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longevitychangelog.html and longevitychangelog2.html should not be restructured or renamed.
Each year "Longevity Change Log" will point to the file for that year.

longevitychangelog.html (2015 - 2012) | longevitychangelog2.html (2011 - 2007).

Jan 7, 2015: Astragalus-Strengthened NK cells Attack and Consume Proinflammatory Senescent Cells
Natural Killer cells attack and consume senescent cells showing proinflammatory status or signs of oncogenic stress
[William Falloon, Jan 2015; Campos C, et al, July 2014]. Astragalus and astragaloside supplements preferentially lengthen
Natural Killer (NK) cell telomeres, ensuring NK cell availability at higher number densities. This is also true of TA-65. The issue
of whether to replace senescent cells or reverse their senescence is impacted by this insight, as astragalus and
a few other supplements lead to strengthening NK cells that consume dangerously inflammatory senescent cells.
[1] Jerry T. Thornthwaite, Hare Shah, Pashupati Shah, Henry Respess (2012),
The Natural Killer Cell: A Historical Perspective and the Use of Supplements to Enhance NKC Activity,
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials Vol. 1 No. 3 (2012) , Article ID: 23568 , 31 pages.
"16 components have been identified that enhance or may enhance, based on their immune modulator activity, the NK cells.
These supplements include
Alpha Lipoic Acid, [Links/Alpha Lipoic Acid and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Arabinoxylin, [Links/Alpha Lipoic Acid and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Curcumin, [Links/Curcumin and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Garlic, [Links/Garlic and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Genistein, [Links/Genistein and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Ginseng, [Links/Ginseng and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Lentinan, [Links/Lentinan and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Mistletoe, [Links/Mistletoe and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
N-Acetylcysteine, [Links/N-Acetylcysteine and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Resveratrol, [Links/Resveratrol and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Selenium, [Links/Selenium and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Vitamin B, [Links/B-vitamins and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Vitamin C, [Links/Vitamin C and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Vitamin D3, [Links/Vitamin D3 and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books],
Vitamin E [Links/Vitamin D3 and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books], and
zinc [Links/Zinc and NK cell activity enhancement, Papers, Patents, Books]."


November 1-17, 2014: Phytoceramides for Skin and Facial Rejuvenation

Above: Before and After Wheat Phytoceramides.
Michael Downey (2014), Phytoceramides Skin Rejuvenation from the Inside Out [Online], Life Extension Magazine, Nov 2014.
See Phytoceramides.

January 20-21, 2014: Skin Creams for Rejuvenating Senescent Dermal Fibroblasts
A rejuvenating skin cream might be prepared with telomerase-activating colostrum (containing EGF and PDGF) mixed with folic acid (to inhibit caveolin-1, gene CAV1) to implement restoration of senescent dermal fibroblasts. In 2014 I use 3.2 mg of folic acid per 2.5-3.0 grams of powdered colostrum mixed in a 1.7 oz (48g) skin cream jar holding about 1/6 cup of water or a mixture of isopropyl alchohol and water. The folic acid tabs are crushed with pliers and mixed in with a finger. Note that colostrum also contains VEGF, which upregulates survivin to restore senescent cells. This may be combined with treatment to simultaneously elevate cyclic AMP (with glycyrrhiza extract, exercise, or forskolin), which also downregulates caveolin-1. Magnesium and alpha lipoic acid may be added to supply required cofactors including HSP90 to support telomerase assembly. Treatment with retinol [which converts into retinoic acid (List)] might be added to this to inhibit P16INK4A, which makes recovery from the senescent state difficult. However, retinol [List] should be applied during the two-week telomerase inhibiting part of the cycle of telomerase activation followed by telomerase inhibition.
Tocotrienol-rich fraction (List 173) might be used instead, since it tends to rejuvenate senescent dermal fibroblasts. Tocotrienol-rich fraction containing alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols alpha, beta, gamma, and delta from rice bran, palm oil, oat, or barley, tends to produce telomerase activity in senescent fibroblasts, lengthen telomeres, restore fibroblast morphology, and restart the cell cycle. See Suzana Makpol, Azalina Zainuddin, Kien Hui Chua, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, and Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah (2012), Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts [NCBI DOC], Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2012 February; 67(2): 135–143, and also Makpol S, Durani LW, Chua KH, Mohd Yusof YA, Ngah WZ (2011), Tocotrienol-rich fraction prevents cell cycle arrest and elongates telomere length in senescent human diploid fibroblasts, [NCBI DOC], Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011 Mar 30.

September 12, 2013
AAV Transfections - The hTERT gene may be reliably transfected using the AAV9 viral capsid: Patent EP 2402038 A1.
Non-integrative viruses made from AAV virus components with CMV promoters for hTERT may be used. Modified transfection therapy to avoid rejection may be repeated every 5 years using different AAV serotype components. Perhaps more compact hTERT DNA may be obtained as hTERT cDNA with the introns removed from hTERT mRNA using reverse transcriptase technique and then inserted in single-stranded form for compression inside the tiny AAV9 virus. If the hTERT cDNA is too large, the resulting virus will be non-integrative, but might be integrative if a single strand of hTERT cDNA is less than 4.8 Kb long. Adding the 16 exon lengths of hTERT together, I find 3396 nt length, 3.396 Kb. The CMV promoter length is 508 nt, so that hTERT cDNA with CMV promoter should come to 3904 nt or 3.904 Kb. Using the canonical 181-bp hTERT core promoter 19 bp upstream of the first nucleotide in the cDNA sequence instead would yield hTERT cDNA + core promoter = 3396+181+19 nt = 3596 nt = 3.596 Kb.

Fast Telomere Extension News
modRNA Delivery Vehicles for Fast Telomere Extension. (04/23/2015) (Expanded Encyclopedia Version).

Krista Conger (2015), Telomere extension turns back aging clock in cultured human cells, study finds,
Stanford Medicine News Center, Jan 22, 2015. [Index, Further Fast Telomere Extension References, Refs1b].

John Ramunas, Eduard Yakubov, Jennifer J. Brady, Stéphane Y. Corbel, Colin Holbrook, Moritz Brandt, Jonathan Stein, Juan G. Santiago, John P. Cooke and Helen M. Blau (2015),
Transient delivery of modified mRNA encoding TERT rapidly extends telomeres in human cells
[PDF, Big Screen PDF], The FASEB Journal, Jan 22, 2015.

John Ramunas, Eduard YAKUBOV, Helen M. Blau, John Cooke (2014),
Compounds, Compositions, Methods, and Kits Relating to Telomere Extension,
US 20140242154 A1. The Haunted Patent. Quoth the patent: "Get out of my patent!"
June 12-13, 2013 and June 28 - July 1-18, 2013
Fast Telomere Extension with nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the telomerase protein hTERT was announced
by the NHLBI Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium (PCBC):

Safe, rapid telomere extension in diverse progenitor cell types [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books, Refs 1b]:
extends telomeres in 6 days by an amount by which telomeres shorten over 15 years of normal aging.

Abstract:
"We recently showed for the first time that delivery of nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the telomerase protein hTERT to cells [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] extends their telomeres in six days by an amount by which telomeres shorten over approximately 15 years of normal human aging on average. This important discovery opens the door to safe, rapid telomere extension [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], for several reasons that are unique to our approach. First, nucleoside-modified mRNA [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] comprises the same modified nucleosides recently discovered to make up mature human mRNA [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], and is thus treated as such by cells: it does not integrate in the genome, is turned over within days, and if sufficiently pure, it is non-immunogenic. Second, and critically, our nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding telomerase extends telomeres rapidly [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] so that the extension treatment can be very brief (a few days), and thus after the extension is completed, the normal anti-cancer mechanism of telomere shortening remains intact. Finally, we can deliver nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding hTERT which is modified at known sites that mediate its posttranslational cell cycle-dependent inhibition [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], enabling rapid telomere extension [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] even in slowly- or non-dividing cells which include many progenitors. We are motivated in this work by our (Blau lab, Dr. Helen Blau) recent discovery that short telomere length in muscle stem cells (MuSCs) underlies the debilitating and fatal myopathy of muscular dystrophy (Cell, 2010), and more generally by the fact that we, like many others, find that in vitro, human primary progenitor cell populations [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] are limited in their replicative capacity, an effect at least partially mediated by short telomeres. Here we propose to realize the full potential of our discovery by generating, testing, and optimizing the modified and fully purified forms of telomerase mRNA [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] that will enable safe, rapid telomere extension in a diverse range of progenitor cell types, even those in G0. To this end we will adapt a novel method for RNA purification [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] recently invented by us (Santiago lab), work that will dramatically reduce the cost of nucleoside-modified mRNA purification [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books], currently a prohibitive barrier to the rapid and widespread adoption of nucleoside-modified mRNA for telomere extension and other applications. We plan to make these tools for telomere extension and mRNA purification available to all PCBC members in a timely manner."

Also consider nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding hTERT [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] and mature nucleoside-modified mRNA [Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. See the RNAcore Facility proposal (PCBC RNAcore at Stanford University, Dr. Eduard Yakubov). Hurdles have included optimizing the plasmid-based, high-throughput process for generating high quality mRNAs [Papers, Patents, Books] which include mRNA structure modifications of the 5’ cap; stabilizing 5’ UTR and 3’ UTR regions of ... transcripts; and an optimized poly(A) tail.

Discussion
The claimed process speed seems theoretically possible, as one can see by dipping into the references below. "HPLC purification of mRNAs improved their expression up to 1000-fold in primary cells." (PDF ref). (15 years x 364.25 days/year)/6 days = 913.125 < 1000 times as fast as aging itself, which inspection of results shows may be possible with HPLC-purified nucleoside-modified hTERT mRNA that eludes innate immune system rejection, since this exogenously supplied mRNA from liposomes entering by endocytosis may then produce up to 1000x as much hTERT protein as the hTERT protein required to just offset aging and maintain existing telomere length. Note that the hTR component of telomerase must be quite abundant to reach such high speeds, so that in some tissues it, too, may have to be boosted with HPLC-purified nucleoside-modified hTR mRNA. This might apply to bone, cartilage, and connective tissues derived from mesenchymal cells.

Techniques like these may be most applicable to stem cell transplants.
However, modified mRNA eluding the innate immune response of the body has been represented as directly injectable:
moderna: Novel chemistry enables mRNA to elude the innate immune response of the body.
For in vitro cells: "HPLC-purified mRNAs were transfected with Lipofectin (Invitrogen) or TransIT mRNA (Mirus Bio)." (PDF ref).
See technique for in situ transfection of mRNA [Papers, Patents, Books] or
technique for in vivo transfection of mRNA [Papers, Patents, Books] or
transfection by employing cationic liposome-mRNA complexes [Papers, Patents, Books].
Note that similar lipofectamine transfections (for DNA) have been done by taking liposomes orally, by topical application, or by injection.
Also note that some liposome preparations can cross the blood-brain barrier.
See Katalin Karikó, Hiromi Muramatsu, János Ludwig, and Drew Weissman (2011), Generating the optimal mRNA for therapy: HPLC purification eliminates immune activation and improves translation of nucleoside-modified, protein-encoding mRNA (PDF version), Nucleic Acids Research, 2011 November; 39(21): e142. "In vitro-transcribed mRNA has great therapeutic potential to transiently express the encoded protein without the adverse effects of viral and DNA-based constructs. Mammalian cells, however, contain RNA sensors of the innate immune system [Papers, Patents, Books] that must be considered in the generation of therapeutic RNA [Papers, Patents, Books]. Incorporation of modified nucleosides both reduces innate immune activation and increases translation of mRNA, but residual induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines remains. We identify that contaminants, including double-stranded RNA, in nucleoside modified in vitro-transcribed RNA are responsible for innate immune activation and their removal by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [Papers, Patents, Books] results in mRNA that does not induce IFNs and inflammatory cytokines and is translated at 10- to 1000-fold greater levels in primary cells." - Op.Cit.
"HPLC purification of mRNAs [Papers, Patents, Books] improved their expression up to 1000-fold in primary cells. The level of enhancement was greatest when the mRNA was unmodified, decreased when Ψ was incorporated and decreased further when m5C and Ψ were present. " - Op.Cit., e142. The Ψ mRNAs and the m5C/Ψ mRNAs incorporate the nucleoside modifications of mRNA that reduce activation of the mRNA sensors associated with the immune system. The pseudouridine nucleoside modified mRNAs [Papers, Patents, Books] are the Ψ mRNAs, the 5-methylcytidine nucleoside modified mRNAs [Papers, Patents, Books] are the m5C mRNAs; Ψ- refers to the m5C/Ψ nucleoside modified mRNAs. "It was only in 2005 that modified nucleosides were shown to substantially reduce the immunogenicity of mature human mRNA (Kariko et al, Immunity). Synthetic modified mRNA (mmRNA) that incorporates these modified nucleosides (pseudouracil, 2-thiouracil, and 5-methylcytosine) elicits minimal immune response." (REF).

Consider mRNA anatomy and other architectural changes to alter its properties. For instance, "For applications where maximal translation and duration of expression is desired, researchers commonly make chimeric mRNA that contains the 3' UTR of very stable transcripts such as alpha-globin or beta-globin." A 5' UTR derived from tobacco etch virus 5' leader RNA mediating cap-independent translation yields rapid and high level translation of the coding sequence, while the 3' UTR is taken from Xenopus beta-globin mRNA to produce enhanced translation [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] (after Norbert Pardi, Hiromi Muramatsu, Drew Weissman, Katalin Karikó, In Vitro Transcription of Long RNA Containing Modified Nucleosides, in Synthetic Messenger RNA and Cell Metabolism Modulation, ed. Peter M. Rabinovich, 2013). "After in vitro transcription, the newly synthesized mRNA can be further optimized. 7-methylguanylate cap and a poly(A) tail give significant stability and translatability to mRNA." - Op.Cit.

"In nature, RNA is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate, and guanosine triphosphate. After transcription, selected nucleosides become modified. Due to technical limitations, at present, the simplest method to generate RNA with modified nucleosides [Images, Papers, Patents, Books] is to perform in vitro transcription reactions in which one of the four basic nucleotide triphosphates is replaced with a corresponding modified nucleotide triphosphate. In these transcripts, one particular nucleotide is substituted with the modified nucleotide at every position." - from Katalin Karikó, Hiromi Muramatsu, Frank A Welsh, János Ludwig, Hiroki Kato, Shizuo Akira and Drew Weissman (2008), Incorporation of Pseudouridine Into mRNA Yields Superior Nonimmunogenic Vector With Increased Translational Capacity and Biological Stability, Molecular Therapy (2008) 16 11, 1833–1840.

See the preparation of pseudouridine nucleoside modified mRNAs [Papers, Patents, Books],
the preparation of psuedouracil nucleoside modified mRNAs [Papers, Patents, Books],
the preparation of 2-thiouracil nucleoside modified mRNAs [Papers, Patents, Books], and
the preparation of 5-methylcytosine nucleoside modified mRNAs [Papers, Patents, Books].

This is supported by kits from CELLSCRIPTTM.
For up to hundreds of milligrams of nucleoside-modified mRNA, see
TriLink BioTechnologies (Brochure, OligoBuilder, Purification [Note]).
The firm uses bacteriophage polymerases [Ref], such as T7 RNA polymerase, which transcribes only DNA downstream of a T7 promoter.
See Generating Optimal Psuedouridine and 5-methylcytidine Modified Messenger RNA for iPS Cell Reprogramming
and Gene Expression from Pseudouridine and 5-methylcytidine Modified Messenger RNA.

Also check the effect of adding extra poly(A) tail to mRNA [Images, Papers, Patents, Books]
on process speed and translation efficiency.
___"The poly(A) tail [Papers] is important for the nuclear export [Papers], translation [Papers], and stability [Papers] of mRNA.
___The tail is shortened over time [Papers], and, when it is short enough, the mRNA is enzymatically degraded [Papers]
."
___- Wikipedia/Polyadenylation.
"It is desirable to have a long poly(A) tail, preferably 200 nucleotides or longer." - TriLink BioTechnologies/mRNA Anatomy.
See also (Nick J. Proudfoot, on poly(A) signals, July 1, 2013, Genes & Development).

References, Fast Telomere Extension [Index, Refs1b]
(1) Peter M. Rabinovich [Lab] and Sherman M. Weissman [Yale] (2013),
Cell Engineering with Synthetic Messenger RNA,
Synthetic Messenger RNA and Cell Metabolism Modulation Methods in Molecular Biology [Table of Contents, Preview]
Volume 969, 2013, pp 3-28. (Amazon)
(2) Karikó, Katalin [Penn Medicine, Twitter] and Weissman, Drew [Penn U] (2013),
2013 edition, RNA Containing Modified Nucleosides and Methods of Use Thereof,
United States Patent Application 20130111615, Published May 2, 2013.
(3) Neal Lue [Weil Cornell Medical College], Chantal Autexier [Jewish General Hospital] (editors),
Telomerases: Chemistry, Biology and Clinical Applications, Wiley, 2012.
(4) Katalin Karikó [Links, Penn Medicine, Twitter], Hiromi Muramatsu, János Ludwig [Uni-Bonn], and Drew Weissman [Penn U] (2011),
Generating the optimal mRNA for therapy: HPLC purification eliminates immune activation and improves translation of nucleoside-modified, protein-encoding mRNA (PDF version), Nucleic Acids Research, 2011 November; 39(21): e142.
(5) Anderson BR, Muramatsu H, Jha BK [CV], Silverman RH [Cleveland Clinic], Weissman D [Penn U], and Karikó K [PM] (2011),
Nucleoside modifications in RNA limit activation of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase and increase resistance to cleavage by RNase I,
Nucleic Acids Research (in press).
(6) Anderson BR, Muramatsu H, Nallagatha SR, Bevilacqua PC [Lab, Welcome], Sansing LH [Uni], Weissman D, and Karikó K (2010),
Incorporation of pesuedouridine into mRNA enhances translation by diminshing PKR activation,
Nucleic Acids Research 38, 5884-5892.
(7) Warren L, Manos PD, Ahfeldt T, Loh YH [School], Li H, Lau F [U.Hawaii], Ebina W, Mandal PK, Smith ZD, Meissner A, et al. (2010),
Highly efficient reprogramming to pluripotency and directed differentiation of human cells with synthetic modified mRNA,
Cell Stem Cell 7, 618-630.
(8) Douglas T. Gjerde and Lee Hoang (2009), RNA Purification and Analysis, Wiley, 2009.
(9) Nallagatla SR and Bevilacqua PC (2008),
Nucleoside modifications modulate activation of the protein kinase PKR in an RNA structure-specific manner, RNA 14, 1201-1213.
(10) Karikó K, Muramatsu H, Welsh FA, Ludwig J, Kato H, Akira S, and Weissman D (2008),
Incorporation of psuedouridine into mRNA yields superior nonimmunogenic vector with increased translational capacity and biological stability, Molecular Therapy, 16, 1833-1840.
(11) Karikó K, Weissman D (2007),
Naturally ocurring nucleoside modifications suppress immunostimulatory activity of RNA: implications for therapeutic RNA developement,
Current Opinion in Drug Discovery and Development 10, 523-532.
(12) Kim I, McKenna SA, Puglisi EV, and Puglisi JD (2007),
Rapid purification of RNAs using fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC), RNA 13, 289-294.
(13) Stanislaw Dunin-Horkawicz [Research Gate, Citations, Images], Anna Czerwoniec, Michal J. Gajda, Marcin Feder [Research Gate], Henri Grosjean and Janusz M. Bujnicki (2006), MODOMICS: a database of RNA modification pathways,
Nucleic Acids Research, 2006, Vol. 34, Database issue D145–D149. [Links/MODOMICS].
(14) Karikó K, Buckstein M, Ni H, and Weissman D (2005),
Suppression of RNA recognition by Toll-like receptors: the impact of nucleoside modification and the evolutionary origin of RNA,
Immunity 23, 165-17.
(15) US Patent US6664046 B1 (2003), Quantitation of hTERT mRNA expression
____(the hTERT mRNA nucleotide sequence [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]).
(16) Hartikka J, Bozoukova V, Jones D, Mahajan R, Wloch MK, Sawdey, M et al. (2000),
Sodium phosphate enhances plasmid DNA expression in vivo, Gene Therapy 7: 1171–1182.
See enhancing plasmid DNA expression [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(17) Rozenski J, Crain P, and McCloskey J. (1999),
The RNA Modification Database: 1999 update, Nucleic Acids Research 27: 196-197;
2011 update; The RNA Institute at the University at Albany SUNY.
More than 109 nucleoside modifications were identified in RNA [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(18) Karikó K, Kuo A, Barnathan ES and Langer DJ (1998),
Phosphate-enhanced transfection of cationic lipid-complexed mRNA and plasmid DNA, Biochim Biophys Acta 1369: 320–334.
See enhancing transfection of mRNA [Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(19) Patent WO 1998028442 A1 (1998), Methods for detecting and inhibiting the rna component of telomerase
____(the hTR mRNA nucleotide sequence [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]).
(20) Krista Conger (2015), Telomere extension turns back aging clock in cultured human cells, study finds,
Stanford Medicine News Center, Jan 22, 2015. [Index].
(21) John Ramunas, Eduard Yakubov, Jennifer J. Brady, Stéphane Y. Corbel, Colin Holbrook, Moritz Brandt, Jonathan Stein, Juan G. Santiago, John P. Cooke and Helen M. Blau (2015), Transient delivery of modified mRNA encoding TERT rapidly extends telomeres in human cells
[PDF, Big Screen PDF], The Faseb Journal, Jan 22, 2015.
(22) Tavernier, G., Andries, O., Demeester, J., Sanders, N. N., De Smedt, S. C., and Rejman, J. (2011),
mRNA as gene therapeutic: how to control protein expression, J. Control. Release 150, 238–247.
(23) Kormann, M. S. D., Hasenpusch, G., Aneja, M. K., Nica, G., Flemmer, A. W., Herber-Jonat, S., Huppmann, M., Mays, L. E., Illenyi, M., Schams, A., Griese, M., Bittmann, I., Handgretinger, R., Hartl, D., Rosenecker, J., and Rudolph, C. (2011),
Expression of therapeutic proteins after delivery of chemically modified mRNA in mice, Nat. Biotechnol 29, 154–157.
(24) John Ramunas, Eduard YAKUBOV, Helen M. Blau, John Cooke (2014),
Compounds, Compositions, Methods, and Kits Relating to Telomere Extension,
US 20140242154 A1.

Supplemental Search Keys
In vitro transcribed RNA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Therapeutic in vitro transcribed RNA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
RNA sensors of the innate immune system [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Incorportation of modified nucleosides in therapeutic mRNA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Residual induction of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines by in vitro transcribed mRNA
____[Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Double-stranded RNA contaminants of nucleoside-modified in vitro-transcribed mRNA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Removal of contaminants in nucleoside-modified in vitro-transcribed mRNA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Removal of contaminants in nucleoside-modified in vitro-transcribed mRNA with HPLC [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Non-coding regulatory RNAs [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Delivery of mRNA to generate induced pluripotent stem cells [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Nucleoside-modified mRNA gene therapy vectors [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
In vivo administration of mRNA to express therapeutic proteins [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Transcribing mRNAs to contain 30-nt to 51-nt long poly(A) tails [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Adding poly(A) tail to mRNA with yeast poly(A) polymerase [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Purification of RNA with HPLC [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Production of therapeutic mRNA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; RNAcore Facility, Modernatx, GEN Article].
Nucleoside-modified mRNA mass production technique [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Production of nucleoside-modified mRNA with plasmids in CHO or HEK cells [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Production of nucleoside-modified mRNA with plasmids in E. Coli [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Plasmid-based production of mRNA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; RNAcore Facility].
Plasmid-based production of nucleoside-modified mRNA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; RNAcore Facility].
____"Modified mRNAs synthesized with complete substitution of cytidine and uridine with the
____modified nucleosides pseudouridine and 5-methylcytidine could be introduced repeatedly into cells
____with minimal activation of innate immune responses and limited cyto- toxicity...
" [Ref].
____"Modified mRNA can mediate robust, penetrant and dose-titratable expression of virtually any protein,
____in many different types of cells.
"
____"...A plasmid DNA matrix [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] is routinely transcribed
_____by an RNA polymerase [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] more than 100 times in vitro,
____thus, a small amount of plasmid DNA is enough to produce large amounts of mRNA." - from DNA Vaccines.
hTERT plasmids for mRNA production [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Plasmid production [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Plasmid design [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/Plasmid design software, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Special media for nucleoside-modified mRNA production from plasmids [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
Delivery of mRNA to cells [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Modernatx, GEN Article].
hTERT mRNA molecular weight [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books; Links/hTERT mRNA, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___The hTERT gene is translated into a protein of 1132 amino acids,
___each one specified by a triplet of mRNA nucleotides, for a total of 3396 nucleotide specifiers.
___With start (3 nucleotides) and stop codons (3 nucleotides), at least 3402 mRNA nucleotide specifiers are required (3402 nt).
_____DNA and RNA molecular Weights and Conversions.
_____Exact M.W. of ssRNA (e.g., RNA Transcript)
_____M.W. = (An x 329.2) + (Un x 306.2) + (Cn x 305.2) + (Gn x 345.2) + 159Ş
_____An, Un, Cn, and Gn are the number of each respective nucleotide within the polynucleotide.
_____M.W. calculated is valid at physiological pH.
_____ŞAddition of "159" to the M.W. takes into account the M.W. of a 5' triphosphate.
_____1 microgram of 20 nt of ssRNA yields 9.17 x 1013 molecules.
_____1 microgram of 3402 nt of ssRNA should then yield up to (20/3402) x 9.17 x 1013 hTERT mRNA molecules
_____ = (20/3402) x 91700 x 109 molecules = 539 x 109 hTERT mRNA molecules, an upper limit.
_____This analysis omits the additional mRNA structure 5' cap, the 5' UTR, the 3' UTR, and the poly(A) tail from the calculation.
_____See the length in nt of hTERT mRNA [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books]. (Structure of hTERT mRNA in nt).
_____The size of the hTERT mRNA (4015 nt; accession no. AF015950).
_____1 microgram of 4015 nt of ssRNA should yield (20/4015) x 9.17 x 1013 hTERT mRNA molecules,
_____= (20/4015) x 91700 x 109 = 457 x 109 hTERT mRNA molecules, nearly exactly.

modRNA Delivery Vehicles (04/23/2015) (Expanded Encyclopedia Version)

mRNA Delivery Vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Artificial Lipoprotein Particles as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Cationic lipids as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Exosomes as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Lipid nanoparticle delivery of modified polynucleotides [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Lipid nanoparticles as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Liposomes as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Nanoparticle formulation liposome-protamine-RNA (LPR) for modified mRNA delivery [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Natural Lipoprotein Particles as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Polymeric nanoparticles as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Polymers as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Proteins as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Protein-nucleic acid complexes as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
___Virosomes as nucleoside-modified mRNA delivery vehicles [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].

Costs
The RNA Core will charge $150 for a 20 µg/unit of monocistronic mmRNA from stocked plasmid templates.
That is, for $150, you can buy 20 x 457 x 109 hTERT mRNA molecules = 9140 x 109 = 9.14 x 1012 hTERT mRNA molecules.
The human body weighs between 60 and 90 kg (132.27 to 182.22 lb), while an average cell weighs 1 nanogram.
Non-cellular bone amounts to between 14 and 20 %, non-cellular water is about 5% of the body mass.
Thus the number of cells in the human body is between 45 and 73 x 1012, on the order of 1014 cells.
Typical charges from TriLink BioTechnologies for standard nucleoside-modified mRNA:
20 micrograms ($95.00), 100 micrograms ($295.00), 1 mg (10 x 100 microgram) ($1,925.00), 5 mg ($7,450.00).
It takes about 200 micrograms ($590.00) to obtain 1 hTERT mRNA per cell in the body at 1 mRNA per liposome.

The current price of 24 Carat gold is $41.29 per gram = $0.04129 per milligram = 4.129 cents/mg,
so purified nucleoside-modified hTERT mRNA is perhaps (1925/0.04129) = 46,621 times as valuable as gold these days.
Uranium-233 Spike, Nitrate Solution (99.92% U-233) 5 mg for $3,950, costs $790.00/mg from the DOE.
This is 790/1925 = 0.41 times the cost of standard nucleoside-modified mRNA.
Music[2]: Paint It Black by The Rolling Stones [Video: Rolling Stone sequence from Raiders of the Lost Ark (temple escape)].

Alternatives
Compare with Dr. Eric T. Kool's Telomere-Encoding Synthetic DNA Nanocircles, and Their Use for the Elongation of Telomere Repeats,
More: Rolling Nanocircles.
See also direct transfection of hTERT protein into cells [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] and
Direct delivery of proteins fused with a cell penetrating peptide [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books] or
Cell penetrating peptides for protein transfection [Links, Images, Video, Papers, Patents, Books].
See Ayman El-Sayed, Shiroh Futaki, and Hideyoshi Harashima1 (2009),
Delivery of Macromolecules Using Arginine-Rich Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Ways to Overcome Endosomal Entrapment [On-Line],
AAPS J. 2009 March; 11(1): 13–22.

April 9-12, 2013
Tomsk Pharmaceutical Institute Life Extension Pill [Links/New G5 pill from Tomsk Institute, Images, Papers, Patents, Books; Headline News]. "The drug that was discovered by the scientists... boosts the body’s production of stem cells, which enable the regeneration of the body’s organs and tissue." See supplements improving internal production of stem cells for regenerative therapy [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. See Stem Cell 100TM [Immortal Humans]
Press for Stem Cell 100 site.
Component Probes

(1) Extracts of astragalus root [Index, Images, supplements] promote internal production of stem cells for regenerative therapy.
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books]. Extracts of astragalus root also lengthen telomeres.
(2) Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino Tree) [Images, supplements]
____Contains marsupsin [Images, supplements] and pterostilbene [Images, supplements].
____These are two stable resveratrol analogs that promote stem cells, lower inflammation, and stabilize metabolism.
____See the probes resveratrol analogs promote stem cells, marsupsin promotes stem cells and pterostilbene promotes stem cells.
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(3) Polygonum multiflorum stem [Images, sups (he shou wu)]. "fights premature aging and promotes youthfulness. "
_____Furthermore, Polygonum enhances fertility by improving sperm count in men and egg vitality in women. Polygonum strengthens muscle. Animal studies show that it can extend lifespan. Polygonum protects the liver and brain against damage, perhaps by improving immune and cardiovascular health. "The stem sections of Polygonum multiflorium are also calming to the nervous system and promote sounder sleep."
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(4) Pine bark OPCs [Images, supplements] include flavonoids and oligo-proanthocyanidins (OPCs) extracted from Pine Bark,
____which greatly reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation.
(5) L-Theanine [Images, supplements] a natural amino acid from Camellia sinesis reducing mental stress and inflammation
____while improving cognition and protecting brain cells from ischemic or toxic injury.
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(6) Schisandra berry [Images, supplements] "used by many Chinese women to preserve their youthful beauty. For thousands of years, Schisandra has been prized as an antiaging tonic that increases stamina and mental clarity, while fighting stress and fatigue. In Chinese traditional medicine, Schisandra berry has been used for liver disorders and to enhance resistance to infection and promote skin health and better sleep. Schisandra berry is classified as an adaptogen, which can stimulate the central nervous system, increase brain efficiency, improve reflexes, and enhance endurance. Modern research indicates that Schisandra berry extracts have a protective effect on the liver and promote immunity. A double-blind human trial suggested that Schisandra berry may help patients with viral hepatitis, which is very prevalent in China. Recent work indicates that the liver is protected by the enhanced production of glutathione peroxidase, which helps detoxify the liver."
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(7) He Shou Wu [Index, Images, supplements] "used Chinese herbal medicines to restore blood, kidney, liver, and cardiovascular health. Fo-Ti is claimed to have powerful rejuvenating effects on the brain, endocrine glands, the immune system, and sexual vigor. Legend has it that Professor Li Chung Yun took daily doses of Fo-Ti to live to be 256 and is said to have outlived 23 wives and spawned 11 generations of descendents before his death in 1933. While it is unlikely that he really lived to such an old age there is scientific support for Fo-Ti as beneficial for health and longevity. Like the Indian Keno bark, Fo-ti contains resveratrol analogs and likely acts by various mechanism, which includes liver detoxification and protection of skin from UVB radiation."
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(8) Camellia sinensis [Index, Images, supplements]. "Green Tea Polyphenols have many bioactive polyphenols including the potent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). A 2006 Japanese study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that adults aged 40 to 79 years of age who drank an average of 5 or more cups of tea per day had a significantly lower risk of dying from all causes (23% lower for females and 12% lower for males). The study tracked more than 40,000 adults for up to 11 years and found dramatically lower rates of cardiovascular disease and strokes in those drinking 5 or more cups of tea. Many studies have found that adults drinking 3 or more cups of tea per day have significantly less cancer. Other studies have found that green tea helps protect against age-related cognitive decline, kidney disease, periodontal disease, and type 2 diabetes. Green tea also promotes visceral fat loss and higher endurance levels. Summarizing all of the thousands of studies on tea and tea polyphenols that have been published, it can be concluded that tea polyphenols preserve health and youth. This conclusion is backed up by gene studies showing that tea polyphenols decrease insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which is a highly conserved genetic pathway that has been strongly linked to aging in yeast, worms, mice, and humans. If everyone could drink 4 to 5 cups of green tea each day, they could enjoy these important health benefits, but for most people drinking that much green tea can disturb their sleep patterns." ". (Thus StemCell 100 uses decaffinated tea).
_____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(9) Drynaria rhizome [Images, supplements] "for healing bones, ligaments, tendons, and lower back problems. Eastern martial art practitioners have used Drynaria for thousands of years to help in recovering from sprains, bruises, and stress fractures. Drynaria has also helped in many cases of bleeding gums and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). The active components of Drynaria protect bone forming cells by enhancing calcium absorption and other mechanisms. Drynaria is also reported to act as a kidney tonic and to promote hair growth and wound healing."
_____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
(10) PQQ [Index, Images, supplements] are typically used to promote mitochondrial biogenesis.
____See the associated probes [Links, Images, Papers, Patents, Books].
Also see Chalice, a similar preparation for stem cells, and Douglas Laboratories Joint, Tendon, Ligament Stem Cell Support formulation document, which contains a number of relevant facts. To me it seems that perhaps 33 grams of astragalus root/day or the extract equivilant (or more) would be more effective than a 500 mg tablet. I use 33 grams/day of astragalus root, plus astragalus root extract on the skin and scalp. See VIDA Institute on astragalus root/astragalus root extract equivilancies. Perhaps this product would best be given with an additional 11 grams of astragalus root extract per day, or 33 grams of NOW astragalus root per day, with application on a cyclic basis. Astragalus extract is well-tolerated in very high doses by experimental animals such as dogs. However, it may be useful to include other telomerase activators. Furthermore, HDAC inhibitors like L-carnitine and/or sodium butyrate may be used accelerate transcription induced by telomerase activators by hyperacetylating chromatin to expand it for improved hTERT and hTR transcription rates. I note that it is impressive how much Stem Cell 100 lengthens the life span of a fruit fly, and the adult stem cell promotion angle is promising and worthy of study. See Bickford PC, et al. (2006), Nutraceuticals synergystically promote proliferation of human stem cells, Stem Cells Dev. 2006 Feb;15(1):118-23.

April 7, 2013
Sodium Butyrate, Tricostatin A, or another similar HDAC inhibitor may be required to save mesenchymal-derived cells from which bone, cartilage, connective tissue, circulatory, and lymphatic system cells are obtained. These cells do not express the telomerase component hTR much. See Nedime Serakinci, Stacey F Hoare, Moustapha Kassem, Stuart P Atkinson & W Nicol Keith (2006), Telomerase promoter reprogramming and interaction with general transcription factors in the human mesenchymal stem cell, Regenerative Medicine, Jan 2006, vol.1, No.1, pp 125-131 (Summary in Future Medicine). "It is shown that repression of hTERT expression in hMSCs (human Mesenchymal Stem Cells) is due to promoter-specific histone hypoacetylation coupled with low Pol II and TFIIB trafficking. This repression is overcome by treatment with Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, concomitant with increases in promoter-specific histone acetylation and increases in Pol II and TFIIB tracking. hTR expression is also increased in TSA-treated hMSCs, concomitant with changes in Pol II and TFIIB dynamics." It is probably true that chromatin hyperacetylation with sodium butyrate or sodium butyrate chicken feed would produce equivilant results. Alternatively, regenerative medicine may provide hMSCs (human Mescenchymal Stem Cells) for stem cell transplants, no doubt a more expensive choice.
Perhaps with this observation my linear deaging scheme will work out better in the long run. I feel that things have broken through to a new level leading to physiological immortality, although other tissues (such as the pancreas) may require further attention.

Age Transformation. Approaching the 64th birthday.
Age Transformation: Model Age spread at the 58th, 60th, 61st, 62nd, 63rd, and 64th birthdays
in 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 starting with the 58th in 2007,
using deaging lines for TA-41 (not TA-65) rejuvenation rates of B = -8 and B = -9 years per year,
plus better astragalus extract model ages with B = -5.2. All dates are computed for May Day,
since treatment started on May 1, 2007 in advance of my birthday on May 13.

Δt = 6.3 years to Model Age 25.11, Calendar Age = 64.3 on August 31, 2013
on the rightmost Astragalus Extract line, about what was observed.

The drawing seems to mythically be one of Superman's crystals from the Fortress of Solitude.
Elders contemplate predictive crystal visions at the end of time. 
You must have been a beautiful baby, but baby, look at you now.
Press for Orion in celestial sphere context.
Although Superman did not always seem to have great business sense, he did show great largess.

Feb 13, 2013 Valentine's Day Eve
Milk Thistle Extract (Silymarin, containing Silibinin), from the Daisy family (Asteraceae), is an effective telomerase inducer at up to 2x 5 grams/day, tested on human fibroblasts.(DOCS).
Music[2]: HAL 9000 sings Daisy, from 2001: A Space Odyssey. "Daisy, daisy, give me your answer do..."
Feb 9, 2013 Product B's impact on Telomerase Inhibitors
According to the Product B Explorer, some telomerase inhibitors for cancer cells are actually telomerase activators for healthy fibroblasts. See the qualifications for the telomerase inhibitors (1)-(68): (1) Curcumin, (1b) Turmeric, (2) Resveratrol, (3) Quercetin, (5), (9) Silibinin, (9b) Silymarin, (9c) Milk Thistle, (24) Ginsenoside Rh2, (24b) Ginseng, (24c) Panax Ginseng, (68) Tea Catechins)).
Feb 3-8, 2013 Product B's impact on Telomerase Activators
The telomerase activator list has been expanded to include entries (133)-(153) in The Product B Explorer. Comparative Telomere Growth Results are also included for Product B, TA-65, Vida Institute's program for telomere growth, and my program. The Telomerase Activators List now includes: (133) Acacia Bark Extract, (134) DL-Alpha Lipoic Acid, (135) Asian Ginseng Root Extract, (136) Bacopa Extract, (137) Berberine Rhizome Extract, (138) Black Tea Extract, (139) Boswellia Fruit Extract, (140) Grape Seed Extract, (141) Green Tea Extract, (142) Harada Fruit Extract, (143) Hawthorn Fruit Extract, (144) Horny Goat Weed, (145) Maca Root Extract, (146) Milk Thistle Extract, (147) Plantain Leaf Extract, (148) Pomegranate Fruit Extract, (149) Quercetin, (150) Resveratrol, (151) Turmeric Root Extract, (152) Velvet Bean Extract, (153) White Tea Extract. Also see William H. Andrews PhD, and Master Forumulator John Anderson.
John Anderson, Product B patent.John Anderson, Product B patent.
Master Formulator John Anderson, Product B patent.
[Links, Images, Videos, Papers, Patents, Books].

Also see Willam Andrews PhD
[Links, Images, Videos,
Papers, Patents, Books].

December 19-21, 2012 - Gamma Tocotrienol tends to prevent human fibroblasts from aging and tends to restore them from senescence. Gamma tocotrienol [List] reduces expression of collagenase from senescent fibroblasts, protecting the extracellular matrix, and has favorable impact on gene expression in both senescent and normal fibroblasts, tending to oppose aging. Tocotrienol-rich fraction containing alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols alpha, beta, gamma, and delta from rice bran, palm oil, oat, or barley, tends to produce telomerase activity in senescent fibroblasts, lengthen telomeres, restore fibroblast morphology, and restart the cell cycle. [Images/Tocotrienol-rich fraction supplements with alpha-tocopherol from palm oil; Images/Tocotrienol-rich fraction skin cream with alpha-tocopherol from palm oil]. Tocotrienols have extended animal lifetimes by 18%. See Suzana Makpol, Azalina Zainuddin, Kien Hui Chua, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, and Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah (2012), Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts [NCBI DOC], Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2012 February; 67(2): 135–143, and also Makpol S, Durani LW, Chua KH, Mohd Yusof YA, Ngah WZ (2011), Tocotrienol-rich fraction prevents cell cycle arrest and elongates telomere length in senescent human diploid fibroblasts, [NCBI DOC], Journal of Biomedical Biotechnology 2011 Mar 30.
August 26, 2012 - Therapy for recovering from cellular senescence.
Senescent cells may be rejuvenated by down-regulating FOXO to down-regulate caveolin-1 expression.
This makes senescent cells once again responsive to human growth factor telomerase activators such as EGF and PDGF.
Insulin or IGF-1 (which influences every cell in the body) can be used to downregulate FOXO.
Insulin-boosters include:
(1) Alpha Lipoic Acid taken 600-1000 mg after a workout can increase fat-burning and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.
(2) Banaba Leaf Extract (taken at 32-48 mg with a postworkout shake) improves insulin sensitivity.
(3) Gymnema Sylvestre (400-500 mg with a postworkout shake < 30 min after exercise) stimulates insulin secretion.
(4) Fenugreek seed or Fenugreek Extract [Images] stimulates insulin production via
(5) 4-hydroxyisoleucine [Images] isolated from Fenugreek seeds.

Dextrose may be taken at 25-50 grams to spike insulin, along with whey protein or whey hydrolysates after a bodybuilding workout.
IGF-1 may be produced in the liver from HGH (Telomerase Activators/HGH) stemming from, say, whey protein, exercise, or HGH secretagogues such as alpha-GPC. Casein (cottage cheese) elevates IGF-1 levels, as does orally ingested colostrum. Acetyl L-carnitine restores levels of IGF-1 in aging neural tissue. The growth-promoting effect of IGF-1 on brain cells is potentiated by acetyl L-carnitine plus alpha lipoic acid. Note that creatine monohydrate also stimulates the production of IGF-1, which activates the PI3K/Akt pathway, excluding FOXO factors from the nucleus to down-regulate caveolin-1 expression and rejuvenate senescent cells, restoring their responsiveness to human growth factor telomerase activators such as EGF and PDGF, restarting the cell cycle, and restoring youthful cellular morphology. Note that the "PI3K–Akt pathway is a major upstream signaling module leading to the phosphorylation of FOXO factors and their exclusion from the nucleus." - from (Dominique A Glauser and Werner Schlegel (2007)).

Note that cellular senescence may also be recovered from by upregulating survivin. Survivin is upregulated by VEGF and bFGF (FGF2), both of which are contained in colostrum [List], which coincidentally contains insulin and improves expression of IGF-1 when taken orally. Treatment should be applied on a cyclic basis with telomerase inhibitors to guard against cancer.

May 18, 2012 - Astragalus Extract is Best!
Video: Jim Green at Age 63 - Compare with Age Progression in "85 Years in 40 Seconds".

Formerly rated at 1 mg of astragalosides/30 drops.Evidence is accumulating that astragalus root extract is superior to TA-65, cycloastragenol, and astragaloside IV for producing gains in average telomere length in cells. It seems that the first tests of the Patton Protocol were done with 20-40 mg of a dried astragalus extract, TA-41, producing gains of 460 bp/year in granulocyte telomeres. On the other hand, Terraternal has confessed that very little or no gain has been seen using astragaloside IV by itself, and has started to market Purslane extract. Papers on TA-65 show that the average gain in telomere length is very minimal, with only the shortest telomeres being lengthened. (Calvin B. Harley, Weimin Liu, Maria Blasco, Elsa Vera, William H. Andrews, Laura A. Briggs, and Josheph Raffaele (2011), A Natural Product Telomerase Activator As Part of a Health Maintenance Program, Rejuvenation Research, 14(1), 2011). Furthermore, this fits fairly well with the findings of the VIDA Institute as explained in their analysis of Astragalus Formulations. Astragalus root extract, or astragalus root extract plus astragalus root powder, works well to increase the average length of telomeres over a variety of cell types, but cycloastragenol and astragaloside IV produce much worse results. The optimum dose of astragalus root extract is not clear, but should probably be equivilant to the maximum dose of astragalus root used in Chinese medicine, 33 grams, or less. This would yield about 5 mg of astragaloside IV, at least 150 drops of GAIA Herbs green label astragalus root extract. I recommend 1/2 bottle/day of it for 2 weeks each month together with 3-5 grams of astragalus root powder and 3-5 grams of chitosan to improve bioavailability. This is thought to produce about 460 bp/year of telomere growth in a variety of cell types. Rejuvenation effects are finally witnessed with this dosage schedule, so that 5 years of treatment can deage an individual perhaps 25 years or more. During the 2nd two weeks of each month one takes anticancer telomerase inhibitors instead. Of course, the visible progress seems very slow when witnessed in a mirror month by month, but over the years it seems worthwhile at $85 to $90 per month, deflecting the Portrait of Dorian Grey, especially when also rubbed into the scalp. It is conjectured that a cofactor exists in astragalus root extract and/or astragalus root powder that enables astragaloside IV to function better in extending the average length of telomeres in a cell. Perhaps astragaloside IV and cycloastragenol will work much better with astragalus root extract to provide missing cofactor(s).
Midnight Blue: Astragalus Extract to the Scalp Darkens Hair in About 12 Months
Grey old Green. Play 'Silver Thunderbird' by Marc Cohn.Perhaps when man becomes immortal, he will rediscover the stars and become one with the universe.
Jim Green - Left: Jan 24, 2010, Age: 60.7. Right: Jan 18, 2011, Age: 61.68, Math Model Age: 38.71.

Just in Time for The Holidays: Christmas 2011
Dr. Bill Andrews at IsAGenix: introduces Product B (Forum Discussion),
lifexnotes3b2.html (List Telomerase Activators), lifexnotes3b5.html ((121) Product B from IsAGenix).

longevitychangelog.html | longevitychangelog2.html (2007 - July 26-29, 2011).

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Music[2]: Pinball Wizard | Revolution Number 9 | Glass Onion: Another place you can go, where everything flows...
Orion Transitions of the Revolution Aries to Tampa, Florida: (Mira in Cetus). Need company? Winter in Tampa. Glad I did.
Press for Weather Visions.
Jumping Jack Flash, Teacher Somewhere Over the Rainbow
The Bottom of the Page. Halloween's end of Summer Time may seem to be the End of the Year or the End of Days.

Backup Sites: http://greenray4ever.com/longevitychangelog.html.

Music[2] || Email[2]: JimGreenHimself@gmail.com. Thanks for sending your pointers, insights, and remarks.