Anti-Aging Medicine: Supplemental Notes 5 and Links

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[84s] Glossary of Chemical Terms for Astragaloside Papers & Telomerase Papers
[85s] Supplemental Index - Handles Index overruns until Index recompilation. For index files > 255.99 kbytes.
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
See also lifexnotes12.html on Astragalus Composition.

[84s] Glossary of Chemical Terms for Astragaloside Papers & Telomerase Papers (Astragalus Composition)

(1) Calvin B. Harley, et al. (2005). Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity (See also sources A', A''. Geron patent ap.) [Links, Papers, Patents].
(1b) See the 2010 edition (WO/2010/135247) Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. The 2010 version describes research on more bioavailable telomerase activators, including
___(1b.1) 2-(L)-amino-3-methyl-butyric acid 6-alpha,
___(1b.2) 2-(L)-Amino-3-methyl-butyric acid,
___(1b.3) 4 C3-(L)-valyl-cycloastragenol.
(2) Calvin B. Harley, Hong Kong U. Patent, (2005). Formulations Containing Astragalus Extracts and the Uses Thereof, European Patent Office. [Links, Papers, Patents].
(3) Calvin, B. Harley, et. al, Geron Patent List, (2005). Compositions and Methods for Skin Conditioning [Links, Papers, Patents] including small molecule telomerase activators such as astragaloside IV, cycloastragenol, astragenol, and astragaloside IV 16-one in glycerin, ect.
(4) White, Michael, A., (Board of Regents, The University of Texas System), 1999. (WO/2000/008135) Methods and Compositions for Inhibiting or Stimulating Telomerase Assembly [Links, Papers, Patents].
(5) Tsutomu Akama, Ryan Holcomb, Richard L. Tolman, 2000. Geron Patent, Telomerase Inhibitors and Methods of Their Use, Patent number: 6452014, Dec.22, 2000. [Links, Papers, Patents].
(6) Allison Chin, et.al, (Geron Corp.) 2000. Telomerase Inhibitors and Methods of Their Use, June 2000 [Links, Papers, Patents].
(7) Aviv Gazit, Shimon Slavin, Esther Priel, Sara Yitzchak, TELOMERASE ACTIVATING COMPOUNDS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF, US Patent, US Patent App. 12/602,956, 2008, WO Patent WO/2008/149, 353, 2008.

2OR,25S-epoxy-3β,16β,25-trihydroxy-9β-methyl-19-norlanost-1,5-diene (telomerase activator, List, Index) [81s/6b].
acetylastragaloside I [Links, Images, Papers, Books].
Acyl group [Wikipedia, Images, Books].
Acyloxy group [Links, Images, Papers, Books; Links/lower acyloxy group, Images].
Adrenocortical Cells [Links, Images, Books, Amazon].
Aging Adult Keratinocytes [Images, Books, Amazon].
Aging Neonatal Keratinocytes [Images, Books].
Alglycone [Links, Images, Papers, Books, Links/common alglycone; cycloastragenol [Images/cycloastragenol molecule], the common alglycone of the astragalosides.]
Alkane group [Wikipedia].
Alkoxy group [Wikipedia, Images, Links, Books; Images/lower alkoxy group, Books].
Alkyl group derived from an alkane by removing 1 hydrogen atom. [Wikipedia, Encyclopedia, Links, Books].
___An alkyl group is a fully saturated monovalent radical containing carbon and hydrogen that may be branched or linear.
___"Lower alkyl groups" have one to six carbon atoms.
Astragalus Membranaceus [Index, Images, Links, Patents, Books, Papers]. MeOH extract:
___8 kilograms of root tissue yielded 200 grams of extract, which after column chromatography separation in MeOH yielded a total of 8.6 grams of astragalosides for 107.5 mg astragalosides/100 gram of root tissue [(1),p22]:
___acetylastrogaloside I (0.2g) [Links, Papers].
___astragaloside I (3.5g) [Links, Images, Books]
___isoastragaloside I (0.3g) [Links, Images, Books].
___astragaloside II (2.3g) [Links, Images, Books]
___astragaloside III (1.0g) [Links, Images, Books]
___astragaloside IV (0.8g) [Index, Links, Images, Books]
___astragaloside V (0.1g) [Links, Images, Books]
___astragaloside VI (0.3g) [Links, Images, Books].
___astragaloside VII (0.1g) [Links, Images, Books]
___Most commercially available astragalus extracts are ethanolic extracts, however. [Papers; Links/astragalus extracts, Papers]. One paper claiming good yield for ethanolic extraction obtained total flavones of 600 mg/100 g Radix astragali and 28 mg of astragalosides/100 g Radix astragali.
Astragalus Verrucosus [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Astragaloside IV (Index, telomerase activator) [81s, 81s/6b, Links, Books].
Astragaloside IV 16-one (telomerase activator) [81s, 81s/6b, Links, Books].
Astragalosides A, I, II, and VII (telomerase activators) A (IV), 1 (I), 2 (II), and 7 (VII).
Astragenol (telomerase activator) [81s, 81s/6b, Links, Books].
Astraverrucins I and II [Links, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon].
___Astraverrucin I [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books],
___Astraverrucin II [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Bone Marrow Stem Cells [Links, Images, Books, Amazon].
Bone Marrow Stromal Cells [Links, Images, Books, Amazon].
Carriers (such as Liposomal carriers) [Links/Carriers for topical applications, Images, Papers, Books].
CD4+ Cells [Images, Wikipedia/CD4, Links].
CD8+ Cells [Links, Images, Books, Amazon].
Colchicine Treatment to Arrest Cells in Metaphase [Links, Images, Papers, Books; Links/Colchicine].
Cycloartanes [Images, Links, Books, Papers].
Cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides [Links, Images, Books, Papers, Links/cycloartane].
Cycloastragenol (Index, telomerase activator, possibly TA-65) [Links, Books, 81s/6b].
Cycloastragenol 6-β-D-glucopyranoside (telomerase activator) [Books, 81s/6b].
Cycloastragenol 3-β-D-xylopyranoside (telomerase activator) [81s/6b].
Cyclopropyl ring [Links, Images, Books; Wikipedia/Cyclopropane; Links/fused cyclopropyl ring, Books].
Astragaloside IV, showing its darked cyclopropyl ring including carbon atom number 9. Press for Revolution #9 from the Beatles WHITE ALBUM.
The darkened inverted V-shaped structure including carbon atom # 9 is a cyclopropyl ring. (See 9 of 72,p8).
____Clockwise from the pointed tip of the dark inverted V, we have carbon atoms 19, 9, and 10. (See 17 of 72, p16).
Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CD8+ cells) [Images, Books/Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes, Wikipedia].
Emollients (for topical formulations)
___[Wikipedia/Emollient, Links/skin cream emolients; Links/emollients, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon].
Emulsifiers (for topical formulations)
___[Wikipedia/Emulsion, Links/skin cream emulsifiers; Links/emulsifiers, Images, Books, Amazon].
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) (a telomerase activator for keratinocytes)
___[TA/EGF, Links, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon].
Ethyl Group (one of the alkyl groups) [Links, Images].
Explant Cells [Links, Images].
Fibroblasts [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Books, Amazon].
Flash Chromatography [Links, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon].
Fractionation [Links, Images, Papers, Books] by column chromatography on silica gel,
___using CHCl3/MeOH/H2O mixtures as eluants.
Ginsenoside Rb1 [Links, Images, Papers, Books, ].
Ginsenoside Rg1 [Links, Images, Papers, Books].
Ginsenoside Rh1 (telomerase activator, also activates estrogen receptor)
___[TA/Ginsenoside_RH1, Links, Images, Papers, Books, Manufacturers, 81s/6b].
Glucopyranosides [Links, Images, Papers, Books].
Glycosides [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Books].
___Glycosides include riboside, arabinoside, xyloside, lyxoside, altroside, glucoside,
___mannoside, guloside, idoside, galactoside, and taloside types.
GRN137227 a control oligonucleotide [Links, Papers].
GRN163 (a telomerase inhibitor, List) [Links, Images, Books, Amazon].
___GRN163 targets the template region of the telomerase RNA component.
Hydroxy (-OH group) [Wikipedia/Hydroxy, Links/hydroxy group].
Hydroxyl group (OH- or -OH group) [Wikipedia, Links/hydroxyl group].
Islet Precursor Cells [Links, Images, Books].
Isoastragaloside I [Links, Images, Papers, Books].
Isopropyl group (an alkyl group) [Links, Images, Books].
Keratinocytes [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Books, Amazon].
Ketone group [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Books].
Liposome Carriers [Index/Liposomes, Wikipedia; Links/Liposome Carriers, Images, Papers, Books;
___Links/Carriers for topical applications, Images, Papers, Books].
Mesenchymal (Stem) Cells [Wikipedia, Links, Books, Amazon/mesenchymal stem cells].
Methods of Organic Synthesis [Links, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon].
Methyl group (-CH3, an alkyl group) [Wikipedia, Links].
Muscle Satellite Cells [Links, Images, Books, Amazon].
N-butyl group (an alkyl group) [Wikipedia, Links, Images].
Neonatal Keratinocytes [Images, Books, Amazon].
Neurosphere Cells, a type of stem cell. [Images, Books, Amazon].
N-heptyl group (an alkyl group) [Books, Links].
Organic Chemistry Nomenclature [Wikipedia, Links, Books].
Osteoblasts [Wikipedia, Images, Books, Links].
Panaxatriol [Links, Images, Books].
Parenteral Administration [Definition] - as an injection.
PBS [Links, Images, Books; Links/preparation of trypsinized cells in a PBS suspension, Images, Papers, Books].
Pharmaceutical Salts [Links/Pharmaceutical Salts, Images, Papers, Books;
___Links/Acceptable Pharmaceutical Salts, Images, Papers, Books],
___such as a hydrochloride salt.
Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Books].
___See Links/Platelet Derived Growth Factor and telomerase activation, Images, Papers, Books.
___Note PDGF activates c-myc, an hTERT activator [NK Banskota, et al., 1989].
Pyranose Ring a 6-member ring [Links, Images, Books], such as a
___glucopyranoside [Links, Images, Books] or a
___mannopyranoside [Links, Images, Books]. In this case we have glycosides in pyranose form.
Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon].
Ribogreen RNA Quantitation Kit [Links] from Molecular Probes.
Saponins [Index, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Books].
Scratch Assay [Links, Images, Books, Amazon].
Skin Emollients (for topical application) [Links, Images, Papers, Books, Amazon].
Stromal Cells [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Books, Amazon/stromal cells].
T-butyl group (an alkyl group) [Links, Images, Papers].
Telomeric Crisis Stage [Links, Images, Papers, Books, Index/Telomere Fusion].
Telomerase Chaparonins (Michael A. White, (4) Methods and Compositions...)
____Telomerase chaparonins mediate telomerase assembly and include:
____hsp40 [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Books].
____hsp70 [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Books].
____hsp90 [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Books, Papers].
____p23 [Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Books].
____HOP [Links/HOP and hTERT, Papers].
Thickeners (for topical application) [Links, Images, Papers, Books; Links/skin cream thickeners].
TRAP Assay [LifeXLabs/Telomeasures, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon].
Tripsin [Links, Images, Papers, Books; Links/Tripsinization].
Triterpenoidal Saponins [Index/Saponins, Links, Images, Papers, Books].
Triterpensaponins [Links, Images, Papers, Books].
Wound Healing [Index, Links, Wikipedia, Books, Images, Amazon].
___Astragaloside IV and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), both accelerate wound healing,
___and can both be blocked by the telomerase inhibitor GRN163. See (1), Figure 7.
100% (w/v) - Corresponding to 1 gram per ml. For instance, 0.1% (w/v) = 1 mg/ml.
Xylopyranosides [Links, Images, Papers, Books].

Compound Synoymns for Geron Compositions and Methods for Increasing Telomerase Activity, Nov 18, 2010
US Patent No.: 2010/0292197 A1, Nov. 18, 2010.
This was for Enhanced-Bioavailability Telomerase Activators (100), including most remarkably
C3-(L)-isoleucyl-cycloastragenol, and also
C3-(L)-valyl-cycloastragenol and other compounds of note.

Cycloastragenol
Here the "C3" signifies the third carbon atom on the leftmost cycloastragenol hex ring, numbering 1,2,3 counterclockwise from the top. The leftmost cycloastragenol hex ring is just left of the the triangular cyclopropane loop. The compound is attached at C3 via an ester bond. Mono-amino acid combinations of cycloastragenol and an amino acid are sometimes partly stripped down to cycloastragenol in bioavailability studies.



The patent describes combinations of L-valine and cycloastragenol.
We are interested in a few other descriptions it contains of compounds combined with cycloastragenol:
Compound = Synonym
(1) 2-(L)-amino-3-methyl-butyric acid = L-Valine.
(2) 2-(L)-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-methyl-butyric acid.
(3) 2-(L), 3-dimethyl-pentanoic acid.
(4) 2-(L)-Amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid = L-isoleucine.
(5) 2-(L)-Amino-hexanoic acid = L-norleucine.
(6) 2-(L)-Amino-pentanedioic acid = L-glutamic acid = L-glutamate.
(7) 2-(L)-Amino-3-phenyl-propionic acid = L-phenylalanine.
(8) 3-Methyl-2-(L)-methylamino-butyric acid.

Note that the branched-chain amino acids [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books] isoleucine, leucine, and valine are thought to turn on muscle synthesis.

Telomeric Proteins Nomenclature
[Telomere Loop Control Proteins, Mammalian Telomere Protein Factors, The Telomere Interactome].

DNA Damage Response Proteins active at the telomere

___Myb-like helix-turn-helix motif [Links/Myb protein, Links/Myb-like helix-turn-helix motif, Images, Papers, Books].
___TRF1 and TRF2 bind to double-stranded DNA at hex telomere repeats using the Myb-like helix-turn-helix motif.

___Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex [Links/the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex, Images, Papers, Books].

___KU heterodimer (Ku70 and KU80) [Links/KU heterodimer, Images, Papers, Books].

___ATM kinase (ataxia-telangieectasia mutated kinase) [Links/ATM kinase, Images, Papers, Books].

"DNA damage response factors, such as
53BP1 [Links/53BP1, Images, Papers, Books],
γH2AX [Links/γH2AX, Images, Papers, Books],
Mre11 [Links/Mre11, Images, Papers, Books], and
the phosphorylated form of ATM [Links, Images, Papers, Books],
can localize at uncapped telomeres, forming cytological structures referred to as
telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF) [Links, Images, Papers, Books]."

- See Marco Folinia, Paolo Gandellinia and Nadia Zaffaroni (2009),
Targeting the telosome: Therapeutic implications,
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, April 2009, 309-316.

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