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Highlight Links
i. Introduction [Text/Introduction,
____Terraternal - Live Forever. An introduction to the associated medicine,
____International Anti-Aging Systems, Theories of Aging,
____Life Extension Magazine,
____Geron, TA Sciences, Medicinal Nutraceutics (Maximum Telomere Support), Sierra Sciences, RevGenetics, Iron-Dragon, Biologix Peptide].
____Biological Clocks of the Aging Cell
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Circadian rhythm, (7) Telomere Clock, Hayflick Limit].
0. Genetic Theory of Aging
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Gene, Wikipedia/Senescence; Links/Genes in Aging, Books].
____0.1 Genomic Instability in Premature Aging
________[Index/Genomic Stability, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/DNA Damage & Aging].
____0.2 Somatic Mutations and Cellular Aging
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Mutations].
____0.3 Gene Silencing and Lifespan
________[Gene Silencing, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Gene silencing].
1. The Free Radical Theory of Aging
________[(1), Index, Index/Oxidative Stress, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia].
____1.1 Oxidative DNA Damage
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Oxidative stress, Index/Oxidative Stress].
____1.2 Oxidative Damage to Proteins
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Oxidative stress, Index/Oxidative Stress].
____1.3 Mitochondrial Free Radical Production and Lipid Peroxidation
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Wikipedia/Lipid peroxidation, Amazon, Books].
____1.4 Oxidative Stress probed with Knockout and Transgenic Mice
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Wikipedia/Knockout mice, Links; Wikipedia/Transgenic mice, Links].
2. Hormone Replacement Theory and Endocrine Models for Aging
________[(2), Index, HGH, IGF-1, Estradiol, Progesterone, Diosgenin, C. Racemosa (Black Cohosh), Diosgenin,
_________LEF, Links/Hormone Replacement Theory, Images, Papers, Patents, Books,
_________Amazon, Wikipedia; LEF, Links/Endocrine Models for Aging, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Wikipedia/Endocrine system].
3. The Caloric Restriction Theory of Anti-Aging Treatment
________[(3), Index/CR, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia;
________LEF/Mimicing Caloric Restriction, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia].
4. Lipofuscin Wastes and the Aging Cell Membrane
_______[(4), Index/Lipofuscin, LEF/Lipofuscin Treatment, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia;
________LEF/Lipofuscin Treatment, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia;
_______LEF/Cell Membrane and Aging Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Cell membrane].
____4.1 Lysosomal Degradation and Aging [LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Lysosome].
5. The Glycation Theory of Aging
____[(5), Index/Glycation, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Glycation].
6. Insulin Utilization and Aging
____[(6), Index/Insulin, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Insulin].
7. Hayflick Limit Theory of Aging Based on Telomeres
________[(7), Index/Hayflick Limit, LEF/Hayflick Limit, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Hayflick limit;
________ LEF/Telomeres and Telomerase, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Telomeres].
____7.1 Aging Damage to Telomeres
_______[Telomere Biology, Replicative Senescence, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Telomere].
____7.2 Small Molecule Telomerase Activators ((7)/Telomerase Activators, Index, List, lifexrefs3.html)
____________ [Index/Bioavailability, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon;
_____________LEF, Links/Activate Telomerase, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon].
________7.2.1 Geron Telomerase Activators (7) mostly based on Astragalus and Ginsenosides. (3b2/List, US Patent 7,846,904 B2, WO/2010/135247).
_____________[LEF, Links/Geron Telomerase Activators, lifexrefs3.html, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon;
_____________Index/Astragalus, Index/Astragalus Extract, 3b2, LEF, Links/Astragalus Extract, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon;
_____________Index/Ginseng, 3b2, LEF, Links/Ginsenosides, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon;
_____________Geron A, A', A'', B | TA Sciences | Sierra Sciences | Maximum Telomere Support | RevGenetics | Terraternal].
________7.2.2 Bioavailablility of Astragalosides and Small-Molecule Telomerase Activators.
_____________[Index/Bioavailability, LEF, Links/Bioavailability, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon;
_____________Links/Bioavailability of Astragalosides, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Chitosan, Sodium Deoxycholate].
________7.2.3 DNA Nanocircles and Telomere Elongation: Eric T. Kool's Work. Amazon].
_____________[LEF, Links/DNA Nanocircles for Telomere Enlongation, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon;
_____________Links/Eric T Kool Telomere Enlongation, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon].
________7.2.4 Sierra Sciences: the hTERT Promoter and modulating hTERT expression.
_____________[
LEF/William Andrews, Sierra Sciences, Links/Sierra Sciences, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
_____________Links/the hTERT promoter, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon;
_____________LEF/modulating hTERT expression, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon]. (WO/2002/101010)
______________METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR MODULATING TELOMERASE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE (TERT) EXPRESSION
________7.2.5 Nitric Oxide as a Telomerase Activator.
______________[Index/Nitric Oxide, LEF/Nitric Oxide, NO More Heart Disease, Links/Nitric Oxide activates telomerase, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
________7.2.6 Novel Wistar Institute Telomerase Activators
____________[Tri-Phenyl Compounds, Links/Wistar Institute Telomerase Activators, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____________Aviv Gazit et al, TELOMERASE ACTIVATING COMPOUNDS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF,
____________US Patent, US Patent App. 12/602,956, 2008, WO Patent WO/2008/149, 353, 2008.
________7.2.7 Androgens as Small-Molecule Telomerase Activators [List/Androgens, Links, Images, Papers, Patents; Books/Androgens and Aging; LEF/Androgens, Wikipedia].
________7.2.8 Fast Telomere Extension [Index, Longevity Change Log].
____7.3 Telomerase Inhibitors (List).
_________[LEF/telomerase inhibitors, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon].
____7.4 The hTERT Promoter. (Index/hTERT Promoter) [LEF/hTERT; Links/The hTERT Promoter, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____7.5 Telomere Epigenetics - The Role of Methylation
_________[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books,
_________LEF/Epigenetics in Aging, Links/Epigenetics in Aging, Images, Papers, Patents, Books,
_________LEF/Methylation in Aging, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____7.6 The Telomere Position Effect and Youthful Patterns of Gene Expression
_________[(7)/Telomere Position Effect, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books,
_________Links/The Telomere Position Effect, Images, Papers, Patents, Books,
_________LEF/hTERT, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____7.7 Telomere T-Loop and D-Loop (Index/T-Loop).
_________[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books,
_________LEF/The Telomere T-Loop, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books,
_________Links/The Telomere D-Loop, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____7.8 Telomere Capping Proteins ((7)/Telomere Capping Proteins, Index/Telosome)
_________[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Index/Mammalian Telomere Protein Factors, Index/The Telomere Interactome].
____7.9 Telomerase Functional Environment (Index/Telomerase) [lifexrefs4.html, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____7.10 Telomerase and Protection of Mitochondrial DNA
_________[(7)/Telomerase and Aging in Mitochondria, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books,
_________LEF/Protection of Mitochondrial DNA, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____7.11 Measuring Telomere Length [Lifexlabs/Telomeasures, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___________7.11.1 with PCR Methods (Cawthon). [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___________7.11.2 with Southern blot analysis of telomere restriction fragments. [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___________7.11.3 with Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization using digital fluorescence microscopy (Q-FISH).
_________________[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___________7.11.4 with Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization using flow cytometry (flow-FISH).
_________________[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___________7.11.5 with Quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization laser scanning cytometry (Q-FISHLSC).
_________________[Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
8. Stem Cell Technology and Anti-Aging Therapy [(8), Wikipedia/Stem cells; LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Wikipedia/Stem cells].
___8.1 Introduction to Stem Cells
___8.2 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPS Cells) [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___8.3 Further Stem Cell References.
9. Aging and Exercise [(9), LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
10. Aging and DNA Repair [(10), Wikipedia, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
11. The Immune System and Aging [(11), Wikipedia/Immune System; LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
12. Aging and Chelation of Metallic Wastes [(12), Index, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
13. The Membrane Theory of Aging (Zs-Nagy) [(13), LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
14. The Proteasome and Aging [(14), Index/Proteasomes, Wikipedia; LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
15. Other Mechanisms of Aging [(15)].
____15.1 Racemization [(15)/Racemization, Wikipedia/Racemization; Links/in life span measurements,
________Links/in life span dating assay; Books/racemization assay, Papers/in life span determination].
____15.2 Smoking [(15)/Smoking, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension].
____15.3 History of Infections [(15)/Infections, [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, LifeExtension;
________Links/Bacterial pathogens in human disease (Bacterial infections), Links/Viral pathogens in human disease (viral infections)].
____15.4 Wear and Tear - Dental [(15)/Wear and Tear - Dental, Dental].
____15.5 Non-Oxidative Transformations of DNA and Proteins in Aging [LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____15.6 Dysregulation of Transcription and Translation in Aging [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
____15.7 RNA Damage and Aging [Wikipedia/RNA; LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
16. Telomerase Inhibitors. [List, LEF, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; High Polyphenol Diet].
17. Molecular Biology of Aging References.
18. Selected references on Astragalosides and Ginsenosides as Telomerase Activators
____[Index/Astragalosides; 3b2/Astragalosides; Links/Astragalosides as Telomerase Activators, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
____Links/References on Astragalosides, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
____Index/Ginseng; 3b2/Ginsenosides; Links/Ginsenosides as Telomerase Activators, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
_____Links/References on Ginsenosides, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
19. Selected References on the Characteristics of Telomerase
_____[Further Telomerase References, Index/Telomerase; Links/Characteristics of Telomerase, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
_____Links/References on Characteristics of Telomerase, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
20. Selected References on the biological activity of ginsenosides and astragalosides
_____[Index/Ginsenosides; Links/Biological Activity of the Ginsenosides, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
_____Links/Biological Activity of the Astragalosides, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
21. Selected References on Enhancement of Antiviral Function using Cycloastragenol (TAT2)
_____[Index/TAT2, Index/cycloastragenol; Links/Enhancement of Antiviral Function, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
_____Links/Enhancement of Antiviral Function with TAT2, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
22. Further References on Telomerase
_____[Index/Telomerase; Links/Characteristics of Telomerase, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
_____Links/References on Characteristics of Telomerase, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
23. References on Zinc Finger Nucleases
_____[Index/Zinc Finger Nucleases; Links/Zinc Finger Nucleases, Images, Papers, Patents, Books;
_____Links/ZFN Technology, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
24. Selected References on Hair Graying
_____[Index, Links/Hair Graying, Images, Papers, Patents, Books. LifeExtension;
_____Links/Cures for Grey Hair, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension;
_____Links/Hair Follicle Melanocytes, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension;
_____Links/Hair Follicle Melanocyte Stem Cells, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
25. Selected References on Heat Shock Proteins
_____[Index, Wikipedia/Heat_shock_protein,
_____Links/Heat Shock Proteins, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, LifeExtension].
26. The Aging Cell [Links/The Cell, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/The Aging Cell, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
27. Restoring Senescent Cells [Links/Restoring Senescent Cells, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Wikipedia/Caveolin-1;
_____Links/Caveolin and Senescence Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
28. FOXO transcription factors and Caveolin control.
29. Neck Rejuvenation Refs.

i. Introduction [Text/Introduction].
Terraternal - Live Forever. An introduction to the associated medicine.
International Anti-Aging Systems, Theories of Aging, on-line.
Life Extension Magazine, on-line.
Geron, TA Sciences, Medicinal Nutraceutics (Maximum Telomere Support), Sierra Sciences, RevGenetics, Iron-Dragon, Biologix Peptide.

_____Biological Clocks of the Aging Cell
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Circadian rhythm, (7) Telomere Clock, Hayflick Limit].

Jerry W. Shay and Woodring E. Wright (2000). Hayflick, his limit, and cellular ageing. Nature/Reviews/Molecular Cell Biology, October, 2000. Shows microphotographs of the difference between young and old human fibroblast [Index, Books] diploid cells (strain WI-38).

Hayflick L, Moorehead PS (1961),
Serial Cultivation of human diploid cell strains,
Exp Cell Res. 25:585-621, 35 references without titles.
"Cell strains (of non-transformed fibroblasts)...degenerate after about 50 subcultivations and 1 year in culture....the phenomenon is attributable to intrinsic factors which are expressed as senescence at the cellular level." (italics mine). Hayflick and Moorehead define "cell strains" as cultures of morphologically unaltered cells and "cell lines" as cultures of morphologically transformed cells, which may feature heteroploid characteristics and immortalized cellular propagation.

Harman, Denham (1972),
The biological clock: the mitochondria?
Journal of the American Geriatric Society 20: 145-7.
___[Links/Mitochondria and Aging, Images, Papers, Books; Links/The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging, Images, Papers, Books].
Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey on Aging of the Mitochondrial Genome, video, 62 minutes.
Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey, The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging.
JD Watson (1972),
Origin of concatemeric T7 DNA,
Nature New Biology, 239:197-201, 1972.
The key initial paper in the end-replication problem [Links, Books, Papers, Images, Amazon/the telomere end-replication problem] involving Okazaki fragments in lagging strand DNA synthesis and RNA primers. Leads to a consideration of incomplete copying of template margin in enzymic synthesis of polynucleotides as developed by Alexey Olovnikov for application to cellular age timekeeping.

AM Olovnikov (1973),
A theory of marginotomy. The incomplete copying of template margin in enzymic synthesis of polynucleotides and biological significance of the phenomenon as a cellular clock.,
Journal of Theoretical Biology, Sep 14,1973;41(1):181-90.

Elizabeth Blackburn, Joseph G Gall [Links] (1978),
A tandemly repeated sequence at the termini of the extrachromosomal ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena,
The Journal of Molecular Biology 1978 Mar 25;120(1):33-53. (Discovery of the telomere.)

Greider CW and Blackburn EH (1985),
Identification of a specific telomere terminal transferase activity in Tetrahymena extracts,
Cell 43:405-13. (Discovery of telomerase.)

Cooke HJ, Smith BA (1986),
Variability at the telomeres of the human X/Y pseudoautosomal region,
Cold Spring Harbor Symposium for Quantitative Biology 1986;51 Pt 1:213-219.
Cooke and Smith reported that telomeres are longer in reproductive haploid cells such as spermatazoa and egg cells but shorten with age in other somatic cells. Thus Cooke and Smith's paper found some of the first evidence that telomere length is associated with aging.

Wright WE, Shay JW, Pereira-Smith OM (1989),
Reversible Cellular Senescence: implications for immortalization of normal human diploid fibroblasts,
Molecular Cell Biology. 9(7): 3088-3092.

CB Harley, Futcher, and Greider (1990),
Telomeres shorten during aging of human fibroblasts,
Nature 345: 458-460.

Counter CM, Avilon AA, LeFeuvre CE, Stewart NG, Greider Carol W, Harley Calvin B, Bacchetti S (1992),
Telomere shortening associated with chromosome instability is arrested in immortal cells which express telomerase activity,
EMBO Journal 11: 1921-1929, 1992.

Richard C. Allsopp, H Vaziri, C Patterson, S. Goldstein,
E. V. Younglai, A Bruce Futcher, Carol W. Greider and Calvin B. Harley (1992),
Telomere Length Predicts Replicative Capacity of Human Fibroblasts,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, vol. 89, November 1992.

Richard C. Allsopp, Edwin Chang, Mohammad Kashefi-Aazam, Evgeny I. Rogaev,
Mieczyslaw A. Piatyszek, Jerry W. Shay and Calvin B. Harley (1995),
Telomere Shortening Is Associated with Cell Division in Vitro and in Vivo,
Experimental Cell Research, Volume 220, Issue 1, September 1995, Pages 194-200.

CP Chiu and CB Harley (1997),
Replicative senescence and cell immortality: the role of telomeres and telomerase,
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol 214, 99-106. [Papers, Links, Books].

Andrea G. Bodnar, Michel Ouellette, Maria Frolkis, Shawn E. Holt, Choy-Pik Chiu, Gregg B. Morin,
Calvin B. Harley, Jerry W. Shay, Serge Lichtsteiner, Woodring E. Wright (1998),
Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells,
Science 16 January 1998, pp. 349 - 352.

Homayoun Vaziri and Samuel Benchimol (1998),
Reconstitution of telomerase activity in normal human cells leads to elongation of telomeres and extended replicative life span,
Current Biology 8, 5: 26 Feb 1998, 279-282.

K.G. Murti and D.M.Prescott (1999),
Telomeres of polytene chromosomes in a ciliated protozoan terminate in duplex DNA loops,
PNAS, December 7, 1999, Vol 96, No. 25, pp.14436-14439.

Carol W. Greider (1999),
Telomeres Do D-Loop T-Loop Minireview, (with associated papers)
Cell, Vol.97 (419-422), May 14, 1999.

Jerry W. Shay (1999)
At the end of the millenium, a view of the end,
Nature Genetics, 23, 382-383 (1999).

Blackburn, Elizabeth (2001),
Switching and signaling at the telomere.,
Cell, Vol. 106, 661-673, September 21, 2001.

JW Shay and WE Wright (2005),
Senescence and Immortalization: the role telomeres and telomerase,
Carcinogenesis, Volume 26, Number 5 Pp. 867-874.

Geraldine Aubert and Peter M. Lansdorp (2008),
Telomeres and Aging,
Physiological Reviews, 88: 557-570, 2008. Includes 248 footnotes.
This paper is valuable, but may contain some errors. Replicative senescence is described as ensuing at 200-300 bp, while our M1 transition for replicative senescence typically starts at 4000 bp. Adult stem cells were described as having less than 100 divisions in a cell lifetime, while certain epidermal skin cells have thousands of cell divisions available in a cell lifetime.

0. Genetic Theory of Aging
____[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Gene, Wikipedia/Senescence; Links/Genes in Aging, Books].

_____0.1 Genomic Instability in Premature Aging
________[Index/Genomic Stability, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/DNA Damage & Aging].

_____0.2 Somatic Mutations and Cellular Aging
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Mutations].

_____0.3 Gene Silencing and Lifespan
________[Gene Silencing, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Gene silencing].

1. The Free Radical Theory of Aging
_____[(1), Index, Index/Oxidative Stress, Wikipedia, Links, Images, Video, Papers, Books, Amazon, LifeExtension].

Harman D (1956), Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. Journal of Gerontology, 2:298-300.

Pauling L (1970),
Evolution and the need for ascorbic acid,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 67:1643-8.

Harman D (1972),
The biological clock: the mitochondria?,
Journal of the American Geriatric Society 20: 145-7.

Chance B, Sies H, Boveris A (1979),
Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs,
Physiological Review, 59: 527-605.

Klebanoff SJ (1980),
Oxygen metabolism and the toxic properties of phagocytes,
Annals of Internal Medicine 93:480-9.

Ames BN (1983),
Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens. Oxygen radicals and degenerative diseases,
Science 221: 1256-64.

Machlin LJ, and Bendich A (1987),
Free radical tissue damage: protective role of antioxidant nutrients,
FASEB Journal 1: 441-5.

Hurst JK, Barrett WC Jr (1989),
Leukocytic oxygen activation and microbicidal oxidative toxins,
Critical Review of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 24: 271-328.

Garland D (1990),
Role of site-specific, metal-catalyzed oxidation in lens aging and cataract: a hypothesis,
Experimental Eye Research, 50: 677-82.

Sohal, RS, Brunk UT (1992),
Mitochondrial production of pro-oxidants and cellular senescence,
Mutation Research 275:295-304.

Sohal RS, Orr WC (1992),
Relationship between antioxidants, prooxidants, and aging process,
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 663: 74-84.

Rikans LE, Cai Y (1993),
Diquat-induced oxidative damage in BCNU-pretreated hepatocytes of mature and old rats,
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

Sohal RS, Sohal BH, Orr WC (1995),
Mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation, protein oxidative damage, and longevity in different species of flies,
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 19: 499-504.

Folkes LK, Candeias LP, Wardman P (1995),
Kinetics and mechanism of hypochlorous acid reactions,
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 323: 120-6.

Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM (1995),
Mitochondrial decay in aging,
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1271: 165-70.

Bates TE, Loesch A, Burnstock G, Clark JB (1995),
Immunocytochemical evidence for a mitochondrially located nitric oxide synthase in brain and liver,
Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communications 213: 896-900.

Fridovich I (1995),
Superoxide radical and superoxide dismutases,
Annual Review of Biochemistry 1995: 64: 97-112.

Bates TE, Loesch A, Burnstock G, Clark JB (1996),
Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase: a ubiquitous regulator of oxidative phosphorylation?,
Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communications 218: 40-4.

Giulvi C, Poderoso JJ, Boveris A (1998),
Production of nitric oxide by mitochondria,
Journal of Biological Chemistry 273: 11038-43.

Eiserich JP, Hristova M, Cross E, et al., (1998),
Formation of nitric oxide-derived inflammatory oxidants by myeloperoxidase in neutrophils,
Nature 391: 393-7.

Halliwell, B, Gutteridge JMC (1999),
Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine,
3rd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Benzie IF (2000),
Evolution of antioxidant defence mechanisms,
European Journal of Nutrition 39: 53-61.

Nicolle Sitte and Thomas von Zglinicki (2003),
Free Radical Production and Antioxidant Defense, from Thomas Von Zglinicki (editor),
Aging at the Molecular Level, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, pp. 1-9.

Sebastien Martien and Corrine Abbadie (2007),
Acquisition of Oxidative DNA Damage during Senescence: The First Step toward Carcinogenesis?,
Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1119: 51 63 (2007).

Matthew J. Birket and Mark A. Birch-Machin (2007),
Ultraviolet radiation exposure accelerates the accumulation of the aging-dependent T414G mitochondrial DNA mutation in human skin,
Aging Cell 6(4): 557-564.

Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey on Aging of the Mitochondrial Genome, video, 62 minutes.

Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey,
The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging.


____1.1 Oxidative DNA Damage
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Oxidative stress, Index/Oxidative Stress].

____1.2 Oxidative Damage to Proteins
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Oxidative stress, Index/Oxidative Stress].

____1.3 Mitochondrial Free Radical Production and Lipid Peroxidation
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Wikipedia/Lipid peroxidation, Amazon, Books].

Lin Liu, James R. Trimarchi, Peter J. S. Smith, David L. Keefe (October 2002),
Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to telomere attrition and genomic instability,
Aging Cell, Volume 1 Issue 1 Page 40-46, October 2002.

E. Samper, D. G. Nicholls and S. Melov (October 2003),
Mitochondrial oxidative stress causes chromosomal instability of mouse embryonic fibroblasts,
Aging Cell, Volume 2 Issue 5 Page 277-285, October 2003.


J. F. Passos, Gabriele Saretzki and Thomas von Zglinicki (2007),
DNA damage in telomeres and mitochondria during cellular senescence: is there a connection?,
Nucleic Acids Research 2007 35(22):7505-7513.


____1.4 Oxidative Stress probed with Knockout and Transgenic Mice
________[LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Wikipedia/Knockout mice, Links; Wikipedia/Transgenic mice, Links].

2. Hormone Replacement Theory and Endocrine Models for Aging
________[(2), Index, HGH, IGF-1, Estradiol, Progesterone, Diosgenin, C. Racemosa (Black Cohosh), Diosgenin,
_________LEF, Links/Hormone Replacement Theory, Images, Papers, Patents, Books,
_________Amazon, Wikipedia; LEF, Links/Endocrine Models for Aging, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon; Wikipedia/Endocrine system].

3. The Caloric Restriction Theory of Anti-Aging Treatment
________[(3), Index/CR, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia;
________LEF/Mimicing Caloric Restriction, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia].

UPC proteins
Catherine A. Wolkow, and Wendy B. Iser (2006),
Uncoupling protein homologs may provide a link between mitochondria, metabolism and lifespan,
Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 5, Issue 2, May 2006, Pages 196-208.


4. Lipofuscin Wastes and the Aging Cell Membrane
_______[(4), Index/Lipofuscin, LEF/Lipofuscin Treatment, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia;
________LEF/Lipofuscin Treatment, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia;
_______LEF/Cell Membrane and Aging Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Cell membrane].

Eveline Hutter, Mette Skovbro, Barbara Lener, Clara Prats Rasmus Rabol, et al., (2007),
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment can be separated from lipofuscin accumulation in aged human skeletal muscle,
Aging Cell Volume 6 Issue 2 Page 245-256, April 2007.

A Terman, UT Brunk (1998),
Lipofuscin: mechanisms of formation and increase with age,
APMIS, 1998.


_____Lysosomal Degradation and Aging [LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Lysosome].

Bo Yun Jung A. Han, et al.,
Senescence-associated β-galactosidase is lysosomal β-galactosidase.,
Aging Cell 5(2), 187 195.

5. The Glycation Theory of Aging
____[(5), Index/Glycation, LEF, Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Amazon, Wikipedia/Glycation].

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