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This volume describes supernova iron core collapse and rebound, nuclear shell ignition, supernova dynamics, supernova vulnerability studies, and the energy partition theory of supernovae. STARCAL software included with the book produces supernova forecast reports applying to Type II supernovae for progenitor stars over a mass threshold of 6.23 solar masses, including supernova burst energy, and characteristic observable effects and hazards. The program derives the mass of the star from the distance in light-years, the visible magnitude, and the spectral type. The calculated mass is used to compute the probability of explosion in this year or this century, and other measures relevant to supernova forecasting. For nuclear luminosity modeling the user must specify the stellar structure model to test and select a stellar chemistry or specify one in detail. || Supernova Links

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Contents
Acknowledgements
List of Illustrations

1. Supernova Ignition
2. Nuclear Reactions
3. Neutrino Scattering
4. Energy Partitions
5. Supernova Vulnerability
6. Observing Supernovae
7. Shell Star Theorems
8. Core Implosion Theory

Appendix A. The Classical Novae
Appendix B. Polytropes

Bibliography
Index
About the Author
Physical Constants
Astronomical Constants
SN1998s, animation by Pedro Re'. Press for Supernova Animations.
SN1998s in NGC 3877 in Ursa Major (map).
Press for Supernova Animations.
SN1998s animation by Pedro Re'.

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Fig.1. "The Vanity of Life" by Cornelius Anthonizoon Teunissen.
Fig.2. Progenitor Collapse in Supernovae.
Fig.3. Radial Density Structure of Progenitor Core and Neutron Star Remnant.
Fig.4. The metric tensor at the surface of a collapsed core in GR.
Fig.5. The nuclear superradiance of Infalling material shells.
Fig.6. Supernova Ignition in the Large Magellanic Cloud in 1987.
Fig.7. Progenitor Collapsing Core and Fully Collapsed Neutron Star Remnant.
Fig.8. The Cone of Temperatures: pair creation thresholds and T as a function of density.
Fig.9. Densities leaving a shell mass invariant under a contraction.
Fig.10. The nuclear superradiance L(t)/L(0) as a function of shell compression.
Fig.11. Binding energies of model stars.
Fig.12. Supernovae Ejecta Energy in Ergs.
Fig.13. Abundance Structure of a 20-solar-mass supernova progenitor.
Fig.14. Details of the inner 3 solar masses of a 20-solar-mass supernova progenitor.
Fig.15. Silicon Reaction Energetics.
Fig.16. Energy per solar mass for supernova nuclear reactions.
Fig.17. Masses of nuclear reactants near a Type II supernova core.
Fig.18. Energy available in competing reaction channels for a 20-solar-mass SN progenitor.
Fig.19. Density thinning of a Propagating neutrino shell.
Fig.20. Amplification of nuclear energy generation by a temperature rise due to neutrino heating.
Fig.21. The Original Sir Isaac Newton.
Fig.22. The Scale of Cosmic Energies.
Fig.23. Model binding energies for stars.
Fig.24. Fe56 alpha particle photodissociation energy in ergs.
Fig.25. Energy required to remove the Nth alpha particle in iron.
Fig.26. The Romance of Super Explosions: Altera meets Robby the Robot on Altair-4.
Fig.27. Simple Model of Ejectae Shell Expanding Away from a Supernova.
Fig.28. Altera of Altair-4 toys with Robby the Robot's "Engine-Ears".
Fig.29. Saucer sent to rescue Altair-4.
Fig.30. ALtair-4 and Supernova Moonlight.
Fig.31. Science Faction: Engineer-clear Robby computes the way home from the super explosion of Altair-4.
Fig.32. With the shadow of a calcium boner behind him, Robby flashes greetings from Altair-4.
Fig.33. Dynamic Leslie Nielson forces Dr.Moebius to face the facts as the id burns through on Altair-4.
Fig.34. Mount Polomar plate of Supernova Remnant IC443.
Fig.35. UNITARY MYTHOS involving Altair, Deneb, and Vega, the "Summer Triangle".
Fig.36. Diagram from The Principia of Sir Isaac Newton. "Oh, I have slipped the surly bonds of earth..."
Fig.37. UNITARY MYTHOS. Leo vaults from Virgo with the brow of light speed.
Fig.38. Albert Einstein, J.Robert Oppenheimer and the Black Monolith. Four men surround "ein Stein".
Fig.39. Illustration from the Dialogues of Galileo Galilei.
Fig.40. Burst energy from a supernova core leaving a neutron star remnant.
Fig.41. Total supernova burst energy as a function of the progenitor mass.
Fig.42. Equations of state for supernova core applications.
Fig.43. Chandrasekhar Limit Sets with Thomas-Fermi electron screening corrections.
Fig.44. Chandrasekhar Limit Sets with and without electron screening for GR and Newtonian gravitational models.
Fig.45. Collapsed object structure typical of a supernova core.
Fig.46. The radii of collapsed stars.
Fig.47. Collapsed object radius as a function of the object mass.
Fig.48. Rotating model supernova cores.
Fig.49. UNITARY MYTHOS. Position of the Crab supernova remnant above Orion's head and the drama of light speed.
Fig.50. The Accretion Disk of a Nova.
Fig.51. Portrait of the author.
Fig.52. The relative density of polytropes with gamma=4/3 and gamma=5/3. Fig.53. Portrait of the author.
Fig.54. Location of the Supernova in Galaxy M51.

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CHANDRA | Back to top Back to top
Stellar structure software for Windows, with executable module chandra.exe, source code chandra.cpp in C/C++ (Borland C++ 3.1 format), and chanread.txt readme file. CHANDRA is stellar structure software for collapsed-objects by the method of Chandrasekhar and Fowler, including white dwarfs, neutron stars, and objects with more exotic equations of state. It includes rotations and chemistry selection, preparing an overall report file chandra.txt and a smaller report presented to the screen of your terminal. (Press here to view a chandra.txt summary output file.) If specified, CHANDRA also generates a detailed center-to-surface structure file for variables like temperature, pressure, density, and so forth. (Press here to view a CHANDRA stellara.txt center-to-surface output report file.) This download module includes the source code file chandra.cpp, which the user may modify and recompile to handle new equations of state, modified gravitation model, as desired. The complete set includes the book CHANDRA: Chandrasekhar Sets of White Dwarfs and Supernova Cores by James A. Green, available for $52.86 from Greenwood Research Books & Software, or from many other bookstores and dealers. The book CHANDRA includes this free downloadable software on CD-rom, plus a tutorial on the theoretical astrophysics treated by the software, letters from S. Chandrasekhar himself to the author written while the program was being composed, and a free copy of the old 5th edition of Gravitation and the Electroform Model in an appendix.
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STARCAL | Back to top Back to top
The starcal.zip package includes executable modules for Windows and source code in Borland C/C++ 3.1, as well as a starcalreadme.txt file. The download requires WinZip to upzip the software. For detailed printout samples, see Announcements. This edition of the STARCAL software allows the user to enter the name of the star, the distance or parallax of the star, the spectral type, and the visual magnitude along with a chemistry specification. The chemistry spec may be simply standard galactic halo or galactic composition, or the user may specify the chemistry in detail. The program applies bolometric corrections for atmospheric absorption to the visual magnitude, then computes a large array of model variables for the star, including the radius, luminosity, absolute magnitude, surface temperature, central and average densities, and other measures. It uses the chemistry specification to compute the nuclear luminosity of the star from the inside out, using stellar structure theory and formulae for nuclear cross-sections. In addition, it prepares supernova forecasts for stars over 6.3 solar masses based on the stellar lifetime formulae that apply to the star, and calculates many details of the appearance of a Type II supernova explosion that might result, including the projected luminosity of the supernova, the visual magnitude over time, the probability of explosion in the next century, and so on. The program generates a report file starexp.txt that describes internal structure and fusion process cross-sections together with the supernova forecasts. (Press here to view a starexp.txt output report file for Aldebaran.) It also makes a condensed report to the screen. The nuclear luminosity calculations work best with dwarf stars like the sun that run primarily on p-p fusion. Red giant calculations are good for many variables, but not optimum with regard to nuclear luminosity. Instead, the program diagnoses the structural characteristics of the red giant deviating from normal dwarf structure. The program is useful for preparing or correcting astronomical charts incorporating astrophysical information. Some authors, for example, do not include bolometric corrections for atmospheric absorption of stellar radiation before computing the absolute magnitude, radius, and mass of a star. In addition STARCAL software makes charting of supernovae progenitors possible (Type II only), along with other novel applications. I note that STARCAL is not normalized, but computes a thermonuclear luminosity of 1.33 or so times the observed solar luminosity for the Sun when figuring solar luminosity from stellar structure theory using n=3, gamma=4/3 polytropic structural modeling. The discrepancy is probably due to difficulties in computing the exact screening factor for p-p fusion in the degenerate part of the solar core. The normalizing factor has been omitted to permit experimentation with details of the screening problem.
The complete set includes the book Thermonuclear Fusion in Stars by James A. Green from Greenwood Research, also available through Amazon.com and other dealers and bookstores. | Other bookstores | Order Direct

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