Software on CD-rom
Thermonuclear Fusion in Stars
by James A. Green, 2nd edition, March 4, 2004, Greenwood Research, with stellar structure software.
[ ] Hardback, ISBN-13: 978-1-890121-81-5 (ISBN 1-890121-81-9), 50.00 dollars.
374 pages, 119 illustrations.

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The nuclear astrophysics of fusion processes with cosmological background, now including STARCAL software with nuclear astrophysical modeling of stars based on distance, visual magnitude, and spectral type supplemented by a structural model selection and choice of chemistry. The book includes derivation of a L=(3/5)ct = 8.1 billion LY visibility limit for the Hubble Space Telescope based on observational time-delay L/c in the Hubble constant solutions for a universe of constant density, typically

H(t) = (2/3)/t, so that H(t,L) = (2/3)/(t - L/c),

where v = HL is the recessional velocity associated with galaxies at L when the Hubble constant is H. Picking L such that c = H(t,L)L yields 8.1 billion light-years (2484.6 Mpc) as the limit of telescopic vision, corresponding to a time t - L/c well after galaxy formation took place. The universe exploded outwards 13.5 billion years ago, but we cannot see that far backwards in time, just back to when the universe was 13.5 - 8.1 = 5.4 billion years old, 8.1 billion years ago.


The Hubble Deep Field: The universe as it was 8.1 billion years ago.
Galaxies seem to rush away from a common center near L, both blue- and red-shifted,
as we look backwards to a previous time t - L/c, where t is the age of the universe,
when the universe was 5.1 billion years old and the galaxies were much closer together.

L is closely associated with the most distant red-shifted galaxies in this scene.

Also included are cosmic cycle theory, helium abundance theory, galaxy formation for ellipticals, barred spirals, and spirals, star formation in early galaxies, stellar lifetime models for the main sequence in galactic disk and halo stars, stellar structure theory with superior handling of the luminosity partition (radiative, conductive, and convective components of energy transport luminosity), critical mass calculations for stars to turn on to stellar nuclear reactions, sophisticated theory of the classical novae, polytropic stellar modeling, stars with radiation pressure, field theory of nuclear processes, nuclear reaction theory, new insights into weak-interaction decay asymmetry and field theory, non-resonant and resonant nuclear reaction theory, red giant expansion theory, double-star measurements, the parallax, and observational foundations.
Stellar structure software optionally includes bolometric corrections, so that you can see their effect on results! Computes L/Lsun, R/Rsun, M/Msun, absolute magnitude M from m, distance, and spectral type, then derives standard model stellar structure variables from the center to the surface, including radiation pressure vs. gas pressure, density, and temperature. In addition, the stellar structure software includes collapsed object computation software for white dwarfs, neutron stars, supernova cores, and exotic objects with or without stellar rotation. The 2nd edition software can compute the age of the Sun from basic specifications for its observable features, by depleting the core of the Zero Age Main Sequence model for the Sun of hydrogen until the observed thermonuclear luminosity equals the computed thermonuclear luminosity. Several variants of the program are provided. For other stars, our free demoware DEPTHSTA varies the distance to star around its nominal distance until it comes into focus around the Zero Age Main Sequence distance. The 2nd edition has also been corrected for spelling and typographical errors that somehow got into print in the 1st edition, and size-reduced (8.5"x5.5") to improve the price. Source code is provided on CD-rom, not in the text.
The ReadMe Notes for the 2nd Edition Software

Dealers | Order Direct

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Contents
Acknowledgements
List of Illustrations

I. Measuring Stellar Parameters.
__1.1 Parallax Measurements.
__1.2 Double Star Measurements.
__1.3 Spectral Measurements.
__1.4 The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.

II. The Kinetic Theory of Gases.
__2.1 The Pressure of a Perfect Gas.
__2.2 The Maxwell-Boltzman Distribution.
__2.3 The Gibbs Derivation of the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution.

III. Blackbody Radiation.
__3.1 Standing Electromagnetic Waves.
__3.2 The Mode Density.
__3.3 The Planck Spectral Energy Density.
__3.4 Einstein's Derivation of the Planck Spectral Energy Density.
__3.5 Stefan's Law.
__3.6 Radiation Pressure.

IV. The Equations of Stellar Equilibrium.
__4.1 The Fundamental Equations of Equilibrium.
__4.2 Hydrostatic Equilibrium.
__4.3 Stellar Energies, Temperatures, and the Virial Theorem.
__4.4 Proton-Proton Fusion in the Sun.
__4.5 The Equations of Stellar Structure.

V. Polytropic Models of Stars.
__5.1 Radial Scaling and the Polytropic Equation of State.
__5.2 Radiation Pressure and the Equations of Polytropic Structure.
__5.3 The Standard Model: Stars as Polytrops of Index 3.
__5.4 The Binding Energy of a Polytropic Star.

VI. Relativity for Fusion.
__6.1 Space-Time Fundamentals.
__6.2 Relativistic Energy and Momentum.
__6.3 Proofs of E = Mc2.

VII. The Shell Model of the Nucleus.
__7.1 Nuclear Forces and the Unified Field Theory.
__7.2 Wave Mechanical Models.
__7.3 The Shell Model Potential, Energy Levels, and Results.
__7.4 The Semi-Empirical Mass Law.

VIII. Thermonuclear Fusion.
__8.1 Quantum-Mechanical Barrier Penetration.
__8.2 Non-Resonant Fusion Reactions.
__8.3 Resonant Fusion Reactions.
__8.4 The Breit-Wigner Formula for Resonant Reactions.
__8.5 Proton-Proton Fusion.
__8.6 Other Fusion Reactions.

IX. Stellar Evolution.
__9.1 Cosmology and the Big Bang.
__9.2 Galaxy Formation.
__9.3 Star Formation.
__9.4 Stellar Nucleosynthesis.
__9.5 Stellar Life-Cycle.
__9.6 Refined Stellar Models.
__9.7 White Dwarf Stars.
__9.8 The Classical Novae.
__9.9 Supernovae.

Appendix A. The Non-Self-Consistency of Einstein's GR Field Eqns.
Appendix B. Computing GR Effects with Electroform Unified Field Theory.
Appendix C. Star Maps and the Scenario of Mythos.
Appendix D. Stellar Magnitudes, Relative Intensities, and Absolute Magnitudes.
Appendix E. Tables of Specific Nuclear Reactions.
Appendix F. Properties of the Sun.
Appendix G. Table of Natural Constants and Measures.
Appendix H. Supporting Derivation for Barrier Penetration.
Appendix I. The Average Temperatures of a Polytrope.
Appendix J. Useful Identities of Vector & Tensor Analysis.

Bibliography
Index
About the Author
Other Books by James A. Green
Supplemental Notes.
STARCAL Listing on CD-rom - Stellar Structure Software for Windows.
CHANDRA & DEPTHSTA included.
ReadMe CD-rom notes.

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1.1 The Parallax of a Star.
1.2 The Arc of the Winter Crescent.
1.3 The Convergent-Point Method.
1.4 Simple Double Star with 2 Circular Orbits Around the CM.
1.5 The Center of Mass Frame in the Double-Star Problem.
1.6 Elliptical Orbit with r + r' = 2a.
1.7 The Orbit Projected on to the Plane of the Sky.
1.8 Alternating-Line eclipsing spectroscopic binary systems.
1.9 Eclipsing Binary.
1.10 The Magnitude as a Function of Time for Algol.
1.11 Scale Model of Algol (Lilith).
1.12 The Zenith Angle and Atmospheric Path.
1.13 Relative Line Strengths of Spectral Classes.
1.14 Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram of Nearby Stars.
1.15 Regions of the HR Diagram.
1.16 Portrait of Hertzsprung and Russell with the Milky Way.
1.17 Absolute Magnitude vs. B-V for 10 Galactic Clusters.
1.18 The Pleiades.
1.19 The Evolution of Stars in a Model Star Cluster of Young Stars.
1.19b HR Diagrams of the Pleiades and Praesepe.
1.20 Horsehead Nebula B33.
1.21 Globular Cluster M5 in Serpens.
1.22 Globular Cluster M13 in Hercules.
1.23 Transformation of Coordinates for Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams.
1.24 Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram for the Main Sequence of Nearby Stars.
1.25a The O Be A Fine Girl Kiss Me system of Annie Jump Cannon.
1.26 Experimental Mass-Luminosity Relation for Main Sequence Stars.
2.1 Molecules in a Box.
2.2 The Distribution Function for Vx : a Gaussian Curve.
2.3 Vectors in Velocity Space.
3.1 Planck, Wien, and Rayleigh-Jeans Distributions.
3.2 Blackbody Spectra.
3.3 Derivation of Radiation Intensity.
4.1 The Cone Nebula.
4.2 The Density and Mass of Stellar Shells.
4.3 The Condition of Hydrostatic Equilibrium.
4.4 Thermonuclear Power Density and Luminosity.
4.5 The Scale of the Sun.
4.6 The 1987 Supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
4.7 Stellar Evolutionary Tracks.
4.8 Degeneracy Boundaries in a Helium Gas.
4.9 Convective Layer of Thickness Lambda and convective cells.
5.0 Polytropic stellar models. Synopsis of tables and formulae.
5.1 Gas Shell.
5.2 Scaled Gas Shell.
5.3 The Brightest Stars.
5.4 Density, Temperature, and Pressure.
5.5 The Standard Model: The Sun as a Polytrope of Index 3.
5.6 Polytropic Solutions for n=2 and n=3 for the Sun.
6.1 The Theorem of Pythagoras.
6.2 The Light-Clock.
6.3 Relativistic Momentum and Energy.
6.4 Gravitational Redshift.
7.1 Sliding-Bar in Field.
7.2 U-quark Rishon Combos.
7.3 Rishon Model Positron.
7.4 Square Well.
7.5 Square Well Solutions.
7.6 The Ground-State and First 2 Excited States for Distorted Well.
7.7 Spherically Symmetric Square Well Solutions.
7.8 Shell-theory V(r) for Protons and Neutrons.
7.9 LS-Coupled Spin-Orbit Forces on an Orbiting Nucleon.
7.10 The Effect of LS-coupled spin-orbit forces on the Shell-Model V(r).
7.11 The Energy Levels of the Shell-Model Potential.
7.12 Spectroscopic notation for the simple harmonic oscillator V(r).
7.13 Nuclear Potential Well Energy Levels as a Function of Perturbations.
7.14 Binding Energy of the Last Neutron and Potential Well Variants.
7.15 Neutron number N as a Function of Proton number Z.
7.16 The Curve of Binding Energy in MeV/nucleon.
7.17 Electrons emitted by the 6027Co nucleus and mirror image exp.
8.1 George Gamow and Lev Landau in Switzerland writing to Nature.
8.2 John Cockcroft & George Gamow at the Cavendish Laboratory.
8.3 N.Bohr, W.Heisenberg, W.Pauli, G.Gamow, L.Landau, Copenhagen.
8.4 Orion-Belt Horsehead Nebula B33.
8.5 Lev Landau, Aage Bohr, George Gamow, Eric Bohr, Edward Teller.
8.6 Galaxy Centaurus A - The Magic Shadow-Show.
8.7 The Tunneling Problem.
8.8 Barrier Penetration.
8.9 George Gamow and Wolfgang Pauli on a Swiss Lake in 1930.
8.10 Zones.
8.11 Non-Resonant Fusion Reactions.
8.12 Fusion Reaction Proceeding Through a Remote Resonance.
8.13 Zones s=0, p=1, d=2, f=3, g=4.
8.14 Spherical Bessel Functions and Quantized Impact Parameters.
8.15 Probability Distribution P(En - Em).
8.16 An Octant in State Space.
8.17 Donald D. Clayton, Nuclear Astrophysicist.
8.18 Cross-Section and Particle Radius.
8.19 Proton Beta Decay.
8.20 Mass density and Hydrogen density in the Sun.
8.21 Fusion Power Density and Temperature in the Sun for P-P Fusion.
8.22 Reaction Rate Factor as a Function of T for Key Reactions.
8.23 The Gamow Peak for P-P Reactions in the Center of the Sun.
8.24 Fritz Houtermans, Robert Atkinson, and Hans Bethe.
9.1 S. Chandrasekhar, who sent me references in 1991-2.
9.2 The Hubble Deep Field Galaxies.
9.3 Extended photo, Hubble Deep Field region.
9.4 Mean density & age of the universe via the Hubble Constant.
9.5 Gravitationally Lensed Image of the Highest Redshift Galaxy.
9.6 Pillbox over a circular plate with caps of area S.
9.7 The Original Hayashi Tracks for Contraction of Protostars to the M.S.
9.8 Contraction to the Main Sequence after Iben.
9.9 Mass-Luminosity Data and Cluster M3.
9.10 Evolutionary path of a 5-solar-mass star after Iben.
9.11 The Fermi momentum of the electron as a function of stellar mass.
9.12 Gross Features of Fast Novae, Slow Novae, and Supernovae.
9.13 Supernova Cas A, 12 light-years in diameter, about 300 yr. old.
9.14 Supernova Luminosity Curves after Wheeler and Harkness, 1992.
9.15 Nuclear Energies and Abundances in a 20 solar-mass SN progenitor.
9.15b Theoretical Supernova Luminosity as a Function of Mass.
B.1 The Gravitational Redshift Experiment.
B.2 Computation of Deflection Normal to the Ray.
B.3 Falling-Ray Deflection Normal to the Ray.
B.4 Falling-Ray Deflection with C a constant.
B.5 The Obliquity Precession of Mercury.
C.1 Nebula NGC 7000 near Cygnus.
C.2-8. Constellation Mythos and the Celestial Sphere.

TABLES
1.1 Stellar Parallaxes after Van de Kamp.
1.2 B-V, the Bolometric Correction, and Te Photospheric Temperature.
1.3 Stellar Populations, Heavy Elements, and Velocity Dispersion.
5.0 Polytropic Stars. Synopsis of Tables and Formulae.
7.1 Allowed Shell Model Orbits with Orbits/State and Total Orbits.
7.2 Shell-Model vs. Measured Nuclear Spin, Single-Particle & Single-Hole.
9.0 Table of Standing Wave Ratios: Forbidden and Allowed Galaxies.
9.1 Minimum Masses to Ignite Stellar Fusion Reactions I.
9.2 Minimum Masses to Ignite Stellar Fusion Reactions II.

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The ReadMe Notes for the 2nd Edition Software

Free Demoware
DEPTHSTA|6/18/02|8:45AM|Stellar Depth Ranging - Free depthsta.zip download.279Kb Download from thelostchord.html on TRIPOD.
DEPTHSTA uses nuclear astrophysics for stellar depth ranging, varying the nominal distance to the star to monitor differences between the theoretical nuclear luminosity and the observed luminosity. DEPTHSTA computes many useful astrophysical measures, starting with a specification for the star in terms of its distance, visual magnitude, spectral type, and assumed chemistry.

CHANDRA
Stellar structure software for Windows, with executable module chandra.exe, source code chandra.cpp in C/C++ (Borland C++ 3.1 format), and chanread.txt readme file. You will require WinZip to unzip chandra.zip. Search for & download free WinZip at CNET. Download WinZip 8.0 CHANDRA is stellar structure software for collapsed-objects by the method of Chandrasekhar and Fowler, including white dwarfs, neutron stars, and objects with more exotic equations of state. It includes rotations and chemistry selection, preparing an overall report file chandra.txt and a smaller report presented to the screen of your terminal. (Press here for a sample CHANDRA chandra.txt output summary report.)If specified, CHANDRA also generates a detailed center-to-surface structure file for variables like temperature, pressure, density, and so forth. (Press here for a sample CHANDRA center-to-surface report file.) This download module includes the source code file chandra.cpp, which the user may modify and recompile to handle new equations of state, modified gravitation model, as desired. The complete set includes the book CHANDRA: CHANDRASEKAR SETS OF WHITE DWARFS AND SUPERNOVA CORES by James A. Green, available for $52.86 from Greenwood Research Books & Software, or from many other bookstores and dealers. The book CHANDRA includes this free downloadable software on diskette, plus a tutorial on the theoretical astrophysics treated by the software, letters from S. Chandrasekhar himself to the author written while the program was being composed, and a free copy of the old 5th edition of Gravitation & the Electroform Model in an appendix.
Bookstores | Order Direct.

STARCAL
The STARCAL package includes an executable module for Windows and source code in Borland C/C++ 3.1, as well as a starcalreadme.txt file and packages for superior treatment of fusion process changes due to variation of the abundances of the elements that modify electrostatic screening for fusion. Extensive supernova report software is available along with extensive fusion modeling software. This edition of the STARCAL software allows the user to enter the name of the star, the distance or parallax of the star, the spectral type, and the visual magnitude along with a chemistry specification. The chemistry spec may be simply standard galactic halo or galactic composition, or the user may specify the chemistry in detail. The program applies bolometric corrections for atmospheric absorption to the visual magnitude, then computes a large array of model variables for the star, including the radius, luminosity, absolute magnitude, surface temperature, central and average densities, and other measures. It uses the chemistry specification to compute the nuclear luminosity of the star from the inside out, using stellar structure theory and formulae for nuclear cross-sections. In addition, it prepares supernova forecasts for stars over 6.3 solar masses based on the stellar lifetime formulae that apply to the star, and calculates many details of the appearance of a Type II supernova explosion that might result, including the projected luminosity of the supernova, the visual magnitude over time, the probability of explosion in the next century, and so on. The program generates a report file that describes internal structure and fusion process cross-sections together with the supernova forecasts. (Press here to view a sample starexp.txt summary output report file.) The program also makes a condensed report to the screen. The nuclear luminosity calculations work best with dwarf stars like the sun that run primarily on p-p fusion. Red giant calculations are good for many variables, but not optimum with regard to nuclear luminosity. Instead, the program diagnoses the structural characteristics of the red giant deviating from normal dwarf structure. The program is useful for preparing or correcting astronomical charts incorporating astrophysical information. Some authors, for example, do not include bolometric corrections for atmospheric absorption of stellar radiation before computing the absolute magnitude, radius, and mass of a star. In addition STARCAL software makes charting of supernovae progenitors possible (Type II only), along with other novel applications. I note that STARCAL computes a thermonuclear luminosity of about twice the observed solar luminosity for the sun when figuring solar luminosity from stellar structure theory using n=3, gamma=4/3 polytropic structural modeling. The discrepancy is due to hydrogen depletion in the hydrogen-burning core, from which we can compute the age of the sun. Fundamental p-p fusion, carbon cycle, helium-burning, and other fusion results are given in unscreened, screened, and screened & normalized form with zeta calculations based on a realistic Aller 1961 abundance structure for elements heavier than helium including all elements through nickel and a more recent default specification for abundances.
As a bonus for buying Thermonuclear Fusion in Stars, we are including more advanced astrophysics measures applicable to stars, such as their characteristic free-fall oscillation periods for application to Cepheids, RR Lyrae variables, and pulsating red supergiants. STARCAL also computes measures for rotating stars and other interesting stellar astrophysical information. In addition, we furnish software to compute bolometric corrections for stars based on measurements of visual magnitude made at two different zenith angles. The bolometric correction software also predicts the visual magnitude to be observed for the star at the zenith for charts, and also gives the visual magnitude expected when the star is observed from a satellite above the atmosphere in addition to the bolometric correction, which is of course correlated to the surface temperature of the star. For printouts from advanced STARCAL variants, see ANNOUNCEMENTS and below:
(1) A Zero Age Main Sequence Model for the Sun, with an H-depleted core
to obtain the observed luminosity and compute the solar age.

(2) A 2nd-order structural model for Sun, with aged abundances.
(3) A Zero Age Main Sequence model for Sirius A.
(4) A Zero Age Main Sequence model for the Sun, looking backwards in time.
(5) Increasing the CN concentration in Sirius to obtain the observed luminosity,
using a Hubert Reeves model carbon cycle.

(6) Searching for the ZAMS distance to Sirius A with DEPTHSTA.
(7) Computing the 2nd-order structure of the Sun's internal abundance structure after > 4.5 billion years of stellar evolution with STAR8.
(8) Examining fusion processes with FUSION.
(9) Examining the supernova forecast for ANTARES with STAREXP.

Proceed to Free Downloads for STAREXP, FUSION, STAR8, and other verstions of STARCAL.

"Break in the Sun 'til the Sun breaks down,
And death shall have no dominion." - Dylan Thomas | Paint It Black by the Rolling Stones.

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