Recent Australian Mortality. For former Australian Mortality, see Einstein's Greying Rise Time.
Press for Viet Nam 1999-2003 Male and Female Morality Rate Charts.
Press for American Death Rate Chart from Social Security Data.
Press for USA Life Expectancy Charts.
U.S. Death Rate Charts.
μ(t) = μ(midlife)*exp[(t/8)In(2)] for 38 < t < 80.
The actual death rate law is probably better described by
The infant death rate approaches the nearly constant maturity death rate after a couple of years. A more complicated dual exponential form of the Gompertz function has been given.
Note that the growth rate c of a simple exponential process y(t) = A*exp(ct) is obtained from
dy/dt = c*y(t).
According to James R. Carey, Population Study of Longevity and Mortality with
Gompertzian Analysis, in Methods in Aging Research edited by Byung Pal Yu,
Let N(t) be the number of a population initially N(0) surviving at age t,
and let μ(t) be the age-specific mortality rate at age t, such that
N(t) = N(0)exp(-∫0t[μ(T)dT]),
where ∫0t[μ(T)dT] is the integral of μ(T)dT from 0 to t.
Then dN/dt = -μ(t)N(t) displays μ(t) as the mortality rate at time t.
Then the Gompertz mortality rate has the form μ(t) = a*exp(bt),
and the Makeham mortality rate has the form μ(t) = a*exp(bt) + c.
Our graph resembles a plot of the number of Childhood's End grey hairs on a man's head,
and may reflect the population level of senescent stem cells arising from telomere DNA damage. On the average, 50% of persons have 50% grey hair by age 50 [Hisama, Chromosomal Instability and Aging, p.565].
See The Wonderful Lenthening Lifespan
(Increase in Average Lifespan)
U.S. Life Expectancy from Initial Age between 1900 and 1998.
There was an 81% drop in the age-specific probability qx
of dying at age 0 from 1910 to 1960, a 70% decrease at at 40,
but just a 12% drop at age 80. Sewer systems greatly reduced infant
mortality. (Robert Arking, The Biology of Aging, p.27-42.)
Most of the male-female difference in mortality is due to
male smoking, drinking, and fighting. Note that unmarried people
may suffer up to 50% higher mortality rates, not including divorced
or separated people. Seventh Day Adventists lived about 10% longer
than average, due to a careful health program. (Arking, p.340.)
According to Aubrey de Grey, 90% of all deaths in the industrial world are due to aging,
and 2/3 of all deaths worldwide are due to aging. - Life Extension Magazine, September 2011.
Leading Causes of Death in New York State
Press for Causes of Death [Wikipedia/Causes of Death by Rate]
Press for Actual Causes of Death. [Links]
Press for Top Ten Leading Causes of Death in Men over 45, with percentage figures.
Press for Leading Causes of Death by Age in the USA [Links, Images]
Death Rates from Diseases. [Links, Images].
Deaths Traceable to Tooth Abscess [Images, Rameses II (100 wives)].
Deaths Tracable to Traumatic Aortic Rupture [Images] - 18% of car accident deaths.
Physiological Factors in Aging
Press for Chart of Age-Related Pathologies [Links, Images]
Press for Age-Related Decline in DHEA levels.
Press for a Sequence of Aging Images of a Man in Profile. [Age Progession Studies]
Press for the Involution of the Thymus Gland with Aging.
Press for the Decline Kidney Function with Aging.
Press for Telomere Length and Cellular Aging [Images] from Bioscience v12 (2007).
Press for Systems Biology of Human Aging
Stent Implant Survival Chart [Images]
Variation in P16INK4A mRNA with Age
After Liu Y, Sanofff HK, Cho H, Burd CE, Torrice C, Ibrahim JG, Thomas NE, Sharpless NE (2009),
Expression of P16(INK4a) in peripheral blood T-cells is a biomarker of human aging,
Aging Cell 8:439-48. P16INK4a was associated with aging, tobacco use, and physical inactivity.
High levels of p16INK4a make recovery from cellular senescence difficult, although retinol from
carrots inhibits p16INK4a expression, and P16INK4a is a ubiquitinated protein consumed by proteasomes.
Resveratrol also limits P16INK4A expression, as does ID-1 transcription factor from nerve growth factor.
Exercise can bring P16INK4A expression down by 2 binary orders of magnitude (factor of 4).
Age in Years
Fluorescence of AGEs due to glycation in human tissue VS. Age in years. (Photo from text.)
After Annette T. Lee and Anthony Cerami (2006), The Role of Glycation in Aging [PDF], NY Acad Sci, 17 DEC 2006.
Glycation (5) from reducing sugars such as glucose damages proteins and DNA,
leading to higher ROS levels, inflammation, activation of NF-kB, and sometimes Alzheimer's Disease.
Antiglycation Agents include benfotiamine, carnosine, vitamin B1, vitamin C, and green tea.
Damage from glycation and AGEs (5) can often be prevented or reversed
with acetyl L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, and CoQ10.
Dementia as a function of Age (reference article, Images/Dementia Charts).
See Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Cognitive Decline, Leukoaraiosis,
Hypoperfusion, Brain Deterioration, Magnesium L-Threonate, Neurodegenerative Disorders.
In one 2003 study, patients over 60 years old with shorter telomeres in blood DNA had poorer survival than patients with longer telomeres, attributable in part to a 3·18-fold higher mortality rate from heart disease and an 8·54-fold higher mortality rate from infectious disease. (Richard M. Cawthon, Ken R. Smith, Elizabeth O'Brien, Anna Sivatchenko, Richard A. Kerber, 2003). Other studies have pictured more precisely how mortality varies with telomere length in blood leukocytes. See LifeXLabs for leukocyte and granulocyte curves, and Telomere Length Variation with Age (in dermal fibroblasts, in blood leukocytes, in blood granulocytes). See also Mortality Variation with Telomere Length.
After Willeit P, Willeit J, Mayr A, et al. (2010),
Telomere length and risk of incident cancer and cancer mortality, JAMA 2010;304(1):69-75.
Lymphocyte Telomere Length in kilobase pairs as a Function of Age.
Average human telomere length is about 7 Kbp at 40 and 6 Kbp at 80.
The spread of telomere widths around the average value is > 6.5 - 4.0, so that
replicative senescence at about 4Kbp length is observed more and more over 50.
Senescent dermal fibroblasts attack the extracellular matrix, producing wrinkles then.
Mortality by Gender
Causes of Cancer
Press for Alternative Causes of Cancer Pie Chart with stated percentages. [Links, Images]
Press for Male Cancer Death Rates History from 1930. [Links, Images]
Leading Causes of Cancer Death in Women by Cancer Type. [Links, Images]
Cancer Epidemiology [Links, Images] | Index/Cancer | Index/Carcinogens
Cancers as a function of Age "Increased age is the leading cause of cancer."
Cancer Research [Links/Cancer Research, Links/Cancer, Cancer Survival Charts; Bone Cancer Charts].
See the index entries on anticancer diet, anticarcinogens, cancer, and bone cancer.
Leading Causes of Death in the United States.
Wikipedia - Maximum Life Span - of People and Animals [Images, Images/Animals]
Senescence.Info/Aging: Definition with further mortality charts.
Notes sinusitis (sinus infection) as a cause of death that does not escalate with age.
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