Anti-Aging Medicine: Supplemental Notes 2 and Links

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Highlight Links
[57s] Pergolide mesylate was shown to be useful in preserving the nigrostriatal system, but may cause drowsiness.
[58s] Flexibility losses in chromatin fibers with age and underlying causes.
[59s] Notes on aging brains, from Principles of Neural Aging ed. Dani, Hori, and Walter, 1997.
[60s] Aging from the Biology Pages of Kimball on Ultranet.
[61s] Astaxanthin, a strong anti-oxidant. Lycopene from cooked tomato paste may be better.
[62s] Ideal Dosages of Universal Supplements according to Kurzweil and Grossman, with supplemental links.
[62sb] Telomere Remodeling with Cyclic Telomerase Activation.
[63s] Ashwagandha: reduces cortisol up to 26%, lowers blood sugar, increases superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase.
[64s] Wheat sprouts, wheat grass, and sprout sources of bio-available SOD.
[65s] Huperzine-A as a SOD-booster.
[66s] High-SOD wheat grass treatment for cancer. Cancer cells are usually deficient in SOD.
[67s] C-reactive protein biomarker of inflammation level: low calories and exercise lower C-reactive protein levels.
[68s] NFκB & inhibitors - Chronic NFκB inflammation causes cancer, atherosclerosis, arthritis, and dementia.
[69s] Methylation, Methionine, Homocysteine Levels, and Aging, after Kurzweil and Grossman.
[70s] Chronic Inflammation and Aging after Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman.
[71s] Nuclear Transfer from Telomere-Extended Cells in Culture
[72s] Alkalinizing Drinks
[73s] Genomics Testing, Cryopreservation, Mercury detoxification, and exotic topics from Fantastic Voyage.

[57s] Pergolide mesylate (Links/Pergolide mesylate) was shown to be useful in preserving the nigrostriatal system in rats. However, this ergot-derived drug may cause drowsiness. Principles of Neural Aging, Chapter 4, "General Theories of Aging: Unification and Synthesis" by Joseph L. Graves Jr.

[58s] Studies suggest a loss of conformational flexibility of chromatin fibers with age. In old brains the activities of protein kinase triphosphates and adenosine triphosphates are decreased, which affects phosphorylation, a mechanism for inducing changes in molecular configuration. The temperature needed to separate 2 DNA strands increases in aging brain. This was believed to be due to increased binding of proteins to DNA. This could also be due to an increased number of cross-links due to disulphide bonds observed in other tissues. Increased binding of proteins to DNA could be caused by the observed decrease in the phosphorylation of histones (Kango, 1980). A decline in non-histone chromosomal proteins was also reported, possibly contributing to lack of chromatin flexibility. Note that in human neurons spacing between nucleosomes increases with age, although neuroglial chromatin showed no such change. On the other hand, rat brain chromatin shows increasing condensation with age.
Note that overall
reduction in methylation of DNA has been found with aging, and application of 5-azacytidine, a demethylation inducer, causes a decrease in DNA methylation and reduces the life span of cultured cells. (SAMe is believed to promote healthy DNA methylation, or work against unhealthy DNA demethylation.) Principles of Neural Aging, chap.5, "Structural Expression of Gene Regulation: Chromatin Reorganization" by Alvaro Macieira Coelho, ibed. Age-related lack of expression of certain genes seems to be common.

[59s] Notes from Principles of Neural Aging ed. Dani, Hori, and Walter, 1997:
Abnormal cytoskeletal proteins accumulate in aging neurons, ect., and when maintenance capacity is exceeded, the senescent phenotype appears. Neuron shrinkage is observed due to an imbalance between protein degradation by proteolysis and protein synthesis. (Due to protein synthesis going way down in the presence of somewhat degraded proteolysis.) Up to 20% of synapses are lost. Synapse loss may be prevented by imposing an enriched environment. The 16.5 billion neurons of the brain (10-20 billion is the normal range) are not lost except in the nucleus basalis of Meynert [Images], the main source of brain cholinergic fibers, and in the locus caeruleus [Images], the main source of brain noradrenergic fibers. By the 10th decade, 35-40% of the original complement has been lost. Smaller female brains have the same number of neurons and higher neuron density. Capacity to synthesize proteins for physiological integrity is reduced, and accumulation of lipofuscin is the primary feature, with lipopigment material accumulated in lysosomes as peroxidized lipids interacting with other molecules via glycation to form cross-links between proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Neuritic Plaques (NP) and Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFP) are hallmarks of structural protein precipitation in neuronal aging and AD, being most commonly seen in larger cells, with exponentially increasing incidence with neuron size and age. NP and NFP seem to be different phases of the same process, starting with NP, a cytoskeletal degeneration of the neurons. Incidence of NP and NFP peaks in the 8th decade, when brain atrophy becomes important. Increased brain atrophy correlates to increased Neuritic Plaques (NP) and Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFP). (Exercise your brain!) Neuritic Plaques (NP) and Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFP) may sometimes vanish completely. Neuritic Plaque formation starts with neurite degeneration. (You might try the Life Extension Foundation's Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate, which promotes neurite growth, to counteract this, perhaps with vinpocetine or hydergine [10] for improved circulation and oxygenation, along with an enriched environment providing plenty of stimulation. Ashwagandha [63s] inhibits acetylcholinesterase and regenerates neural tissue, and Huperzine A [65s], which uses a similar mechanism, may also be useful.) The number of synapses declines as neurons age, and the number of neurites is reduced in the early progress of neurite degeneration. (Age-related failure of proteolysis may be key, suggesting a diet of cold water fish to replace arachidonic acid, which can eventually form reaction products gumming up proteasomes. [2s]) Another sign of neuron degeneration is the appearance of corpora amylacea forming in astrocytes, starting in the 3rd decade, caused by excess glucose. Lafora bodies are also found intra-axonally, most commonly in neurodegenerative diseases. Total RNA is reduced. Pigmentation is lost in the cells of the substantia nigra, with initially 7 pigmented cells for each unpigmented one, and finally just 2 pigmented cells per unpigmented cell. (This might be curable with Deprenyl, or possibly with pergolide mesylate, which preserves the nigrostriatial system in rats.) From Chap.19, "Histological Markers of Neuronal Aging" by Sergio U. Dani, and Chapter 18 "The Aging Human Cerebral Cortex: Morphometry of Areal Differences and their Functional Meaning" by Herbert Haug.

Between 21 and 77, nerve impulse velocity declines from 57 m/sec to 48 m/sec, and the amplitude of sensory potentials drops from 43 to 21 microvolts, 51%. A decline of 1 m/sec per decade is seen between 20 and 55 years of age, and 3 m/sec per decade after 55. Propagation velocity degradation is due to changes in the myelin sheath, and unmyelinated nerves are spared. From Chapter 23, "Changes in the Peripheral Nervous System" by Thierry Maisonobe and Jean-Jacques Hauw. See also Google links on Myelin sheath support. Typical ingredients in Myelin sheath support preparations include:
Yogaraj Guggul Gum Resin,
European Elderberry,
Asian Ginseng Root,
Tienchi Ginseng Root,
Hawthorn Berry Extract,
Shilajit Mineral Resin,
Bromelain (from pineapple) [36s]p,
Amla Fruit Extract,
Indian Olibanum Gum Resin,
Licorice Root Extract,
Ashwagandha [63s] Root Extract,
Chinese Salvia Root,
Turmeric Root Extract (curcumin) [40s],
Hericum Erinaceus Mycelium,
Astragalus Root Extract,
Bacopa Plant Extract,
Ginger Root,
Long Pepper Fruit,
Boron Chelate, and
Black Pepper Fruit Extract.
See also volume loss in aging brain in Selective Atrophy of Left Hemisphere and Frontal Lobe of the Brain in Old Men.

Late passage senescent cells have a lowered rate of protein synthesis. A random loss of isoaccepting tRNAs (of more than 60 types) will progressively restrict the readability of codons, resulting in inefficiency and inaccuracy of protein synthesis. tRNA synthetases were also implicated. (Perhaps these compounds can be taken as supplements.) Small genes display more codon usage bias than larger ones, thus small gene products may be more damaged by tRNA shortages. According to Orgel (1963), translation error catastrophe results in cell senescence because of positive feedback.
The level of auto-antibodies increases with age in man, but autoimmune pathology is not thought to be the primary cause of aging in man.
Free radicals and ROS led to the evolution of antioxidant defenses including the enzymes SOD [52], catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, with repair systems including proteasomes and lysosomes preventing the accumulation of oxidatively damaged molecules. Non-enzymatic antioxidants include vitamin E and glutathione. The damaging effects of oxygen free radicals on nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids may be caused by increased production of oxidatively damaged macromolecules produced by age-related decrease of of protective enzymes such as SOD and catalase. Longevity is proportional to the SOD generation rate, and caloric restriction extends maximum life span by lowering oxidative stress and by lowering glycation of proteins by sugars.
(Note that supplements that improve SOD levels should improve longevity, such as Ashwagandha, Huperzine A, GlySODin, and SODzyme.) Reduced transcription of proteins is implicated in aging, and orthine decarboxylase mRNA translation is inefficient, resulting in protein that is rapidly degraded. (Perhaps orthine supplements should be taken. See orthine decarboxylase in aging) Thymidine kinase production is also reduced. Protein modifications accumulating with age include
1) Non-enzymatic glycosylation,
2) Cross-linking,
3) Amino acid side-chain mods due to reactive oxygen radicals,
4) Spontaneous deamidation of glutamine and asparagine residues,
5) Proteolytic clips in peptide backbone, and
6) Conformational alterations without covalent changes.

Damage agents include:
a) Thermal denaturation,
b) hydrolysis,
c) free radicals,
d) glycation,
e) cross-linkage.
Not all proteins become aberrant with age.
(See proteins that do not become aberrant with age.)
A decline in oxydative phosphorylation with age is due to oxidative damage of mitochondria and mtDNA contributing to Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and Huntington diseases.

Chronic hypoxia (oxygen deficient tissues) may be an important feature in the occurrence of mtDNA deletions associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Kearns-Sayre syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson disease. Note that there is 4.3 times as much mtDNA per organelle in the brain than in other bodily organs. (Probably vinpoctine or hydergine would help alleviate the problem by oxygenating the tissues involved.) Hypoxia leads to increased lactic acid production and lowered brain pH, leading to iron release. Regions rich in iron deposition and those with reduced glucose metabolism seem to be the most affected. (Iron catalyzes the peroxidation of lipids via the Fenton reactions, and can be combated with iron-ligating curcumin in turmeric root. Curcumin also chelates copper, which helps cancer to spread. Quercetin in apples and onions also chelates iron and copper.) Senile plaque formation goes up when a 75% obstruction of a coronary artery producing hypoxia is observed. Women with a history of myocardial infarction had a 5 times increase in the incidence of dementia. (See micro-infarct dementias and Index/Dementia.) High cholesterol diets to rabbits produced hypoxia downstream from arterial occlusions and β-amyloid immunoreactivity in their brain cells. mtDNA deletions increased 8 to 2200-fold in heart tissue from individuals suffering from ischemic heart disease.
The putamen has high levels of dopaminergic neurons generating oxygen radicals via monoamine oxydase, resulting in a high level of mtDNA4977 deletions. High iron levels in the putamen may be involved. Mutant mtDNA has been observed 100-fold in aging rats. A 120 kilodalton nucDNA-binding protein was induced by hypoxia. Hypoxia can lead to mitochondria catastrophe by increasing ROS generation. From Chapter 6, "Deletions of the Mitochondrial Genome and Neurodegenerate Diseases" by Steve Zullo and Carl R. Merril.

Daily protein intake is 60-70 grams of protein, but the daily protein synthesis is 280-320 grams, a factor of about 5! Constituent proteins are constantly being degraded and the amino acids re-used, so maintenance of the proteolytic system is highly important. The turnover rates of molecular species are:
nucDNA < myelin lipids < histone proteins < mtDNA < microsomal lipids < RNAs & proteins.
There are over 10 billion protein molecules per cell, with perhaps as few as 1000 to 100,000 copies of a rare protein per cell. Modifications to these proteins may occur through:
a) phosphorylation,
b) oxidation,
c) glycation,
d) deamidation,
e) racemization,
f) isomerization,
g) methylation, and
h) ADP-ribosylation.
The extent of protein oxidation during aging is determined by measuring the carbonyl content of protein derivatives from proline, arginine, or lysine. Glycation of proteins involves glucose reacting with free amino groups of proteins to form an Amidori product ketoamine. Lens crystallins, collagen, and basement membrane proteins are susceptible. Glycated proteins form cross-links. Deamidation converts neutral amide groups to acidic groups, resulting in age-related changes in protein conformation, catalytic activity, heat stability, and affinity for substrate. Spontaneous prolyl cis-trans isomerization causes age-related decline of certain enzymes.
The maximum life span of 13 species is directly correlated to the activity of poly+(ADP-ribose)+polymerase (PARP) in mononuclear leukocytes. ADP-ribosylation of proteins is involved in chromatin maintenance, DNA repair, protein synthesis, cell differentiation, and cell transformation. "Normal cells replicate by dividing DNA into two strands and copying each strand. Before replication, damage in the DNA is usually repaired using a protein called PARP. If PARP is absent or inhibited then the cells use a second mechanism called recombination to fix the damage and continue to replicate." See Links/PARP, Books/PARP, and Links/PARP and life extension with the article L-Selegiline (Deprenyl) Potentiates the Cellular Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Response to Ionizing Radiation.
Note: a globular protein of > 60,000 daltons is scarcely able to enter the nucleus though the nuclear pore, a protein of about 17,000 daltons equilibrates in < 2 min, and a protein of 44,000 daltons takes 30 minutes to equilibrate. - From Chapter 7, "Molecular Turnover and Aging" by Sergio U. Dani. I note that the 123 kilodalton molecule telomerase probably goes through the nuclear pore as two small chunks associated with the hTERC RNA template part of telomerase and the hTERT protein for the catalytic part of the enzyme.

[60s] Aging from the Biology Pages of Kimball on Ultranet. An interesting alternative treatment with many supporting links reminiscent of Ben Best's Mechanisms of Aging.

[61s] Astaxanthin, C40H52O4, [Links/Astraxanthin] a strong antioxidant and xanophyll group carotenoid found in the arctic marine microalgae Haemateococcus pluvialis, and makes its way up the food chain into salmon, lobster, rainbow trout, red caviar, shrimp, crawfish, and crab, and with great abundance in Alaskan sockeye salmon. It may also be obtained "by fermentation of the pink yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous or extraction of the pigment from by-products of crustacea such as the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba)". The "astaxanthin" C40H52O4 molecule is phallus-shaped. It "exhibits strong free radical scavenging activity and protects against lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage of LDL-cholesterol, cell membranes, cells, and tissues". Only lycopene and gamma-carotine exhibit a stronger singlet oxygen quenching rate. Perhaps tomatoes will sometimes provide better anti-oxidant protection than astaxanthin. However, the effects of beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, astaxanthin, or alpha-tocopherol on peroxyl radical initiated peroxidation of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine liposomes (Lim et al. 1992) produced the result that the order of delaying PC-OOH formation was: astaxanthin > zeaxanthin > canthaxanthin > beta-carotene. However, in a similar experiment alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), delayed PC-OOH formation at an even greater rate. In a separate experiment, "astaxanthin was found to be superior to alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in protecting against paraquat-induced oxidative stress". Astaxanthin health benefits are numerous, including application to macular degeneration, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cholesterol disease (ameliorates the effects of LDL, the "bad" cholesterol), stroke (repairing damage caused by lack of oxygen), and cancer [Index/Cancer]. Some journals report "amazing results". Also see the Astaxanthin notes of Dr. Ray Sahelian, Astaxantin References, and astaxanthin references from the NNFA. Astaxanthin was described this month in Life Extension magazine in an article by Dr. Nicholas V. Perricone, "The Perricone Weight Loss Program". Astaxanthin-rich carotenoid oleoresin may be extracted from the algae Haematococcus pluvialis using a super critical carbon dioxide extraction technique. The algae can be farmed best where light is intensive. Also, tobacco has been genetically modified to produce antaxanthin, and efficient antaxanthin synthesis procedures are being developed.

[62s] Ideal Dosages of Universal Supplements according to Kurzweil and Grossman, with additional Useful Supplements, Exercise, and Diet. From Fantastic Voyage (Grossman Site), as modified by my footnotes and references. See the Life Extension Magazine article, Futurist Ray Kurzweil: On Building Bridges to Immortality, which includes the following table with separate recommendations for men and women. Also see my section on An Optimum Anti-Aging Program and Program 2011 Medicines and Dosages.
[Books/Drug Dosages, Links/Drug Dosages, Wikipedia/Tocicology, Toxicity].
Also see Telomere Remodeling with Cyclic Telomerase Activation.
Nutrient | US RDA | Optimum Amount
Vitamin A (IU) | 3330 (men) | 5000 || Wikipedia | LifeExtension/Vitamin_A | Books/Vitamin_A
Vitamin D (IU) | 200-600 | 600-2000 || Wikipedia | LifeExtension/Vitamin_D | Books/Vitamin_D [Index]
Vitamin E (IU) | 22-33 | 400-800 || Wikipedia | LifeExtension/Vitamin_E | Books/Vitamin_E [Index]
Note: Gamma tocopherol form of vitamin E, 200-600 mg/day, reduces peroxynitrite radicals alpha tocopherol can't handle. Preferred form of vitamin E. [LifeExtension/gamma tocopherol, Books, Links].
"Alpha-tocotrienol has been shown to be 40 - 60 times more potent than alpha-tocopherol as an antioxidant in the prevention of lipid peroxidation." [Wikipedia/tocotrienols, LifeExtension, Links, Books]
Vitamin K (mcg) | 120 (men) | 90-120 || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Index]
Note: Vitamin K2 [LifeExtension, Wikipedia, Links, Books, Index].
B1 (thiamine)(mg) | 1.2 (men) | 10-200. || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Index] L.E. mag: B1 opposes glycation & glucose toxicity.
B2 (riboflavin)(mg) | 1.3 (men) | 10-100 || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Index]
B3 (niacin)(mg) | 16 (men) | 20-100 || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Index] [6s], [10s].
B6 (pyroxine)(mg) | 1.3-1.7 (Men) | 50-100 || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Index]
B12 (cobalamin)(mcg) | 2.4 | 10-25 || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Index]
Folic acid (mcg) | 400 | 400-800. || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books] Large dose of folic acid reduces homocysteine levels.
Vitamin C (mg) | 90 (men) | 500-2000. Big dose of C required to use N-acetyl-cysteine for mercury detox. [27-31], [LifeExtension, Books, Index].
Calcium (mg) | 1000-1200 | 1000-1500 || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Index]
Magnesium (mg) | 420 (men) | 400-600 || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Index]
Iron (mg) | 8 (men) | 0. A big dose of Iron catalyzes lipid-membrane-destructive Fenton reactions. [LifeExtension, Books, Index].
Zinc (mg) | 15 (men) | 15-30 || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Index]
Copper (mg) | 0.9 | 0.5-4. Copper helps cancer to spread, is chelated by curcumin. [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, [Index/Metal Ions]
Selenium (mcg) | 55 | 100-250. Selenium is a valuable antioxidant. || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books]
Manganese (mg) | 2.3 (men) | 2-5 || [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books]
Chromium (mcg) | 30-35 (men) | 120-200. [LifeExtension, Wikipedia, Books] Insulin regulator, chromium picolinate ups mouse lifespan 15%.
Omega-3 fatty acids (mg) | 1600 (men) | EPA:1000-3000, DHA:700-2000. EPA alone raises triglycerides.

Supernutrients - Dosages

Coenzyme Q | 30-100 mg twice a day || Wikipedia | LifeExtension/Coenzyme Q | Books/Coenzyme Q, super bioavailable ubiquinol CoQ10 preferred. [59], [16s].
Grape Seed Extract | 50-100 mg twice a day || Wikipedia | LifeExtension/GSE | Books/GSE [Index] [36]
Lipoic Acid | 50-100 mg twice a day || Wikipedia | LifeExtension/Lipoic Acid | Books/Lipoic Acid [Index] [70]
Carnosine | 250-500 mg twice a day || Wikipedia | | LifeExtension/Carnosine | Books/Carnosine [Index] [69], [2s], [9s].
Resveratrol | 200 mg twice a day || Wikipedia | | LifeExtension/Resveratrol | Books/Resveratrol [100], [Index] [14s].

Specific Supplements

Lutein for eye health - 6 mg [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index].
Indole-3 Carbinol for breast, prostate health - 200 mg. Reduces conversion of testosterone to estrogen. || Wikipedia
Lycopene for prostate health - 10-30 mg [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index]
Saw Palmetto for prostate health - 320 mg [Wikipedia, LifeExtension, Books, Links]
Garlic Extract for heart, blood pressure - 1600 mg [ Wikipedia, Books, Index]
Arginine for heart, blood pressure - 6000-9000 mg [Wikipedia, Books, Index], [21s]. Thymic recovery < $10.00 per month.
Vinpocetin for memory support - 10-20 mg [Wikipedia, Books, Index]

Other Supplements mentioned in Kurzweil and Grossman

Curcumin 200 mg/day turmeric, with piperine or black pepper, chelates iron and copper, and a COX-2 inhibitor. [Wikipedia/Curcumin, LifeExtension/Curcumin, Books, Index].
Cross-Reference List of Anti-Aging Medicines | International Anti-Aging Systems Medicine Cross-Reference

Additional Useful Supplements
Melatonin - 3 mg of melatonin 1 hour before bedtime - [1], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia]
DHEA - 100 mg/day. Opposes cortisol, increases IGF-1. (2), [18s], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
Echinacea - 100 mg/day - Immune system booster. [105], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
Shark Liver Oil - Immune system booster, anticancer, 30-day application. [108], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wiki].
Deprenyl (Selegiline)- Dopamine re-uptake inhibitor for iron chelation, ect. [11s], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wiki].
Genistein - Phytoestrogen, anticancer, found in soy. [20s], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Wikipedia].
Daidzein - Phytoestrogen, anticancer, found in soy. [20s], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Wikipedia].
Arginine - 3 gr/day may restore thymic hormone levels. Used with alpha lipoic acid to improve neurite growth. [21s], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
SAMe - for methylation enhancement, reduces homocysteine. [25s], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
TMG - Trimethylglycine, for methylation, reduces homocysteine. [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Wikipedia].
Sesame Lignans - improves gamma tocopherol levels, increases mitochondrial activity. [26s], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
DHA - Brain food from fish oil. [30s], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
SODzyme - Improves SOD levels. [48s], [49s], [52], [LifeExtension, Links, Index/SODzyme].
GliSODin - Improves SOD levels. [48s], [49s], [52], [LifeExtension, Links, Books].
Huperzine A - Improves SOD levels. [48s], [49s], [52], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
Ashwagandha - Improves endogenous antioxidant levels, including SOD. [48s], [49s], [52], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
Hydergine - Vasodilator. [110], [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
Zeaxanthin - [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index Wikipedia] with Lutein and Mesozeaxanthin [LifeExtension] useful for preventing macular degeneration. [101].
Ginger - Useful for COX-2 and NFκB inhibition. NFκB is inhibited by ibuprofin, N-acetylcysteine, lipoic acid, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids EPA & DHA, soy isoflavones, curcumin, licorice root extracts, capsaicin, oil of cloves, ginger extracts, ursolic acid from basil and rosemary extracts, garlic, pomegranate fruit extract, SAMe, and resveratrol. [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Ginger, Wikipedia].
Pomegranate - A powerful antioxidant inhibiting to atherosclerosis. [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].
Bilberry - Strengthens veinous system walls, improves vision with anthocyanidins. [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Index, Wikipedia].

Telomere Remodeling with Cyclic Telomerase Activation (Green, YouTube/First Flight Attempts, TA Sciences, Geron, Telomolecular) (7) See Age Transformation for results and tables of model numbers. Run telomerase activation as a square wave with a cycle period of a month, using 2 weeks of telomerase activation followed by 2 weeks of anticancer telomerase inhibition. Avoiding high polyphenol foods during the first 2 weeks helps separate telomerase activation phase from the telomerase inhibition phase to implement a push-pull telomere elongation engine approach to life extension propulsion. Now we can catch a ride on a monthly telomerase activation cycle and attempt to ride it into eternity like a new pet hitched to the moon for a perpetual lifetime.

(1) Two weeks using telomerase activation with astragalus root powder ( < 33 grams/day), or astragalus root extract (< 11 grams/day), astragalosides, other telomerase activators, with TRF1 t-loop closure protein stripping via tankyrase 1 phosphorylation with insulin expressed via Fenugreek and/or Gymnema Sylvestre to open telomere t-loops for access by the telomerase holoenzyme. Simultaneously we downregulate P16INK4a (which can make recovery from senescence irrecoverable) with Id-1 helix-loop-helix transcription factor obtainable by stimultion with nerve growth factor obtained from acetyl-L-carnitine, PQQ, huperzine A, carnosic acid, rosemary extract, or other nerve growth factor boosters. I may also use colostrum skin cream or a slurry of colostrum in water on my skin for transdermal whole-body application of colostrum, which contains growth factors that lengthen dermal fibroblast telomeres, in addition to TGF-beta that reconstructs collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix. (I might precede this long-range telomere-lengthening treatment featuring colostrum with hyaluronic acid in water or "hyaluronic acid serum" applied to the skin as a temporary wrinkle remover.) In addition, I may rub astragalus root extract into my scalp and gums. Black cohosh, perhaps the most inexpensive telomerase activator, may also be used. Black cohosh causes no estrogenic side effects in exercising males at 4 caps/day in standard formulations. Exercise promotes 12 different endogenous telomerase activators such as HGH that may be further boosted by supplements such as alpha-GPC and arginine.

(2a) Then we go two weeks using telomerase inhibitors [81s/TI] not used during the first two weeks.
(2b) By March 2014 another possibility is to use anticancer telomerase activators during this phase for an anticancer screen while continuing to promote telomerase activity.
(2c) A two-week telomerase activator phase followed by a 10-day anticancer telomerase activator phase, followed by a 4-day anticancer telomerase inhibitor phase including antiviral garlic may be adequate for filtering out glioblastoma-associated cytomegalovirus and other viral or bacterial threats. Probiotic yoguts and cheeses may be taken afterwards to restore helpful vitamin K2 producing gut bacteria.
This procedure (2a) is expected to produce telomere elongations of less than 38 base pairs per month, that is, less than 456 base pairs/year, while (2b) might produce twice this, and more than (2c).
I note that RevGenetics now recommends a two-week cycle for telomerase activation, alternating a telomerase activator like Astral Fruit C (cycloastragenol) or Astral Fruit (astragaloside IV) one week with life-extending telomerease inhibitors including resveratrol, quercetin and other supplements the next week.
About 50-200 telomere base pairs are typically lost per cell division, although antioxidants may reduce the loss rate. Humans have about 50 cell divisions available from the embryonic stage of development, so this procedure may outdistance the aging process, although treatment should continue for years. TA Sciences did as well as the maximum here in blood granulocytes, 230 base pairs during each 3-month telomerase-on pulse in the Patton protocol using TA-41, which was an astragalus extract. This corresponds to a rejuvenation rate of about 9 years backwards in time per year, or 0.75 years/month.

2 bottles/month,
5 droppers/day =
14-day supply.

1-Month Supply
for Cyclic Activation
of Telomerase

3 bottles/month,
6 capsules/day =
15-day supply.

Both together
amount to about

(1) Telomerease Activation Phase NOW Astragalus Root powder may be used at up to 33 grams/day (66 caps x 500 mg/cap, in divided doses throughout the day, costing about $60.00/2_weeks). GAIA Herbs Extra Strength Astragalaus Extract, (formerly available) 77 drops/5 mg of astragalosides, at least 5 mg/day, or regular GAIA Astragalaus extract, 150 drops/5 mg of astrogalosides, at least 5 mg/day, or Terraternal cycloastragenol at 25 mg/day, or Terraternal Astragaloside IV at 100 mg/day or RevGenetics Astral Fruit NF, at least 2 capsules/day (for > 5 mg Cycloastragenol with supplemental Purslane extract, Haritaki, and Astragalus Extract). Perhaps Iron Dragon cycloastragenol is effective at 10 mg/day applied as a topical application to the skin. Studies of the relative effectiveness of astragalus formulations by the VIDA Institute suggest that astragalus root powder ( < 33 g/day) or astragalus root extract (< 11 g/day) are more effective than astragaloside IV (100 mg/day), cycloastragenol (25 mg/day), or TA-65 (25 mg/day) at increasing average telomere length in cells and probably also at reducing the number of short telomeres. This is consistent with other recently (2012) published observations, reports, and our measurements. GAIA made other astragaloside-specific astragalus extracts that were used, including their standard Astragalus Extract and astragalus extract in glycerin. Available astragalus extract pills typically feature 1 mg astragalosides per 250 mg of extract. Since GAIA Herbs changed their formula to something weaker early in 2009, I earlier substituted 6 x 200 mg/day Solaray Astragalus Root Extract (1200 mg/day) in order to approach 5 mg/day astragalosides during a 15-day turn on period followed by 15 days off. Solaray Astragalus Root Extract at this dose satisfies my toxicology checks, although it is more than Solaray recommends. The lower dose is suitable for activating Interleukin 2 in connection with preventing the common cold, but I suspect it is unsuitable for anti-aging telomerase activation at 200 mg/day. Another alternative uses Herbal Remedies Astragalus 1.25 mg astragalosides per 250 mg cap. Via Nature's Way; Astragalus Extract ( Standardized 0.5% Astragalosides ), Nature's Way - 60 VCapsules, Astragalus, dried extract 250mg (root) 0.5% astragalosides, with Astragalus (root) 250mg. 4 capsules yield 5 mg astragalosides. I have previously tried using 6 x 200 mg capsules of Solaray Astragalus Extract per day, taken with 5 droppers of Herb Pharm Astragalus Extract in a glass of water and 4-8 x 250 mg capsules of Natural Balance Chitosan to improve bioavailability. It may be useful to take the histone deaceylase inhibitor (HDAC inhibitor) sodium butyrate [Links, Images, Papers, Books, Wikipedia] during the first 15 days to facilitate transcription of hTERT and hTR.
Press for Longevity Change Log notice of re-introduction of GAIA Herbs astragalus extract in glycerin at 1 mg astragalosides per 30 drops.
GAIA Herbs Astragalus Extract in Glycerin,
30 drops per 1 mg of astragalosides.

For use on the scalp or skin or to replace
Herb Pharm Astragalus Extract.

In 2010, RevGenetics Astral Fruit NF and
Terraternal Astragaloside IV became available
about the same time as TA Sciences TA-65.
Now we can also obtain cycloastragenol from
Iron Dragon (10 mg/dose), Biologix Peptide (10 mg),
and as Terraternal Cycloastragenol at 25 mg/cap.
Also consider Maximum Telomere Support
Astragaloside IV from Medicinal Nutraceutics.
These are stronger telomerase activators.
Cycloastragenol is the most bioavailable.

I am also considering using Naringin, which extends the half-life of circulating drugs, to increase the time that telomerase activators are available. Since May 2010, I have added 6 x 400 mg capsules of ordinary Solaray Astragalus Membranaceus Root per day, since astragalus root is known to improve astragaloside bioavailability. Recently I take all astragalosides in the evening, taking 6 sprays of Now Foods IGF-1 liposomal spray in the morning and afternoon during the two weeks of telomerase activation [Notes] prior to my two weeks of telomerase inhibition. I decided to experiment with IGF-1 liposomal spray in May 2010 to accelerate telomere growth and rejuvenation. I recently also attempt to put GAIA Herbs Astragalus Extract in glycerin on my scalp, if supplies permit, to rejuvenate hair follicles, as topical astragaloside applications have been observed to work effectively in the long run in restoration of hair that has been lost and in the rejuvenation of hair melanocytes to restore hair color. I seem to see a rejuvenation rate of approximately B = - 5.2 years per year with this approach. I took this with vitamin D, about like Medical Nutraceutics recommends for its Maximum Telomere Support astragaloside IV plus vitamin D approach, but decided to drop it when it looked like Vitamin D might be a telomerase inhibitor. Recently Vince Giuliano pointed out that resveratrol seems to be a telomerase activator for normal cells and a telomerase inhibitor for cancer cells (Ref), so that perhaps it will be useful to take resveratrol all of the time. However, resveratrol is involved in gene silencing by activating SIRT1, acting like a histone deacetylase to inhibit transcription, so I will be using resveratrol conservatively as a telomerase inhibitor for the time being as if it inhibited hTERT. I have also discovered that high-polyphenol diets are associated with telomerase inhibitors created by digestive degradation of polyphenols, so that I am recommending using a low polyphenol diet for 15 days while trying to activate telomerase, then using a high polyphenol diet for the next 15 days of telomerase inhibition in connection with this cyclic program of treatment.
(1.b) Telomerase Access Refinements The telomere t-loop may be opened to make it accessible to telomerase by phosphorylating tankyrase 1 with insulin using insulin-boosters such as Gymnema Sylvestre, Fenugreek Extract, Fenugreek seeds, or 4-hydroxyisoleucine. This may be amplified somewhat in the presence of dextrose. Tankyrase 1 levels may also be boosted with Niacinamide (Nicotinamide, a form of Vitamin B3). Tankyrase 1 opens the telomere t-loop via telomeric PARP activity that strips the telomere of the telomere closure protein TRF1. Tankyrase 1 uses NAD as a stubstrate in poly(ADP-ribosylation) of TRF1, so NAD supplements [Links] may be useful when applying Tankyrase 1 to enable telomerase access to the telomere. Note that niacinamide elevates NAD substrate levels. Once the loop is open, telomerase can access the telomere to extend it. I propose to use Fenugreek extract with supplemental niacinamide to improve telomerase access to telomeres while using cycloastragenol or astragaloside IV as primary telomerase activators [Index, List]. Alternatively, 4-hydroxyisoleucine and niacinamide (nicotinamide) might be used together as adjuvants to improve telomerase access to telomeres while using cycloastragenol, astragaloside IV, or astragalus extract as primary telomerase activators to lengthen telomeres. All materials should be taken 30-60 minutes prior to an evening workout, which improves heat shock protein levels that help with telomerase assembly and transport. Note that telomerase activators and inhibitors are best applied both internally and topically. For the skin, one might use FGF1 skin cream or some other growth factor skin cream that activates telomerase, or Astragaloside IV skin cream, then follow up during the final two weeks with TGF-beta 1 skin cream, which inhibits telomerase, although it reconstitutes proteins such as collagen in the extracellular matrix. Also note that the telomerase activator IGF-1 [Index] is upregulated by casein (cottage cheese), which should only be taken during the telomerase activator phase of treatment.
(2) Telomerase Inhibitor Phase Telomerase inhibitors garlic, turmeric (curcumin), resveratrol, quercetin, vitamin E, green tea, melatonin, silymarin, fish oil EPA, cocoa, cacao bean products, chocolate, and dietary polyphenols may be taken during the 2nd two weeks, but must not be taken during the first two weeks. Retinoic acid, a telomerase inhibitor that also inhibits the expression of P16INK4A (which makes replicative senescence irreversible) can also be used during the telomerase inhibition phase. Retinoic acid inhibits P16INK4A expression in oral keratinocytes. Another possibility is to use anticancer telomerase activators during this phase for anticancer screening while continuing to promote telomerase activity.

TA Sciences: A six-month cycle time using TA-65 (probably cycloastragenol 5 mg) for this procedure is called the Patton protocol, and is probably superior to the first procedure using commercially available concentrated astragalus extract taken at maximum recommended dosage equivilant to about 30 g of astragalus root. According to Geron's European patent (or see A' alternate-source version Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity, or A''), astragaloside IV [Links, Books] may also be used at 50-100 mg/day. (By 10/17/2009 Terraternal and RevGenetics both market Astragaloside IV, and RevGenetics also markets cycloastragenol as Astral-Fruit C.) Note that astragaloside IV is more bioavailable in astragalus extract, however. Obviously, the 3-month initial ON pulse of the Patton protocol gets results more quickly. [81s/6b]. TA Sciences runs activation/deactivation for a year. It may be possible to specify effective skin treatment with astragalus root extract in glycerin or in glycerin mixed with olive oil to be used on a similar cyclic basis to reconstruct telomeres in skin or scalp cells in a way that opposes both hair greying and wrinkles. Terraternal makes Astragaloside IV skin cream for this application. Perhaps a gensenoside-oriented telomerase activation procedure could be defined using Solaray Koren Ginseng Extract, 60 capsules/bottle, featuring 535 mg ginseng extract per capsule with 26 mg of ginsensodes per capsule having Rg1/Rg2 = 0.5, Rg1 being listed by Geron as ginsenoside RH1? [81s/6b], Links/ginsenosides. However, Ginseng Extracts may also contain ginsenoside RH2, a telomerase inhibitor. Astragalus, however, has many favorable properties and low toxicity that make in the winner for now. For instance, it increases the number of stem cells in bone marrow and lymphatic tissue, preparing them for conversion into immune system cells or other cells derived from bone marrow stem cells, such as brain cell microglia. See Vendors/Astragalus Extract, Astragalus, and Astragalosides, with Toxicology of Astragalus.
Most recently, extra TERT in mouse skin has been shown to affect stem cells in a way that promotes hair growth, so that perhaps small molecule telomerase activators may be useful in promoting human hair growth. (Probably Terraternal Astragaloside IV skin cream will be most useful for this application.) In other words, astragalosides from astragalus extract or ginsenoside Rh1 from Korean Ginseng Extract may be useful in restoring hair. However, Korean Ginseng extract may also contain ginsenoside Rh2, a telomerase inhibitor. Astragalosides, in particular, are known to promote stem cell proliferation, as required according to research at Artandi Labs. However, this is a new domain of research. Astragalus extract is available in glycerin at 30 drops/mg of astragalosides (formerly from GAIA Herbs and from several competing vendors. Toxicology literature and experiments in progress show that it may be applied topically to the skin and scalp. As a matter of fact, no problems are immediately evident if 35 mg of astragalosides are applied over the entire body all at once, using an entire bottle of GAIA astragalus extract in glycerin, and astragalus toxicology studies seem to show that this would not be harmful. Getting it in the eyes does not seem to sting. However, many experiments and measurements remain to be done in this domain, and this is outside the scope of the manufacturer's recommendations. (Safety checks for inducing retinoblastoma in animal eyes should be done. Pure chemicals like astragaloside IV may be most useful for application to the eyes.) Also, note that anti-cataract eyedrops similar to carnosine eyedrops for cataracts may be fashioned from astragalosides in glycerin. Ocular keratocyte senescence would be opposed by such eyedrops. See also Ramirez et al., 1997 on telomerase expression in human hair follicles [Papers, Books]. "Intuition suggests that telomerase intervention might effectively restore hair growth in elderly males." - Michael Fossel, Cells, Aging, and Human Disease, p.160. Fossel also notes that among progerics, whose fibroblasts exhibit short telomeres, baldness is almost universal. My impression today is that telomerase activation is crucial for long-range life extension and that many other solutions are palatives by comparison.
Music: Time in a Bottle by Jim Croce.
Note that the bioavailability of astragaloside IV [molecule, Article, Papers], which is higher in astragalus extract than when taken as a purified drug, can be increased by chitosan [Wiki/chitosan, Links/chitosan] or sodium deoxycholate [Links, Books]. Furthermore, it has been noted that Astragaloside IV bioavailability is improved by the addition of some powdered astragalus membranaceus root, so that an astragalus root powder capsule may be a useful supplement to our program. I might add that astragalus extract also contains Astragaloside VII, which markedly boosts the levels of Interleukin-2, also a useful telomerase activator for immune system T-cell lymphocytes.
Other Readily Available Telomerase Activators
Otherwise, it may be useful to take whey protein, which ups HGH, and arginine, which ups NO levels, while using astragalosides or astragalosides + chitosan to activate telomerase. Nitric Oxide from arginine supplements causes anabolic effects, including telomerase activation and delay of cellular senescence in epithelial tissue according to Vasa, et al., 2000, and Hayashi, et al., 2006. Since NO reacts with the superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite, which produces hydroxyl radicals, it is probably a good idea to use the peroxynitrite inhibitor gamma-tocopherol when using NO to promote telomerase activation. Bodybuilding exercises promote nitric oxide synthase production, and in the presence of arginine this leads to NO generation suitable for telomerase activation and promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis. NO generation is also promoted by broccoli sprouts, genistein, and resveratrol. Finally, the release of NO in endothelial tissues is promoted by acetylcholine, which may be boosted with Ashwagandha or Huperzine A. Nitric oxide release for purposes of telomerase activation might be best promoted in the vascular endothelium by bodybuilding workouts in presence of arginine and Ashwagandha or Huperzine A as supplements, to which we might add broccoli sprouts, genistein, or resveratrol with gamma tocopherol to neutralize highly reactive peroxynitrite. Note that HGH from whey protein intake ups IGF-1, also an anabolic stimulant associated with telomerase activation, although it subsequently lowers HGH, which is transformed into IGF-1 in the liver.
Fenugreek extract [Images] and Fenugreek seeds [Images] contain 4-hydroxyisoleucine [Images] to open up telomere t-loops by phosphorylating tankyrase 1 with increased insulin secretions, so that tankyrase 1 can remove the telomere t-loop closure protein TRF1, which is subsequently ubiquitinated by proteasomes. Later, TRF1 is replaced by freshly transcribed protein. Insulin can also be produced from Gymnema Sylvestre to improve tankyrase 1 phosphorylation and open telomere loops. Fenugreek seeds also contain diosgenin, a phytoestrogen which improves the expression of the transcription factor HIF-1, which acts on the hTERT promoter to produce more hTERT mRNA, which is used to make the catalytic component of telomerase. Fenugreek extract or Fenugreek seeds may be taken with exercise to increase testosterone levels, which produces effects gratifying to bodybuilders. Furthermore, androgens like testosterone may behave as telomerase activators. On the other hand, they may dosed in a way that supports breast enhancement. Fenugreek Seeds may be the lowest-cost telomerase activator [List] available, although it still not clear to me whether or not diosgenin [Images] works to extend telomeres in all mitotic cell tissues of interest, as cycloastragenol and astragaloside IV do. I suspect that the HIF-1 transcription factor generated by using diosgenin actually does work on all mitotic cells to activate hTERT mRNA transcription, which is better than we expect for female hormones like estradiol or progesterone, which have more specifically targeted effects.
Rejuvenation Rates with Astragalus Extracts and TA-65
In treatment with telomerase activators [81s], skin constitution is restored to young skin after about 20 population doublings are added. (Fossel, p.156). Note that TA Science's TA-65 (probably cycloastragenol) can add 230 base pairs to blood granulocyte telomeres in vivo in just 3 months. For typical cells on the average, 20 doubling x 50(bp/doubling) = 1000 base pairs, so that a couple of years would be typically required, since telomerase is turned on for just two 3-month periods in a year using the TA Sciences Patton Protocol. That is, they get 460 bp/year, so that 1000/460 = 2.174 > 2 years should be required to thoroughly rejuvenate typical cells with TA-65. Furthermore, we loose about 50 bp per year to normal attrition as our cells divide year by year, so over 2 years of treatment we need to tack on 100 bp just to keep up with aging. Thus about 11000/460 = 2.3913 > 2 years is a rough guide to what to expect. A fter 3 or 4 years of plenty of astragaloside application, we should probably expect to have achieved serious rejuvenation effects. Our charts seem to show that people in their 70s require 6 or 7 years of treatment to regain a 20s appearance. Since 460 >> 50, we may seem to feel the second hand of the clock running backwards with TA-65 at about 9 years per year, or 0.75 years/month. Initial measurements seem to show that good results can be achieved with commercially available astragalus extracts in alcohol and glycerine. A chart of the count of grey hairs on the head was used, as the greying is regarded by Geron as a sign of stem cell dysfunction reversible with telomerase activation, and may follow the death rate curve mirroring the general level of the senescent cell population. On the average, 50% of persons have 50% grey hair by age 50 [Hisama, Chromosomal Instability and Aging, p.565]. Make your life extension project record book more valuable: "Indeed, the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Do not fear; you are more valuable than many sparrows." - Luke 12:7 & (Biblical Hair Remarks, Hair in History, Hair Loss in History). You've got something even without that big government lab. For more measurements you can do at home, or with a little help from your friends, see Vincent Giampapa, Ronald Pero, Marcia Zimmerman, The Anti-Aging Solution, Wiley, 2004, and the blood tests and all tests available from The Life Extension Foundation, and don't miss my own LifeXLabs test descriptions. According to Geron, those grey hairs may not stay grey, although Wikipedia contends that they are due to the death of cells, which if this were true would mean grey hair is irreversible. However, melanin pill results seem to contradict this picture of non-recoverable cells.
Since carnosine can change the cellular phenotype from senescent to normal, perhaps carnosine should be used together with astragaloside treatments for lengthening telomeres. Our objective is to rejuvenate senescent cells. See [Papers/How Carnosine Rejuvenates Cells, Links; Books/Carnosine, Links, Patents; Wikipedia/beta alanine, Links, Books]. Note that supplementation with beta alanine improves the body's carnosine supply, which is beta alanine-limited up to some maximum, beyond which carnosine must be supplemented.

Boosting Telomerase Activity and Telomere Lengthening - August 16, 2011 Upgrade
Confine methylating folic acid (5 mg/day) to the morning for general good health and methylation of homocysteine before starting telomere treatment in the evening, which might begin with Vitamin C for DNA demethylation to promote gene transcription and telomere lengthening, along with acetylation to promote transcription by expanding chromatin. Perhaps the HDAC inhibitor sulphoraphane is unsuitable for this application, since in inhibits hTERT in breast cancer cells and telomerase activity in liver cancer cells, for instance. It may have the desired effect in normal cells, but this is uncertain for now. Another HDAC inhibitor to promote chomatin acetylation might be effective in accelerating hTERT transcription, such as diallyl sulphide from oysters, sodium butyrate, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, and more certainly the orally bioavailable CGK1026. Use 1.5 grams of L-arginine plus 1.5 grams of L-lysine to boost HGH levels and provide L-arginine and L-lysine for nuclear transport signals, then take a workout with weights to maximize heat shock proteins such as HSP90 that transport transcription factors into the nucleus that activate transcription from the hTERT gene by interacting with the hTERT promoter. HSP90 also improves telomerase production by improving protein folding during telomerase construction (White). It may be beneficial to take heat-shock protein supplements to boost HSP90. Alpha lipoic acid boosts heat shock protein expression and HSP90 expression, while gamma tocopherol (from peanuts) blocks heat shock proteins (HSPs). Carnosine and zinc also boost HSP expression. TEXOE boosts HSP70 and HSP27. HSP70 is important for translocation of proteins into the nucleus. A half an hour before the workout, move to demethylate the hTERT promoter with Vitamin C, and acetylate DNA to expand chromatin and improve transcription with sulforaphane from broccoli sprouts [Wikipedia]. Using broccoli sprouts also provides anticancer protection without using a telomerase inhibitor. Chromatin can also be expanded by acetylating it for transcription from the hTERT gene with HDAC inhibitors such as sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, sodium butyrate, (or possibly the telomerase activators Tricostatin A, or orally bioavailable CGK 1026, which are known telomerase activators). At the same time, take telomerase activators that improve transcription of hTERT mRNA, such as the MAP kinase pathway telomerase activators including astragalus root, astragalus extract, the astragalosides, cycloastragenol, and (possibly feminizing) progesterone, and add the androgenic telomerase activators such as testosterone from forskolin or tribulus, the HIF-1 transcription factor telomerase activators (feminizing-in-overdose Diosgenin from Fenugreek, Ginkgo Biloba, and Ginkgolides) at suitably conservative dosages, EGF from colostrum, HGH secretagogues, and Nitric Oxide boosters such as L-arginine (5-10 grams/day) and L-citrulline (200 mg/day - 1000 mg/day). Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) boosters such as aceytl-L-carnitine plus alpha lipoic acid, carnosic acid, Huperzine A, PQQ, and rosemary tea promote Id-1 helix-loop-helix transcription factor to activate hTERT mRNA transcription. There are other telomerase activators such IGF-1 [Index] and resveratrol [Index] that phosphorylate cytoplasmic hTERT for import into the nucleus. IGF-1 may be taken during the telomerase activation phase of cyclic treatment or prepared from HGH by the liver, but resveratrol should only be used during the final 2-week telomerase inhibitor phase of treatment, because resveratrol is involved in chromatin compaction and gene silencing. After the workout and before bedtime, take Fenugreek extract (50% extract, 50% seed) at 1-1.5 grams (< 3 grams) to open telomere t-loops for access by the telomerase holoenzyme with Fenugreek's 4-hydroxyisoleucine, which boosts insulin, phosphorylating tankyrase 1 [Index] and stripping the t-loop closure protein TRF1. Bear in mind that 3 grams of Fenugreek seed per day for 12 weeks typically endows one with large, pendulous breasts. The high insulin makes one tired and hungry after 0.5-1.0 hours, so plan to sleep through the tired feeling and the munchies. Other telomerase activators exist and might be used in parallel in a "telomerase activator stack" for two weeks, including Haritaki, Purslane extract, and other medicines. The 2nd half of the month should feature telomerase inhibitors and cancer screen medicines and nutraceuticals.
Vitamin C demethylation at CpG sites to promote telomere lengthening
A half hour before bed during the 2-week telomerase activator phase of cyclic treatment, but after taking Fenugreek, it may be useful to take an additional large dose of vitamin C in time-release capsules just before bedtime to promote telomere lengthening. This may demethylate telomeric and subtelomeric DNA at CpG sites to improve telomere lengthening after building up a high level of fresh telomerase from the hTERT promoter, which will be demethylated for gene activity in the region -150 to +150 base pairs from the transcription start site, although it may or may not be heavily methylated in the region 600 bp upstream of the transcription start site. However, I could only confirm that vitamin C demethyates DNA at CpG sites in embryonic stem cells. This is to be done for two weeks before applying telomerase inhibitors for two weeks in a monthly cyclic protocol of telomease activation followed by telomerase inhibition.

Experimental Results
After the first 9 months of the 5 mg/day astragalosides program of cyclic telomerase activation for 2 weeks followed by telomerase inhibitor application for two weeks, I obtained meaningful results, measurable counts from locks of grey hair stored in envelopes, and collagen and elastin levels seemed to be up under the chin in before and after movies of myself speaking. At the time I was also taking quite a bit of cocoa powder for an antioxidant (perhaps 1000 mg/day), extra virgin olive oil rubdowns, alpha lipoic acid 400 mg/day, vitamin C 2500 mg/day, an assortment of vitamins, DMAE, and acetyl L-carnitine with alpha lipoic acid and arginine. I was not using carnosine, which might have produced a similar result by itself without being open-ended for telomere extension. I had half-white locks of hair to compare to mostly black locks of hair after just 9 months. I am presently quite optimistic about telomerase activation using ethanolic astragalus extracts. I put two bottles of astragalus extract in glycerin on my scalp and skin during the first year of the experiment. In the limit, I suspect most senescent cells may be eliminated by such a procedure in just a few years to produce a young adult look in a 61 year old man. My results should be compared to the 460 bp/year of telomere extension using TA-65 reported by Greta Blackburn [81s/6d] at TA Sciences in their astragalus-based work. Perhaps blood granulocyte measurements would show similar results regarding base pair growth in telomeric chromosome remodeling when commercially available astragalus extracts are used for telomerase activation. I do seem to see something similar. After 17 months of cyclic telomerase activation, I believe I seem to be visibly younger, perhaps 46 at 59. After two more years it should be more obvious.
Jim Green starts at 57, in May, 2007, on the month of his 58th birthday on May 13, 2007.
Gradually, he gets younger. See Mark Twain at 50, George Washington at 57, Albert Einstein at 57, telomerase in medicine expert Michael Fossel at 58, telomerase pioneer Elizabeth Blackburn at 57, telomerase activation expert Calvin B. Harley at 55 [Calvin B. Harley Interview], Anthony Loera (RevGenetics Astragalosode IV vendor) in his late 30s, writes that he seems to look like a young man in his 20s.
from 'The Time Machine'.
The Time Machine.
For Jim, at B = -8 years per year,
59 is apparently 49.30. (May 13, 2008: Yes, plausibly 50, all right. )
60 is apparently 41.29. (May 13, 2009: Surprising). (See theoretical model with video).
61 is apparently 33.29. (May 13, 2010: Surprising, but looks 42 instead.).
62 is apparently 25.28. (May 13, 2011: STOP) Amazing! Back to the Future!
(In reality, what has been observed using off-the-shelf astragalus extracts
is more like B = - 5.2 years/year rejuvenation,
so Jim may seem to be 25 at 64.3 in Aug 2013.)
Well, let's recalibrate!

For Jim, at B = -5.1864 years/year,
58 was 57.53 in May 2007. September 2007, North High Reunion Class of 1967.
59 was 52.35 in May 2008.
60 was 47.16 in May 2009.
61 was 41.98 in May 2010. Visible results become more obvious as we go "under the hill" towards model age < 40.
62 is 36.79 in May 2011. We treat the target age like a goal, arriving at May Day, 2011 with model age 37.22.
63 is 31.60 in May 2012. See 63rd bithday video: Astragalus root extract superior to cycloastragenol, astragaloside IV.
64 is 26.42 in May 2013. See pics2013August31.html for the 25.11 Model Age baseline acquisition at 64.301.
65 is 21.23 in May 2014. (See Age Transformation, Einstein's Greying Rise Time, and Age Progression to 85.)
If this holds up, success should be obvious just looking at a photo, although precise measures of aging biomarkers would be useful for scientific reasons.
Caution: Telomerase inhibitors are used to stop some types of cancer, and if you have cancer you may not be able to use telomerase activation therapy in many cases, as the converse, telomerase inhibition, may be prescribed to stop undesirable proliferation of cancer cells. However, some kinds of cancer use the ALT mechanism to support proliferation, and in certain cases telomerase activation is useful anyway. Furthermore, lengthening telomeres promotes genetic stability tending to prevent cancer. I note that it may be useful to rub GAIA Astragalus Extract in glycerin on the gums to prevent senescence of gum tissue in the mouth.

Midnight Blue: Application of astragalosides to scalp darkens hair after 12 months.
Grey old Green. Play 'Silver Thunderbird' by Marc Cohn.Perhaps when man becomes immortal, he will rediscover the stars and become one with the universe.
Jim Green - Left: Jan 24, 2010, Age: 60.7. Right: Jan 18, 2011, Age: 61.68, Math Model Age: 38.71.
After about a year of astragalosides to the scalp, hair color improved as telomere cell DNA was repaired, activating quiescent hair follicle stem cells in the hair follicle bulge region, initiating cycles of proliferation and hair synthesis. Human dermal fibroblasts can divide about 50 times in culture, as Hayflick & Moorhead discovered in 1961. But with telomerase enzyme enough, the cells become immortal, and have divided hundreds of times in culture. I took Terraternal Astragaloside IV 100 mg/day during the activation part of the cycle during the last few months. GAIA Herbs astragalus root extract in glycerin at 1 mg astragalosides per 30 drops was used for the scalp. HGH to promote hTERT mRNA transcription was boosted by 1200 mg/day Alpha GPC plus exercise. I decided it would be best to include direct topical application, as Artandi Labs at Stanford University reported positive hair restoration results on experimental animals with direct application of astragalosides to hairy skin. "Here we show that conditional transgenic induction of TERT in mouse skin epithelium causes a rapid transition from telogen (the resting phase of the hair follicle cycle) to anagen (the active phase), thereby facilitating robust hair growth. TERT overexpression promotes this developmental transition by causing proliferation of quiescent, multipotent stem cells in the hair follicle bulge region." - after Sarin KY, Cheung P, Gilison D, Lee E, Tennen RI, Wang E, Artandi MK, Oro AE, Artandi SE, Conditional telomerase induction causes proliferation of hair follicle stem cells, Nature, 2005 Aug 18;436(7053):1048-52.

Rejuvenation Times to Model Age 25 from Initial Age in Years with Cost in Dollars
Initial Actual Chronological Age t010090807060504030
Δt-5 Rejuvenation time, B = -5 yrs/yr
Δt-8 Rejuvenation time, B = -8 yrs/yr9.3758.1256.8755.6854.3753.1251.8750.625
Δt-9 Rejuvenation time, B = -9 yrs/yr 8.3337.2226.1115.0003.8882.7771.6660.556
t = t0 + Δt-5 =
Actual Age-5 at Final Model Age 25
115.0 103.0 91.0 79.0 67.0 55.0 43.0 31.0
t = t0 + Δt-8 =
Actual Age-8 at Final Model Age 25
109.375 98.125 86.875 75.685 64.375 53.125 41.875 30.625
t = t0 + Δt-9 =
Actual Age-9 at Final Model Age 25
108.333 97.272 86.111 75.0 63.888 52.777 41.666 30.556
Cost-5 = $76.00(12)Δt-513,680 11,856 10,032 8,208 6,384 4,560 2,736 912
Cost-8 = $76.00(12)Δt-88,550 7,410 6,270 5,185 3,990 2,850 1,710 570
Cost-9 = $76.00(12)Δt-97,597 6,586 5,573 4,560 3,546 2,533 1,519 507
Press for Jeanne Calment photo album.Press for Jeanne Calment photo album.
Left: Jeanne Calment, age 25. Right: Jeanne Calment, age 60.
Also see Einstein Greying and Astragalus Extract Program at 2-Year Point.
"...and bending down beside the glowing bars, murmer a little sadly how love fled,
and paced the mountains overhead,
and hid his face amid a cloud of stars.
" - When You Are Old, by William Butler Yeats.

Rejuvenation Times from 60 to Final Model Ages tFM in Years with Cost in Dollars
Final Model Age tFM5550454035302520
Δt-5 Rejuvenation time, B = -5 yrs/yr
Δt-8 Rejuvenation time, B = -8 yrs/yr0.6251.251.8752.53.1253.754.3755.0
Δt-9 Rejuvenation time, B = -9 yrs/yr 0.5561.1111.6672.2222.7783.3333.8894.444
t = t0 + Δt-5 =
Actual Age-5 at Final Model Age
61.0 62.0 63.0 64.0 65.0 66.0 67.0 68.0
t = t0 + Δt-8 =
Actual Age-8 at Final Model Age
60.625 61.25 61.875 62.5 63.125 63.75 64.375 65.0
t = t0 + Δt-9 =
Actual Age-9 at Final Model Age
60.556 61.111 61.667 62.222 62.778 63.333 63.889 64.44
Cost-5 = $76.00(12)Δt-5 912 1,824 2,736 3,648 4,560 5,472 6,384 7,296
Cost-8 = $76.00(12)Δt-8 570 1,140 1,710 2,280 2,850 3,420 3,990 4,560
Cost-9 = $76.00(12)Δt-9 507 1,013 1,520 2,027 2,534 3,040 3,547 4,053

The tables for the rejuvenation times and costs above may be deduced by linear analysis.
Let the final model age tFM be given by tFM = t0 + BΔt, where
t0 is the Initial Actual Chronological Age, and B is the aging rate. Let
B = -8 or -9 years per year aging rate for rejuvenation, so that
tFM = the model age at the end of rejuvenation. In one table above we choose tFM = 25.
Solving for the rejuvenation time Δt, we find Δt = (tFM - t0)/B years.
Then the Actual Age at Final Model Age tFM is t = t0 + Δt, and we have Cost = $76.00(12)(Δt).
Note that B=1 corresponds to normal aging, B > 1 represents accelerated aging,
0 < B < 1 represents decelerated aging, and B < 0 corresponds to rejuvenation.
Suzanne: feeds you tea and astragalus that comes all the way from China. Let It Be by the Beatles, You're Sixteen by Ringo Starr.
See also 2b: Notes and Correspondence on Rejuvenation with Astragalus Extract. || Calvin B. Harley sez:

Deaging Plot Corresponding to the Above Table. See the Model Age spread at the 58th, 60th, 61st birthdays.
Based on TA Sciences 8 years per year to 9 years per year rejuvenation rate results obtained for TA-65 at 5 mg/day using the Patton Protocol. B = - 5.2 years per year was initially estimated for astragalus extract, and B = - 5.18684 shows that this was close enough for the data quality available. All model ages in the above drawing correspond to May Day, as treatment started on May 1, 2007, whereas my birthday is on May 13, 1949. After 2.5 years at about 60.5 when bone dry I seemed to be 45 to myself, whereas with oiled hair I seemed to restaurant help to be 40 at 60. This led to the B = - 5.2 years per year estimate for the astragalus extract rejuvenation rate.

Deaging Plot Corresponding to Astragalus Extract Observations after about 2.5 years.
(From 58 to Model Age 45 at 60.5 in 2.5 years, projected to Model Age 25 at 64 in 6.33 years.)
The observed rejuvenation rate is computed at B = -5.18684 years per year, approximately B = -5.2, corresponding to the top line on the chart. At the present time, I may seem to be 45, so that at the B = -5.18684 rate I would achieve a 25 year old appearance at about 64.33 years of age in 2013. The dotted lines are for TA-65 at -8 and -9 years per year. Basic cost is about $55/month, including Chitosan, or $660/year, yielding $4,188 for 6.34 years to 25 at 64. Extra money might be spent on CoQ10, alpha lipoic acid with acetyl L-carnitine, magnesium, zinc, vitamin D, multiple vitamins, resveratrol for the off part of the cycle, and other refinements.

Anti-Aging Flight Plan (reminiscent of My World Line by George Gamow).
Here Model_Age = Bt + Starting_Age, B=1 for normal aging, B > 1 for accelerated aging, B=0 for no aging, and B < 0 for rejuvenation, or negative aging. Here initially B= 1 for normal aging, then
B= - 5.2 years/year during the deaging phase, followed by B=0 zero aging until Madame Jean Louise Calment's 122 years, 164 days record is exceeded at 2071.9634 AD, which should be right at the Winter Solstice when shadows are shortest about Dec 22, 2071. About this time the S.Monocerotis skywalker above the Cone Nebula crosses the meridian.
Note the "Cross of Years" formed by the 110 and 122.45 barriers. There are thousands of Americans over 100, of whom hardly any will get though the 110 year barrier without medicine. See the associated response of the cloud cover to the inclusion of these charts including the sign of the cross in Visionary Sky 46.5. Note that the B = 0 line in the flight plan can be implemented by using astragalus extract one month out of six, which would lead to a barely discernable jaggle on the B=0 line between 25 and 25 + 5/12 = 25.42 with a five-month rise time and a one-month fall time, since (1/12)(-5.2) = -0.43.
Phase I: For 0 < t < 57.967123 = t0, B = 1, Model Age = Bt.
Phase II: For 57.967123 < t < 64.3, B = - 5.2 years/yr, Model_Age = B(delta_t) + t0 = (B/12)N + 57.967123,
N = 1, 2, 3,...,76 months, using off-the-shelf astragalus extracts.
Phase III: For 64.3 < t < infinity, B = 0, Model Age = 25.

Note that Retinal pigment epithelial cells transfected with hTERT plasmids show telomeres lengthening at 115-255 bp per population doubling, and we find that BJ foreskin fibroblasts similarly transfected show a telomere length increase of 340-370 bp per population doubling, the same order of magnitude (400-460 bp/year telomere growth, corresponding to roughly 1 cell division per year) originally observed at TA Sciences in 2007 by Bob Waskom and Greta Blackburn. - From Andrea G. Bodnar, Michel Ouellette, Maria Frolkis, Shawn E. Holt, Choy-Pik Chiu, Gregg B. Morin, Calvin B. Harley, Jerry W. Shay, Serge Lichtsteiner, and Woodring E. Wright (1998), Extension of Life-Span by Introduction of Telomerase into Normal Human Cells, Science, vol. 279, 16 January 1998.
On the other hand, results from Calvin B. Harley,, (2010) seem to show minimal telomere growth of perhaps 55 bp/year for TA-65 with closing of the telomere t-loops with shortest telomeres < 4 kbp, so that TA-65 tends to repair replicative senescence.
"Human fibroblasts expressing the catalytic component of human telomerase (hTERT) have been followed for 250–400 population doublings. As expected, telomerase activity declined in long term culture of stable transfectants. Surprisingly, however, clones with average telomere lengths several kilobases shorter than those of senescent parental cells continued to proliferate. Although the longest telomeres shortened, the size of the shortest telomeres was maintained. Cells with subsenescent telomere lengths proliferated for an additional 20 doublings after inhibiting telomerase activity with a dominant-negative hTERT mutant. These results indicate that, under conditions of limiting telomerase activity, cis-acting signals may recruit telomerase to act on the shortest telomeres..." from Subsenescent Telomere Lengths in Fibroblasts Immortalized by Limiting Amounts of Telomerase Michel M. Ouellette, Martha Lia, Brittney-Shea Herbert, Mari Johnson, Shawn E. Holt, Heidi S. Liss, Jerry W. Shay and Woodring E. Wright (2000), The Journal of Biological Chemistry, April 7, 2000, vol. 275, 10072-10076.
Estimated Rejuvenation Times = T to Target Model Age t1
from Starting Age t0 for B= -5.2 years/year
with Chronological Age After Treatment = t0 + T.

Treatment Time T(t0, t1) = (t0 - t1)/5.2 years, T(ray, target) = Treatment Time
Chronological Age after Treatment = t0 + T = t0 + [(t0 - t1)/5.2] years. = Final Age 

Treatment Time (yr), Age after Treatment |  Treatment Time (yr), Age after Treatment (yr)
 Start Target Duration  Target Final Age |  Start Target Duration  Target  Final Age
  t0   t1       T        t1    t0 + T    |   t0   t1       T        t1     t0 + T

T(110, 25) = 16.346, Age(25) = 126.346;    T(105, 25) = 15.385, Age(25) = 120.385,
T(100, 25) = 14.423, Age(25) = 114.423;    T(95,  25) = 13.462, Age(25) = 108.462,
T(90,  25) = 12.500, Age(25) = 102.500;    T(85,  25) = 11.538, Age(25) =  96.538,
T(80,  25) = 10.577, Age(25) =  90.577;    T(75,  25) =  9.615, Age(25) =  84.615,
T(70,  25) =  8.654, Age(25) =  78.654;    T(65,  25) =  7.692, Age(25) =  72.692,
T(60,  25) =  6.731, Age(25) =  66.731;    T(55,  25) =  5.769, Age(25) =  60.769,
T(50,  25) =  4.808, Age(25) =  54.808;    T(45,  25) =  3.846, Age(25) =  48.846,
T(40,  25) =  2.885, Age(25) =  42.885;    T(35, 25)   = 1.923, Age(25) =  36.923,

T(110, 35) = 14.423, Age(35) = 124.423;    T(105, 35) = 13.462, Age(35) = 118.462,
T(100, 35) = 12.500, Age(35) = 112.500;    T(95,  35) = 11.538, Age(35) = 106.538,
T(90,  35) = 10.577, Age(35) = 100.577;    T(85,  35) =  9.615, Age(35) =  94.615,
T(80,  35) =  8.654, Age(35) =  88.654;    T(75,  35) =  7.692, Age(35) =  82.692,
T(70,  35) =  6.731, Age(35) =  76.731;    T(65,  35) =  5.769, Age(35) =  70.769,
T(60,  35) =  4.808, Age(35) =  64.808;    T(55,  35)  = 3.805, Age(35) =  58.805,
T(50,  35) =  2.885, Age(35) =  52.885;    T(45,  35) =  1.923, Age(35) =  46.923,
T(40,  35) =  0.962, Age(35) =  40.962. 

DNA Repair Acceleration (Dr. Ron Pero) (10)
Cat's Claw Extract, 350 mg/day. [Links, C-MED-100, Activar AC-11, LifeExtension/Cats Claw Extract]
NAD [6s]
Nicotinamide Nicotinamide extends replicative lifespan of human cells, Kang, Lee & Hwang, Ageing Cell.

Reversal of Mitochondrial Decline [Books, Links, LifeExtension]
Alpha Lipoic Acid or R-Dihydro-Lipoic Acid, 100 mg/day - 1200 mg/day [Links, Papers].
Acetyl L-Carnitine. 500 mg/day. [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Papers]
Gamma tocopherol, 200 mg/day. [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Papers]
Ubiquinol CoQ10, 50 mg/day - 100 mg/day [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Papers, Wikipedia]
Curcumin (turmeric), to chelate iron in Fenton reactions, 400 mg/day. [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Papers]
See Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer, LifeExtension.

Membrane Rejuvenation and Lipofuscin/Ceroid Removal (Zs.Nagy, Life Extension) (4), (13), [4s].
DMAE, 100 mg/day to 300 mg/day. (4) [Links, Books]
Centrophenoxine [60] (alternative) 500 mg/day to 1500 mg/day [IAAS/centrophenoxine, Books, Links].
CoQ10, preferably ubiquinol CoQ10 (super bioavailable CoQ10), 50mg/day ubiquinol. [Links, LifeExtension/ubiquinol].
Phosphatidylcholine [LifeExtension, Books, Links, Wikipedia] - Major constituent of cell membranes. From soy.
Krill Oil [LifeExtension, Links, Books] - Like fish oil, but includes choline and phospholipids, good for cell membranes.
Piracetam [Books, Links, LifeExtension] - Improves vigilance and concentration, removes lipofuscin, excellent with extra choline for final exam preparation. Alternatively,
____Anacervix [Links] - Piracetam with a vasodilator.
____Aniracetam [Links] - Similar to Piracetam.

Exercise - (9), [5s], Books : Exercise and Longevity, Bodybuilding & Longevity, Hormesis & Longevity
Bodybuilding exercises with barbells, dumbells, and exercise machines with variable resistance for progressive resistance exercise is recommended. Typically, one covers the entire body in a split routine over the course of 3 or 4 days. Pump up with about 8 reps per set, 3-5 sets or more per muscle group. This prevents osteoporosis in old people, and tends to protect old people against falls. Ingesting arginine prior to a workout from pills, bodybuilder protein powder, tuna, or spanish peanuts allows the body to produce nitric oxide (NO) via nitric oxide synthase, which activates telomerase in endothelial cells, postponing endothelial senescence by lengthening endothelial cell telomeres [Vasa, et al, 2000; Hayashi, et al, 2006].

Diet - (3), [25], [55], [41s], Books/Diet & Life Extension, Books/Caloric Restriction & Longevity, Anti-Cancer Diet.
A bodybuilding supplement plus anticancer diet [49] [32] avoiding causes of cancer [71] with caloric restriction (3) for longevity is recommended. [LifeExtension/Diet]
Whey protein [LifeExtension, Books], an HGH booster - from blueberry yogurt or purified whey supplements. Using a supplement with plenty of arginine will allow the body to produce nitric oxide during a workout, lengthening vascular endothelial cell telomeres as described above [Vasa, et al, 2000; Hayashi, et al, 2006].
Creatine monohydrate - for improved muscle contractions in bodybuilding workouts.
Egg protein - from hardboiled eggs, or from blended egg whites.
Fish is preferred over meat to improve fish oil levels, avoid saturated fats, and to avoid excessive copper and iron.
Broccoli and broccoli sprouts are recommended for anticancer sulphoraphane and indole-3 carbinol. Cooked tomato sauce is recommended for bioavailable anticancer antioxidant lycopene.
Olive Oil [76] + water and spices salad dressings for a good balance of HDL and LDL cholesterol are preferred over omega-6 intensive salad oils.
Apples are recommended for quercetin [113], preferably at least 1/day.
Red grapes are recommended for resveratrol [100] (0) and quercetin [113].
Blueberries - Anthocyanadins in blueberries for elderly balance, dopamine levels. [LifeExtension, Links, Books]
Celery and grapefruit are recommended for a high-fiber approach to diet.
Sugars and starches are to be reduced to prevent formation of advanced glycation end-products with carbonylation of proteins. (5), [47].
Our diet should be low cholesterol, with the objective of lowering LDL low-density lipoprotein relative to HDL high density lipoprotein. [62].

Today I guess that astragalosides from astragalus extract for cyclic activation of telomerase and chromosomal telomere reconstruction is the number 1 thing on my anti-aging list, received like a fabled elixer of youth absolutely required to stop and reverse replicative cellular senescence, really a reprieve of nature's death sentence. After 6 months, I imagine that I see grey hairs going away and skin becoming more elastic, which makes me feel optimistic like Dr. Jekyll armed with Love Potion #9. Small molecule telomerase activators oppose aging with a medicinal punch that has cellular memory. However, we also need to take care of those non-mitoic muscle and nerve cells, so that vitamin C, gamma tocopherol, alpha lipoic acid, acetyl L-carnitine, and ubiquinol coQ10 are also high on the list, as is DMAE and cortisol-lowering DHEA. Resveratrol looks good for the half of the month when astragalosides are not taken, as does garlic. I try to emphasize whey protein to improve HGH levels, and to get plenty of blueberries and even some expensive pomegranate juice, and the powerful antioxidants that have been improving our longevity "since 1956", when Denham Harman got the ball rolling on the eve of Sputnik. Improved DNA repair is associated with lifespan improvement in many species, so I also get cat's claw extract when I can. Furthermore, I want my carnosine, which can restore the youthful phenotype to senescent cells.

[63s] Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, or Physalis flexuosa). (See Ashwagandha by Dale Kiefer from Life Extension magazine, June 2006.) Ashwagandha is a stress reliever that reduces cortisol levels up to 26%, lowers blood sugar, and improves lipid profiles. It also improves one's sense of well-being. Ashwagandha exhibits an anti-oxidant boosting effect, increasing levels of superoxide dismutase [52, 48s, 49s], catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Furthermore, it regenerates axons and dendrites and supports the reconstruction of synapses, and is used to physically re-grow the brain. In particular, it reverses parameters associated with Parkinsonian neurodegeneration. It seems to work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which breaks down acetylcholine. Other drugs such as AriceptTM work in this way to combat Alzheimer's disease. In addition, ashwagandha inhibits many kinds of cancer, disrupting cancer cell ability to reproduce, and exhibiting antiangiogenic effects that prevent cancers from forming new blood vessels. Types of cancer combated by ashwaghandha include breast, lung, colon, stomach, skin, and lymphatic system cancers. It extends the life span of cancer-infected lab animals, and has also been shown to be anti-microbial for Salmonella.
See Life Extension magazine's Optimized Ashwagandha Extract. Also see Ray Sahelian's article on Ashwagandha Root, Google Links/Ashwaghandha, Google Books/Ashwagandha, and Yahoo links on ashwagandha.
Alternate Sources: eVitamin Ashwagandha, Herbal Love Shop's line of alternate ashwagandha brands, Physician Formulae's lineup of ashwagandha vendors, Nutrition Geek's ashwagandha, and don't miss Herbalcom's Bulk Herbs section on Ashwagandha ($6.95 per pound in June 2006).

[64s] Wheat sprouts and wheat grass are sources of bio-available SOD [52, 48s, 49s], in addition to thiamine,
Somewhere Over the Rainbow: the land of wheat Jim Green country. B-vitamins, vitamin C, and other factors. "Some plants produce SOD naturally. However, when SOD is ingested in the body, it is quickly destroyed by stomach acids and intestinal enzymes, and virtually no SOD enters the bloodstream. Fortunately, it is possible to boost levels of this important antioxidant by consuming supplements that supply concentrated amounts of appropriate precursor molecules. Wheat sprouts represent one rich source of these SOD-boosting building blocks, and have been shown to significantly increase internal antioxidant levels." - Superoxide Dismutase: Boosting the Body’s Primary Antioxidant Defense, Life Extension magazine, June 2006. See Super Sprouts brand wheat sprouts, \Sprout Bread links, other wheat sprout sources such as Natural Sprout Company and souped-up wheat sprouts from Web Vitamins, and note that Life Extension's SODzyme™ is an extract derived from the sprouts of corn, soy, and wheat. Wheat sprouts should grow to 1/2 to 1 cm long before they are eaten, and may be ground and baked into sprout bread. (Sprout bread may be obtained in Wichita at Barney's Deep Discount Drugs at 3108 West Central.) The best wheat grain to start with is probably spelt, or "Dinkle wheat". See Health Recipes on Sprouts, Sproutpeople, Sprouting for Health, and Life Extension on Bio-Available SOD. See Yahoo Links/wheat sprouts. Note that Ashwagandha [63s] also increases SOD levels. According to local health food store personnel selling grain and seed, wheat sprouts are prepared by soaking the wheat grain in water overnight before draining off the water. Thereafter, the grain spends just 1 hour soaking per day, or is merely rinsed and drained. After a week, the grain is usually sprouted enough to eat. Some varieties of grain require up to two weeks to complete the sprouting process. See Google Links/preparing wheat sprouts (soak 5 hours, rinse and drain twice a day), preparing soy sprouts (soak 15 hours, rinse and drain twice a day), and preparing corn sprouts (soak 8 to 12 hours, rinse and drain every 8-12 hours). See Sproutpeople on Grain Sprouts, and Sproutpeople on Corn Sprouts. Wheat grain was just 50 cents per pound at my health food store! Hard winter wheat and yellow popcorn are both said to sprout nicely. See Google Links/melons and SOD, including links to the cantaloupe-derived GliSODinTM from Life Extension magazine. For a method of growing wheat sprouts in the dark with several rinsings per day, see Growing Wheat in Kansas History. For a method of growing wheat sprouts as potted plants, see Garden Guides: Wheat Grass, and also see Walton Feed on Sprouts and Health Nut Alternative's Vertical Sprouters.
Sprouts Experiments
After some experiments, my hard red wheat sprouted a little bit, but fermented into something with the smell of alcohol about it, although it was rinsed daily. I am now waiting for the spelt, or "Dinkle wheat" sprout experiment to germinate, but after several days it smells like beer. About 50% of the yellow popcorn yielded sprouts. The yellow popcorn sprouts grew to about an inch in length after a week, and I broke them off the kernels and used them to garnish a salad, with good results. My initial attempt to obtain soy sprouts failed: instead of sprouts I got a dead, rotten mess. Subsequent experiments show that it is required to do all rinsing with cold water about the temperature of rain water, never with hot water, or the sprouting fails, even for yellow popcorn sprouts.

Sprouted Bread Vendors (available at Green Acres)
Alvarado Street Bakery - Sprouted Wheat Bagels, ect.
French Meadow - Sprouted Wheat Raisin & Cinnamon Bagels
Nature's Path - Manna Bread (Sprouted for Life).
Food for Life - Ezekiel 4:9 Sprouted Grain Bread

Both broccoli sprouts and alfalfa sprouts are readily available at Dillons grocery.
Broccoli Sprouts [LifeExtension, Links, Books, Papers, Wikipedia/Broccoli]. They taste like radishes, and boost of endogenous anti-oxidants like gluthione S-transferase, produced from the anti-cancer chemical sulphoraphane [Wikipedia, Books, Links, LifeExtension].
Broccoli sprouts also protect against oxidative stress and contain "large amounts af the glucosinolate glucoraphanin which in vitro and in animal models has been shown to have a positive effect on the endothelium as measured by NO release." Sulforaphane "induces enzymes, including quinone reductase and the antioxidant glutathione S-transferase, that can detoxify carcinogens and prevent toxic electrophiles from damaging DNA." Broccoli sprouts are sometimes said to boost SOD levels, though this is less well documented than antioxidant effect via sulphoraphane's production of glutathione S-transferase.
Alfalfa Sprouts [Links, LifeExtension]. Possibly rich in endogenous antioxidants to protect young sprouts from environmental insults, although they are promoted rather for their vitamins and amino acids.

[65s] Another SOD-booster is Huperzine-A, which is derived from Chinese club moss, "Huperzia serrata". Huperzine A is a nootropic agent developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Huperzine A also slows the breakdown of acetylcholine by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, rather like ashwagandha [63s]. However, its long-term medical safety has not been determined, according to PDRhealth. See Google links on Huperzine A: Ray Sahelian on Huperzine, Swanson Vitamins Huperzine A $5.99 for 60 caps, Nature's Plus Huperzine Rx-Brain, $8.72 for 30 tabs., Doctors Trust Vitamins: Huperzine A with Ginko, just $3.99 for 60 capsules. Life Enhancement: Huperzine A, $5.09 for 120 caps. See for brands of Huperzine A.

[66s] Wheat grass is available in an especially high-SOD form from BioMed Foods of California as Natural Dismutase Compound. See Wheat Grass composition as Alternative Healthzine's Herb of the Month. See Google Links/wheatgrass, Wheatgrass Kits, Nutrition Geeks Wheat Grass, Wheat Grass treatment for cancer. Cancer cells are usually deficient in, or completely missing SOD. See "The Benefits of Wheat Grass".

[67s] See Links/C-reactive protein and aging. A marker of inflammation level. | As a predictor for age-related macular degeneration, [101]. Research shows that Caloric restriction and exercise lower C-reactive protein levels. It has also been found that overweight and obese humans have elevated C-reactive protein levels. See the paper C-reactive Protein as a Biomarker for Aging.

[68s] NFκB [Index/NF-kB, List/NF-kB]. NF-kB is an inflammation marker, a tumor promoter, and an endogenous telomerase activator. See Links/NFkB and longevity. See also Life Extension magazine, "What is Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta?" Chronic inflammation caused by over-expression of NFκB in aging people causes diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, arthritis, and dementia. However, it also plays a role in healthy immune system responses. NFκB inhibitors include ibuprofin, N-acetylcysteine, lipoic acid, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids EPA & DHA, soy isoflavones, curcumin, licorice root extracts, capsaicin, oil of cloves, ginger extracts, ursolic acid from basil and rosemary extracts, garlic, pomegranate fruit extract, SAMe, and resveratrol. Perhaps N-acetylcysteine and curcumin in turmeric root are the best choices (add black pepper to improve curcumin bioavailability from turmeric), but it should be inexpensive to add lipoic acid, EPA, DHA, soy isoflavones, and garlic. Adding resveratrol, the bioavailibity of which improves with ingestion of quercetin from apples or tea, will also help with gene silencing and prevention of eccDNA formation. "Vitamin E and vitamin C have been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokine production that is a consequence of NF-kB activation."
"Elevated free radical production [associated with aging] activates nuclear factor-kB (NFkB), a genetic regulator that acts within the cell nucleus. NFkB activation intensifies inflammatory responses, resulting in an even greater production of free radicals and eventually to beta cell death. N-acetyl cysteine is a precursor to glutathione (GSH), a cysteine-containing tripeptide and antioxidant that modulates cellular metabolism and gene expression. GSH is thought to prevent oxidation-induced beta-cell damage by inhibiting NFkB activation." - from Blood Sugar and Insulin Levels: Key Factors in Longevity by Kimberly Pryor.

[69s] Methylation, Methionine, Homocysteine levels, and Aging (see Fantastic Voyage Chapter 13 by Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman). The methylation process deteriorates with aging, and between 10% and 44% of the population suffers from abnormal methylation because of genetic polymorphisms characteristic of different racial and ethnic groups. This can modify DNA synthesis, neural tube development in embryos, activation and inactivation of genes, gene silencing, and detoxification, possibly leading to cervical cancer, colon cancer, coronary heart disease, strokes, Alzheimers, ect. It is tested for by measuring the blood level of the toxic metabolite homocysteine, which forms from consuming the amino acid methionine normally found in red meat or poultry, and which is detoxified by methylation. Methylation is the addition of the CH3-group to a molecule. If the body has a genetic defect in managing methylation, homocysteine builds up to toxic levels greater than the ideal < 7.5 μmol/L, so one treats the problem with nutritional supplementation and tests the homocysteine level at regular intervals.
(I note that reducing methionine to 1/5 the usual dose in mice markedly increases their life span by > 30% [FASEB Journal Vol 8, 1302-1307, 1994], and that red meat containing methionine boosts colon cancer by a factor of 3 over white meat. However, the 20%-of-normal-methionine mice are stunted specimens, and methionine is required for methylation: without it, no methylation takes place. [Thanks to Ben Best for writing in with this observation.])
Methylation also plays an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals such as mercury, lead, antimony, and arsenic, so that as methylation deteriorates with age, we become more susceptible to heavy metal poisoning from the mercury in Albacore tuna, for instance. Methylation is also crucial in the detoxification of pesticides and estrogen, which has been linked to several types of cancer.
In the brain, decreased methylation results in a decrease in the synthesis of acetylcholine, which requires methylation. The lower acetylcholine levels result in memory loss and Alzheimer's disease, but can be treated with acetylcholine-boosting supplements such as Ashwagandha and Huperzine-A. Methylation is also required in the synthesis of melatonin and serotonin, the calming neurotransmitters derived from the amino acid tryptophan, and also for the synthesis of the stimulating neurotransmitters adrenaline, noradreneline, and dopamine prepared from the amino acids phenylanaline and tyrosine. So defective methylation can modify excitement or calmness in aging patients, producing mood disorders such as depression and paranoia in addition to increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Elevated homocysteine levels are found in a high percentage of psychiatric patients, and in Alzheimers victims.
In cardiovascular disease, heart attack, and stroke, elevation of homocysteine levels can be toxic to the lining of the arteries, damaging and cracking the inner walls, which are then filled with LDL cholesterol particles, giving rise to atherosclerosis. Homocysteine increases inflammation levels and boosts plaque formation, increasing the chance that the plaque will rupture, causing a heart attack or stroke.
Tested homocysteine levels are lowered by supplementation with vitamins B6 (contained in beer), B12 (less well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in aging specimens), and folic acid, and by reducing consumption of red meat and poultry, which contain the methionine fueling toxic homocysteine synthesis. One substitutes fish, vegetables, and fruits for methionine-bearing red meat and poultry. Vitamin B12 may be injected. Low B12 levels are the primary reason homocysteine levels rise with age. Furthermore, much-higher-than-RDA-dose levels of homocysteine-lowering nutrients such as vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B2, folic acid, zinc, magnesium, and trimethylglycine (TMG or betaine) are typically needed.
Very soon after recommending fish instead of meat here to avoid methionine and consequent high homocysteine levels, I received a phone call offering life insurance delivered in a thick oriental or Japanese accent. Now we recommend a combination of Japanese and Mediterranean diets taken in Zen master style with green tea.
See Google: Links/Methylation and Aging, Links/Homocysteine levels and Aging, Links/Methionine and Aging.
Google Books:, Books/Methylation and Aging, Books/Methionine and Aging, Books/Homocysteine and Aging.
Life Extension Search: Methylation and Aging, Methionine and Aging, Homocysteine and Aging.

[70s] Chronic Inflammation and Aging (See Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman, Fantastic Voyage, Chapter 12 and spots in subsequent chapters). "Chronic low-grade inflammation [due to high sugar and insulin levels] eroding your health... Taking steps to control silent inflammation gives you a powerful tool to combat several major degenerative diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and cancer."
Heart Disease: Low-fat, low-cholesterol diet is important for protection against heart disease, but in addition, our diet must decrease inflammation, too.
Alzheimer's: "In the brain, silent inflammation increases the production of soluble amyloid protein and increases its conversion into insoluble amyloid fibrils...actually toxic waste products that interfere with normal brain functioning and kill brain cells. If the brain cells do not remove these amyloid fibrils immediately, the dead and dying cells stick together to form pleated sheets of crystalline debris called plaque." The amyloid material interferes with brain blood supply, worsening the problem. Furthermore, the amyloid fibril is identical to one of the amino acid chains that make up immunoglobulins, so that the inflammation started by the amyloid fibrils over-stimulates the immune system, leading to further inflammation. Normal cellular metabolism is disturbed in a way that causes still more inflammation, with free radicals that destroy neurons, leading to dementia in certain predisposed genotypes, for instance those that carry the ApoE4 allele. In this case, the herpes virus may function as a trigger.
Diabetes: In type 2 diabetes, amyloid forms in the pancreas, leading to a similar cascade of events. (See also type 1 diabetes.) Avoiding high-glycemic load foods and sugar can substantially reduce chronic inflammation.
Cancer: Colon and lung cancer are promoted by silent inflammation, which may be reduced by NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as asprin and ibuprofen which block cyclooxygenase enzymes that turn arachidonic acid into other inflammatory compounds), deflecting the cancer. Furthermore, the metabolism of cancer cells feeds intensively on sugar in a way that is different from normal cells. Pro-inflammatory prostaglandins may be produced from Omega-6 fatty acids such as linoleic acid, or from foods containing arachidonic acid. So Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in fish [naturally occurring COX-2 inhibitors], which decrease inflammation, should be substituted for omega-6 fatty acids if possible, and arachidonic acid from red meat, eggs, and shellfish should be kept at a moderate or low level. If one consumes sugar or high-glycemic index foods, it turns out, the resulting high insulin level stimulates production of pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid, and exacerbates the chronic inflammation. Substituting green tea for coffee also reduces inflammation. Excess fat tissue increases inflammation, so loose weight! Exercise reduces chronic inflammation at 30 minutes a day or more. Finally, prolonged stress leads to higher levels of pro-inflammatory IL-6 (interleukin-6), leading to "cardiovascular disease, arthritis, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and accelerated aging," so avoid prolonged stress. Curcumin in the spice turmeric is very anti-inflammatory, and so are compounds found in green tea and herbal extracts "such as boswelia (frankincense), licorice, rosemary, and ginger", and to a lesser degree in subtances in onions and garlic. The level of chronic inflammation may be measured by examining CRP or C-reactive protein, which made by the liver in response to inflammation, using an inexpensive blood test. Measuring fatty acid profiles is also helpful in managing chronic inflammation. See also [68s] for NFκB and its role in inflammation, and [67s] for C-reactive protein as a marker of inflammation.
See Google: Links/Chronic Inflammation and Aging, Links/Silent Inflammation & Aging, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs & Foods, C-reactive protein, Alzheimer's and Inflammation, Links/Diabetes and Inflammation, Links/Heart Disease and Inflammation.
Google Books: Chronic Inflammation and Aging, Silent Inflammation and Aging, C-reactive protein, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Foods, Alzheimer's and Inflammation, Diabetes and Inflammation, Heart Disease &.
Life Extension Search: Chronic Inflammation and Aging, Silent Inflammation and Aging, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Foods, C-reactive protein, Alzheimer's and Inflammation, Diabetes and Inflammation, Heart Disease and Inflammation.

[71s] Nuclear Transfer from Telomere-Extended Cells in Culture
In the past, cloning experiments with animals such as Dolly, the first sheep prepared by cloning via nuclear transfer, had some limitations. For instance, the clone was prepared without re-extending the telomeres of the cellular DNA that the clone was prepared from, so that the clone generally does not live as long. Cloned animals got sick and died sooner, possibly because they ran out of DNA telomere length with each cell division, a life span limiting feature that applies in many mammals, though not in the mouse, which has super-long telomeres but is more vulnerable to cancer. To avoid these problems, cells from the subject may first be cultured, then telemore-extended with telomerase or via one of the other techniques that has been recently developed for this application. Then clones with normal life spans and youthful DNA may be prepared from older specimens more successfully than in the past. However, to my knowledge, this little trick has yet to be applied to experimental cloning of animals. Specialized tissues prepared from embryonic stem cells using this refinement of therapeutic cloning technique may have ideal properties for application to life extension. For example, totipotent cells from the blastula-phase embryo may be used to prepare relatively youthful bone marrow cells to be implanted in the body and function to release fresh adult stem cells into the blood that refresh the vascular endothelium of the circulatory system.
I suppose people that can face a morning-after pill like Ru486 can face this sort of micro-disruption in externally prepared micro-embryonic progress with good cheer. After all, it is tissue prepared so that the race may go on in good health, as usual. Perhaps our constitution, which guarantees religious freedom, could be invoked to defend our right to prepare new tissue from our own DNA and cellular material in the spirit of folk working to promote the common defense. Also, this cellular material will not be sired with passion in the womb of a girlfriend of ours, but in the laboratory without orgasm ever occurring. You just implant the cellular nucleus from your skin cells re-grown in culture and prepared as telomere-extended cells with a needle into a substantial menagerie of host eggs (perhaps as many as 300 or more until the technique is perfected) donated or purchased from the egg-producing side of the house or harvested from apes, prior to stimulating them with electricity or chemicals in the presence of the right materials. Then any resulting successful blastula-phase embryo is taken apart before a beating heart or nervous system appears. Then the life-saving, life-extending tissues that will effectively continue the race will be prepared without the death of the mind. Considering what is at stake for your health, to me it seems to be good business that the saints might be proud of. I see no need to evolve humans beyond their present stage of evolution: they may as well live and cultivate their literature, technology, and culture. The End of Evolution may as well be at hand. Furthermore, then girls always have eggs of value to sell besides their sexual services, an insight likely to appeal to women voters. Perhaps the breakeven expense with DNA-drained chimpanzee or mouse eggs serving as transgenic animal hosts would be a factor in deciding the value of human eggs, which, after all, may not be used. Perhaps life extension will be obtained by plundering the eggs of lesser beasts that will function to obtain blastula-phase embryos never intended to reach full term. Human may be best, though, because we want to obtain cells with the appropriate mitochondrial characteristics that live for quite some time. Eventually, cellular design engineering is apt to provide a suitable answer.

[72s] Alkalinizing Drinks include water alkalinized by machines, alkalinizing beverages such as coconut water, and alkalinizing teas. See Google Links on alkalinizing water with machines, alkalinizing beverages, and alkalinizing teas. One may also consider alkalinizing foods, such as beets. The body maintains the pH of blood between 7.35 and 7.45 via alkaline blood buffers, the supply of which may be strained by drinking acidic beverages such as colas and orange juice. See Chapter 4 on Food and Water in Fantastic Voyage by Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman, M.D. on this topic, and see Google Books on alkalinizing beverages, antioxidants, and antioxidants and alkalinity. It is theorized or known that alkalinizing food and beverages have antioxidant effect. Some foods can cause a condition tagged as "acidosis" that drives the body toward osteoporosis. "On a balanced whole foods diet which includes many fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, the body is provided with the anionic mineral salts it needs for buffering excess acids.... An imbalanced diet high in animal protein, sugar, caffeine and processed foods, however, can force us into mild acidosis."

[73s] Fantastic Voyage Select juicy tidbits & clues. Obtain Fantastic Voyage for your library.
Chap. 17) Dr. Terry Grossman's program. Terry did a "full panel genomics" test on himself to identify his genetic quirks. He cryopreserved his tissue enough to clone material for heart cells in case of heart disease. See Links/Cryopreservation of DNA, cryopreservation of DNA for tissue cloning. He considers heart transplants from transgenic animals and bionic hearts. He practices "Caloric Restriction Without the RestrictionTM", eating a Ray & Terry modified Japanese diet, and hopes to get his bodyweight < 14% of his total weight, points out that 10% fat might be optimum. See body fat testing links. Claims to drink 10 glasses of alkalinized water per day [72s], garnished with many cups of green tea and vegetable juice. See Dr. Terry Grossman's Frontier Medical Center Newsletter, which promotes a Mediterranean diet including olive oil to raise HDL, lower LDL, and scavange out LDL deposits from arteries before artheroscelosis strikes. Dr. Grossman tests his C-reactive protein levels (hs-CRP or hsCRP) to screen for silent inflammation [70s], and keeps it low at 1.1 mg/L by taking 2 tsp (10 gr) of fish oil and 2 caps of curcumin every day. Tests his homocysteine level to check up on methylation [69s], typically lowered with folic acid, B6, and B12, or by taking betaine [trimethylglycine], and trys to keep his < 7.5 μmol/L, usually attaining 7.0 μmol/L. Detoxified himself by removing all mercury-containing fillings from his teeth! (Only plutonium is more poisonous among the metals.) Consumes only grown-without-pesticides "organic" foods. Takes an intravenous detoxification formula including amino acids, vitamins, and minerals to remove heavy metal toxins. Also takes an intravenous phospholipid exchange to rejuvenate and detoxify his cell membranes. (See also Dr. Mercola article on neurotoxic membrane syndrome & detoxification.) Also takes N-acetyl-cysteine, which is used for mercury detoxification, probably a good idea for fish eaters and men with old-fashioned dental fillings worldwide. Dr. Grossman also takes a wide range of anti-aging supplements [62s] in optimum, often greater-than-RDA amounts.
Google Links: Genomics Testing, Cryopreservation, Cryopreservation of DNA for Tissue Cloning, Heart Transplants from Transgenic Animals, Bionic Hearts, Detoxification of Cell Membranes, Mercury detoxification.
Google Books: Genomics Testing, Cryopreservation of Tissue, Cryopreservation of DNA for Tissue Cloning, Heart Transplants from Transgenic Animals, Bionic Hearts, Detoxification of Cell Membranes, Mercury Detoxification.
Life Extension Search: Genomics Testing, Cryopreservation of Tissue, Cryopreservation of DNA for Tissue Cloning, Heart Transplants from Transgenic Animals, Bionic Hearts, Detoxification of Cell Membranes, Mercury Detoxification.

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Be sure to check a PDR (Physician's Desktop Reference) regarding dosage, contraindications, and side effects. See also Wal-Mart's checker for Drugs and Drug Interactions and Google Books Pharmaceutical References. It is best to use quality pharmaceuticals from reputable manufacturers according to the instructions of the manufacturer, and to avoid using mere chemicals that may be under investigation for pharmaceutical applications. Many of the tips and clues in this document could benefit from further testing and research.

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