thymic Recovery, Books/Thymic Recovery and section 11 on the immunological theory of aging.] However, arginine 3 to 5 gr/day can also promote thymic recovery. It may be that castration makes life extension worse for vigorously exercising males, considering the many telomerase activators promoted by exercise and the value of cyclic AMP from exercise in reversing senescence. Perhaps castration gets better results when males are sedentary.
I note that some normal men have survived to 111 or so that still looked nice in a suit and tie, perhaps because they started taking Vitamin C in doses such as Dr. Linus Pauling promoted quite some time ago. In addition to the antioxidant effect of Vitamin C, it promotes the formation of collagen for the skin and carnitine to keep neural mitochondria burning brightly and disposing of wastes associated with glycated proteins. Many men also subscribed to caloric restriction practices popularly associated with life extension. Furthermore, defeating periodontal gum disease with plenty of brushing and flossing has been shown to a factor in staving off Alzheimer's Disease.
Report indicates 500 year-old humans possible. Worms had their insulin-path processing genes modified and their reproductive systems eliminated to achieve 6-fold life extension.
Local "Ben Casey" headquarters, my birthplace in 1949.

[95] Neurodegenerative Disorder Drugs: [Index/Neurodegenerative Diseases, Index/Dementia, Index/Alzheimer's Disease, Index/Cognitive Decline, Index/Brain Degeneration, Links/Drugs for treating neurodegenerative disorders.].
Neurodegenerative disorders: World Markets 2002-2007 | Neurodegenerative Drug Futures
Drugs for cognitive decline | Links/Age-Related Cognitive Decline
Life Extension on preventing Age-Related Cognitive Decline [Index/Cognitive Decline]

[96] Human Brain: [Index] Links/The Human Brain | 3D Brain anatomy | The Whole Brain Atlas
Navigable Atlas of the Human Brain | Brain Atlas | Human Neuroatlas (with nomenclature) | Brain Anatomy
Mouse Neurogenetics | Drosophila brain || Brain Structures and neurotransmitters | neurotransmitters
Physiological Psychology | 2nd year Physiological Psychology | Physiological Psychology links
Medical Image Processing: The Mathematics of Medical Imaging by James A. Green.

[97] Dopamine [Index] levels improved in rats feed blueberries [25a]. Improving dopamine availability was shown to extend rat life span in experiments with Deprenyl [92, Index]. Other than blueberries, supplements increasing levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine include:
___NADH (treats Parkinsonian symptoms),
___St. John's wort (an antidepressive),
___Phenylalanine (essential, but a neurotoxin),
___Mucuna pruriens (contains L-dopa, combats Parkinsonian symptoms, sex enhancer),
___CDP-choline (positive effect on memory in the elderly), and
Medications increasing dopamine levels include:
___Wellbutrin (bupropion),
___Uprima (apomorphine),
___Mirapex (pramipexole),
___Permax (pergolide),
___Dostinex (cabergoline), and
___Requip (ropinirole).
___Piracetam also works.
It is dopamine that produces the sensation of satisfaction. Dopamine has been linked to obesity via an internal satisfaction circuit, as well as to Parkinson's disease. Music: Satisfaction (4) by the Rolling Stones, MP3.
Also see bromocriptine. | Parkinson's Disease & Dopamine from the Substantia Nigra.
Causes of Parkinson's Disease | Univ.Maryland on Parkinson's

[98] Stress-related nervous breakdown links | Nervous Breakdown Treatment
Neurological disorders and treatments | Sex and neurological disorders | Neurological disorders of aging (links)

[99] Ben Best [Index/Ben Best, Images/Ben Best], Mechanisms of Aging. | Articles on Life Extension by Ben Best.
Also see Ben Best's Home Page for further links to useful articles impacting anti-aging medicine
and Ben Best's Articles on Health and Nutrition.

[100] Resveratrol & Wines: [Index] Links/Muscadine Juice | Links/Muscadine Grape Juice
[Links/Muscadine Wines, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
Links/Muscadine Grapes, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books;
| Links/Muscadine Produce.
Muscadine wines were found in one study to include 7 times as much resveratrol as other wines.
Links/The Resveratrol Content of Wines and Juices
Life Enhancement: Resveratrol May Be a Longevity Molecule
Resveratrol: from grapevines to mammalian biology. | Resveratrol Concentration in Muscadine Berries, ect.
Raisins baren of resveratrol unless cured indoors.
Psychology Today on Resveratrol in Wines:"Cornell University researchers found that wines from New York state had the highest resveratrol concentration [Images] compared with wines from other regions. Pinot noir [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] outdid cabernet [Images] and merlot [Images]... Today's news also brought the suggestion that the traditional growing regions for fine wines may not be the regions producing the most salubrious wines. Researchers found that red wines from regions with harsh growing conditions--such as Spain [Images], Chile [Images], Argentina [Images] and Australia [Images] --contain more resveratrol than wines produced where grapes are not highly stressed or dehydrated."
Analysis of samples containing resveratrol: "Analysis of trans-resveratrol is generally carried out by gas chromatography (Jeandet et al., 1995a; Soleas et al., 1997c), HPLC (Jeandet et al., 1997; Juan et al., 1999; Sobolev and Cole, 1999), or capillary electrophoresis (Arce et al., 1998; Berzas Nevado et al., 1999)." from trans-Resveratrol and Grape Disease Resistance. A Dynamical Study by High-Resolution Laser-Based Techniques | Analysis & Quantification of trans-Resveratrol.. | Methods. See also Resveratrol link informatics from The Individualist and Wikipedia on Resveratrol.

[101] Macular Degeneration [Index, Links, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia] Factors such as high homocysteine that correlate to cardiovascular disease also correlate to macular degeneration, so that B-vitamins like Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 that are used in homocysteine shields also protect against macular degeneration. "A growing number of scientists believe that macular degeneration is related to the slow degeneration of blood vessels in the eye, specifically behind the layer behind the retina, known as the choroid, which contains the blood supply to the retina." - Julius Goepp, Halt the Leading Cause of Age-Related Blindness, Life Extension Magazine, December 2009. Therefore factors that defend us against atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries in general) also help defend us against macular degeneration, now seen by many to be a consequence of vascular disease.
Macular degeneration has seemed to be due to the senescence of cells in the retinal epithelium, and may be treated with small molecule telomerase activators such as astragaloside IV or Tricostatin A. "Many researchers and eyecare practitioners believe that zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin and vitamins A, C and E help lower the risk for AMD or slow down the progression of dry AMD (non-neovascular macular degeneration, 85-90% of observed cases). Benefits of high levels of antioxidants and zinc for halting or slowing development of macular degeneration have been widely reported..." Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to protect against macular degeneration. "Meanwhile, consumption of omega-6 fatty acids, prevalent in vegetable oils, was associated with an increased risk of developing AMD." Use of Macugen (pegaptanib sodium injection) to treat wet AMD (neovascular macular degeneration) was FDA-approved in 2004. || Wear protective Sunglasses, use zinc + antioxidants, use zeaxanthin & lutein, found in orange juice and egg yolks. Macular degeneration may be due to the accumulation of lipofuscin in lysosomes leading to tissue lift-off [11s]. Study Demonstrates Essential Role of Zeaxanthin in Eye Health | Zeaxanthin Concentrations in Foods
Lutein & Zeaxanthin pills | Life Extension Super Zeaxanthin & Lutein | Macugen
4 Players Team Up for Macular Health: Lutein, Zeaxanthin, Bilberry, and Taurine
Gene Found To Increase The Risk Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
"Data reported in a study published in the June 2004 issue of the Archives of Opthamology indicates that eating 3 or more servings of fruit per day may lower your risk of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the primary cause of vision loss in older adults, by 36%, compared to persons who consume less than 1.5 servings of fruit daily. " - from The World's Healthiest Foods/Blueberries
See Life Extension magazine's An Eye to the Future article for old-age eye problems including macular degeneration, cataracts, and diabetic retinopathy. I note that carnosine eye drops are available to improve existing cataracts.
C-reactive protein levels (C-reactive protein is an inflammation marker found in obese people) are an early warning sign for Age-related Macular Degeneration.

[102] Height Loss with Age [Index, Age Transformation/New Height] | Risk Factors and Symptoms of Osteoporosis | Osteoporosis: Bone Thief | Growth Hormone Treatment | See Lee-Benner Institute on HGH | Osteoporosis & Dowager's Hump
A low calcium diet with poor nutrition, low body weight, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and excessive alcohol use have been linked to osteoporosis. Treat by taking calcium including milk, yoghurt, cheese, leafy green vegetables such as broccoli and spinach, and fish with bones like sardines and salmon. Aim for 800 mg of calcium per day or more (about 3 glasses of milk per day) and 1000 mg per day or more after menopause.
Note: for osteoporosis-based height loss in men, "Calcium and vitamin D supplements are often recommended along with alendronate, calcitonin or teriparatide."
Links/Amino acid formulas to boost HGH production || Osteoporosis International (Springer)
Vitamin C increases bone density. LifeExtension.

[103] Chronic Diseases of Old Age [Links, Books, LifeExtension; Links/Gerontology, Books; Links/Elder Care] [103b]
See Medical School, Medical Diagnosis, Medical Topics, Mortality Charts, and [75] Leading Causes of Death.
University of Pittsburg: Diseases of Old Age
Google Searches for Old Age Disease Treatments & Relevant Index Links (Under Construction):
See [103b] for the entire version of [103].

[104] Dark Circles under the eyes [Index, Links, Books, LifeExtension] - Sometimes seen in old people, including Pope Benedict XVI. Medicines: Hylexin. According to the Hylexin people, dark circles are caused by oxidation of hemoglobin in the capillary matrix of the peri-orbital eye area, where the capillaries leak blood that begins to oxidize through hemoglobin degradation. Perhaps more vitamin C or Bilberry extract would help strengthen the dark circle capillaries, since tissue-strengthening collagen is typically obtained from a process requiring vitamin C. I note that some folk remedies involve treating the afflicted area with vitamin C-rich lemon juice. VitalEyes by Rejuvenex, formulated to combat dark circles, contains other compounds to increase collagen synthesis. Vitamin C plus vitamin K and the anti-coagulant yarrow root, see Dark Circles Eye Cream from Skin Energizer.. There are alternate theoretical models of what is behind dark circles. I note that the OhioHealth/MayoClinic recommends skin creams containing Vitamin C or Vitamin K, alpha hydroxy acid, and kinetin. See also [54] on anti-aging skin creams and aging skin, and the index entry Index/Skin.

[105] Echinacea - Strengthens immune system, increases life expectancies of experimental mice. (See Biogerontology article Enhancement of natural killer cells and increased survival of aging mice fed daily Echinacea root extract from youth.) See the section on echinacea in Herbs. Also see Links/echinacea and Index/Echinacea.

[106] SpringerLink, Biogerontology, "Analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity in tree species of various life-spans, and with age in the bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva", pp. 101 - 111, Barry E. Flanary and Gunther Kletetschka, Volume 6, Number 2, March 2005. See Index/Bristlecone Pine.

[107] "How Antioxidants Became Mainstream" by Terri Mitchell in Life Extension magazine, August 2005. See also Index/Antioxidants.

[108] Dale Kiefer, "Anti-Cancer Benefits of Shark Liver Oil", Life Extension magazine, August 2005. See also Links/Shark liver oil, Index/Shark Liver Oil.

[109] Old age cognitive decline [Index, Books, LifeExtension] may be treated with Bacopa monniera [Links, Images, Books, LifeExtension, brahmi], phosphatidylcholine (lecithin [most people get 3 to 6 grams a day from eggs, soy, and meats]), lipoic acid [70], and L-carnosine [69]. According to Life Extension magazine, Acetyl L-Carnitine [58] promotes neurite growth, and Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate (Acetyl-L-Carnitine with one molecule of L-Arginine) promotes neurite growth better yet.

[110] Hydergine. [Index, Links/Hydergine, Books, LifeExtension]. According to The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging (James South) hydergine is one of the most effective substances in combating mitochondrial aging in rats. 6-9 mg/day is believed safe for humans.

[111] Glutathione [Index, Books, LifeExtension] - "Glutathione (GSH) plays a key role in protecting mitochondria and mtDNA from oxidative damage. GSH protects against mtDNA-damaging lipid peroxidation in the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the ETC [Electron Transport Chain] is located. GSH (glutathione) also breaks down H2O2, another oxidant normally produced within mitochondria and which damages mtDNA. Unfortunately, "Glutathione oxidation increases with age in mitochondria from liver, kidney, and brain of rats. It is striking that this increase was much higher in mitochondria than in whole cells." And mitochondria are at special risk with regard to GSH, because they lack the ability to synthesize GSH or to rid themselves of oxidized glutathione (GSS). Sastre and colleagues found that GSSG levels doubled in old rats compared to young rats, while GSH levels dropped 40% and hydrogen peroxide generation increased 22%." - from The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging (James South). See also Links/Glutathione [Index] and Glutathione edited by Y Sakamoto, Table of Contents. "The role of GSH [Glutathione] as a reductant is extremely important particularly in the highly oxidizing environment of the erythrocyte [red blood cell]. The sulfhydryl of GSH can be used to reduce peroxides formed during oxygen transport." - from Tyrosine-derived neurotransmitters.. Examine Glutathione supplements [Images]. See this Quality Counts/Glutathione article with links. Staying Young Forever... Life Extension Foundation, 12/99 - "Lipoic acid is the only antioxidant that can boost the level of intracellular glutathione, a cellular antioxidant of tremendous importance. Besides being the body's primary water-soluble antioxidant and a major detoxification agent, glutathione is absolutely essential for the functioning of the immune system".... Vitamin C boosts glutathione levels... from How to Boost Gluthione Levels. See also Glutathione Peroxidase [Books, LifeExtension] and Glutathione S-Transferase [Books, LifeExtension]. "Prostate cancer is characterized by an early and near universal loss of expression of the phase 2 enzyme glutathione S-transferase." - LifeExtension, Abstracts, Sept.2005. "Curcumin (turmeric) has been found to increase expression of glutathione S-transferase." Sulforaphane from broccoli or brocolli sprouts promotes the expression of phase 2 enzymes and glutathione.

[112] Mitochondrial Biogenesis [Index, Books, LifeExtension, LifeExtension/mitochondrial genesis and caloric restriction], Increasing mitochondrial supplies with NO, nitric oxide. | Links/increasing mitrochondrial supplies with NO. "Small amounts of NO stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and boost the supply of oxygen and respiratory substrates to mitochondria. In contrast, high amounts of NO produced by iNOS block mitochondrial respiration, and can be cytotoxic." "Basal nitric oxide (NO) release, such as provided through moderate exercise, seems to be the most potent guardian..." - from Aging and the Endothelium, Experimental Gerontology, vol.39, no.2. I believe that I have seen a reference recently to an article showing that CoQ10 improves the density of mitochondria in mammalian cells. Nitric Oxide can be obtained from arginine via the action of the body's nitric oxide synthases. Furthermore, pomegranate improves NO synthesis, as does genistein. NO produces peroxynitrites that peroxidize lipid membranes to some degree, so the peroxynitrites should probably be neutralized with gamma tocopherol (high-gamma vitamin E).
Resonances: DR. NO, in which James buries Dr.No under a mountain of guano bird dung.

[113] Quercetin [Index/Quercetin, Wikipedia/Quercetin, Books/Quercetin, LifeExtension, Links]. "Foods rich in quercetin include apples, black & green tea, onions (higher concentrations of quercetin occur in the outermost rings[1]), raspberries, red wine, red grapes, citrus fruits, broccoli & other leafy green vegetables, and cherries." - (Wikipedia/Quercetin). "An Apple a Day Could Help Protect Against Brain Cell Damage". See Ray Sehelion on Quercetin, Life Extension Foundation on quercetin, and Longevinex on using quercetin to make resveratrol more bioavailable. Like resveratrol, quercetin is also a sirtuin-activating compound, but does so more weakly than resveratrol. The bioavailability of quercetin improves when dissolved in alchohol, which may help explain the French paradox, according to which red wine improves longevity. However, "in fruits and vegetables, quercetin is bound to sugars that make it absorbable. Water-soluble quercetin [Links] concentrates the key flavonoid benefit of fruit and vegetable consumption into a convenient, absorbable form."

[114] Cotran, Kumar, and Collins, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 6th edition, W.B.Saunders Company, 1999.
Includes photographs prepared by the college of surgeons.

[115] Ivan Damjanov and James Linder, Anderson's Pathology, 10th edition, in 2 volumes.
Includes photographs prepared by the college of surgeons and many microphotographs.

Footnotes Page 2: Chronic Diseases of Old Age

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Be sure to check a PDR (Physician's Desktop Reference) regarding dosage, contraindications, and side effects. See also Wal-Mart's checker for Drugs and Drug Interactions and Google Books Pharmaceutical References. It is best to use quality pharmaceuticals from reputable manufacturers according to the instructions of the manufacturer, and to avoid using mere chemicals that may be under investigation for pharmaceutical applications. Many of the tips and clues in this document could benefit from further testing and research.

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